Externe publicaties

Nieuwsbrief 19, 2020

EIN Guide for Civil Society on Domestic Advocacy for Implementation of ECtHR judgments

The European Implementation network has published its guide for Civil Society on Domestic Advocacy for Implementation of ECtHR judgments. The guide provides a toolkit of best practices and lessons for NGOs and other civil society actors to engage in domestic advocacy for judgment implementation. The guide notes that conditions for effective implementation vary from country to country, from time to time and even case to case. For that reason, it is conceived as a 'menu' of potential strategies, tools and actions that NGOs may use to push for the execution of judgments.
Examples in the guide show that where NGOs have sought, identified and pursued opportunities for engaging with authorities, where they have formed alliances with other civil society actors and used the media to drive implementation forward, they have managed to secure important human rights gains.

https://static1.squarespace.com/static/55815c4fe4b077ee5306577f/t/5ec397941541404e7e1900c1/1589876642856/EIN+Toolkit+on+Domestic+Advocacy_FINAL.pdf, mei20

UNHCR: Procedural Standards for Refugee Status Determination

The manual, which updates and replaces the 2003 Procedural standards for RSD, sets out the minimum procedural standards for when RSD is conducted by UNHCR under its mandate and establishes the core principles and standards that must be observed to ensure that all individuals applying for RSD benefit from accurate, timely, and consistent decision-making.  
The 2020 update addresses, inter alia, the global rise in refugee numbers and the UNHCR's strategic engagement with RSD, which was developed in 2015 to enhance the UNHCR's capacity in responding to the increased number of individual applications. Furthermore, the 2020 Standards incorporate updates to UNHCR policies, guidance and practices. 
The manual provides an update on general issues in the context of RSD procedures, as well as procedural standards for specific situations, including, inter alia: feedback and complaints; legal representation; applications of children and vulnerable individuals; and the cancellation, revocation, and cessation of refugee status.

https://www.refworld.org/docid/5e870b254.html, 26.8.20

Save the Children: Protection Beyond Reach: State of play of refugee and migrant children's rights in Europe

With this report, Save the Children aims to assess how children have been affected since the beginning of the so-called ‘refugee crisis’. We look at five key themes: protection at Europe’s outer borders; immigration detention; access to asylum and residency; family reunification; and guardianship. The report aims to highlight key changes that affect children, rather than provide a comprehensive overview.

We start with an overall assessment of the situation in Europe and then focus on specific measures in countries at Europe’s outer borders, such as Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Tunisia, and various European countries such as Spain, Italy, Sweden, Finland, Norway and Greece.

https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/node/18172/pdf/report_5_years_migration_1.pdf, 2.9.20

EASO : Venezuela country of origin information report

The deterioration of the political, security and economic situation in Venezuela has led to the mass emigration of four million people since 2015, including over 100 000 who have sought asylum in the EU+¹. Applications by Venezuelan nationals in the EU+ have risen from 105 in 2013 to 45 675 in 2019; an increase of over 43 000%.. About 90% of all applications by Venezuelans are lodged in Spain, the vast majority of which receive humanitarian protection status. 

The Report highlights a systematic and widespread policy of repression in Venezuela for those who are critical of the government. The government and security forces target journalists to silence reporting on what is occurring in the country. Human rights advocates and members of civil society organisations are prosecuted under both the criminal justice system and the military penal jurisdiction, as an 'exemplary punishment' to block the work of other human rights organisations. The 'Law Against Hate' has been one of the legal instruments used for these prosecutions. 

The authorities also utilise Colectivos² to exert political and social control in neighbourhoods where they operate. These organisations have become instrumental elements of coercive control over protests through the use of violence, often in coordination with security forces. The Report further highlights that the nature of protests changed in the first months of 2019, with more targeted demonstrations emerging to protest the deterioration of living standards and the humanitarian situation. Security forces allegedly subjected persons who participated in protests to 'serious abuse and ill-treatment' while in detention in order to punish them, force confessions, or incriminating others.

Authorities also allegedly engaged in forced disappearances, including for political reasons, to impede the defence of the person while the detention is carried out. Security forces have also allegedly been involved in extrajudicial executions. Furthermore, Venezuela has established a complex system to eavesdrop, harass, and digitally and physically monitor the population, including through the CLAP³ food boxes and the Homeland Card (Carnet de la Patria). Social control has intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic.

https://coi.easo.europa.eu/administration/easo/PLib/2020_08_EASO_COI_Report_Venezuela.pdf, aug20

UNHCR: Libie geen veilig derde land

UNHCR does not consider it appropriate for States to designate Libya as a so-called “safe third country”. The designation of a country as a safe third country may result in a request for international protection not being considered on its merits but declared inadmissible, or processed in an accelerated procedure with reduced procedural safeguards. Even before the current unrest and insecurity, UNHCR considered that Libya should not be regarded as a safe third country in light of the absence of a functioning asylum system, the widely reported difficulties and abuses faced by asylum-seekers and refugees in Libya, the absence of protection from such abuses, the lack of protection against refoulement, and the lack of durable solutions. UNHCR calls on States not to channel applications for international protection from foreign nationals into an accelerated procedure or declare them inadmissible, merely on the basis of the fact that they previously resided in or transited through Libya.

https://www.refworld.org/publisher,UNHCR,,,5f1edee24,0.html, sept20

Prague Process: Asylum seekers from the Eastern Partnership and Central Asian Countries in the EU

This Background Note provides a statistical overview on the inflows, demographic indicators and recognition rates of asylum seekers coming to the European Union, focusing on eight countries of origin, located in the Eastern Partnership and Central Asia region: Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia, as well as Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. The document entails evidence on the socio-economic and political push factors behind these flows and the policy context they are embedded in. Particular attention is given to the classification of these countries as so-called ‘safe countries of origin’, in spite of the ongoing or frozen territorial conflicts suffered by some of them. Several conclusions and recommendations are drawn at the end.


VAN DER BAAREN, Luuk: Dual Citizenship in the European Union: Trends and analysis (2010 – 2020)

This report studies the developments in 28 EU member states of the three types of dual citizenship restriction in the period 2010 – 2020, namely requirements to renounce the original citizenship upon the acquisition of citizenship; provisions stipulating the loss of citizenship upon the acquisition of a foreign citizenship; and provisions stipulating the loss of citizenship upon the retention of a foreign citizenship. 

https://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/67854?mc_cid=ee8841cb26&mc_eid=8ef687d56a, juli20

Amnesty International, Stichting LOS en Dokters van de Wereld:'Isolatie in vreemdelingendetentie'.

In 2015 concludeerden deze organisaties al dat isolatie ernstige gezondheidsrisico's met zich mee kan brengen. Isolatie moet dan ook zo veel mogelijk worden voorkomen. De Nederlandse overheid heeft op meerdere momenten aangegeven zich bewust te zijn van de mogelijke gezondheidsschade en heeft toegezegd zich in te zetten om isolatie waar mogelijk terug te dringen.  

Ondanks de onomstreden kennis over de risico's van isolatie, zijn wetgeving, beleid en praktijk om isolatie te voorkomen in vreemdelingendetentie niet of nauwelijks verbeterd. Uit dit onderzoek blijkt dat er in de afgelopen jaren het aantal isolaties in vreemdelingendetentie is toegenomen. Vooral het aantal isolaties in de eigen reguliere cel is fors gestegen. Hoewel er in de eigen cel meer faciliteiten zijn, kan er ook in een reguliere cel sprake zijn van sensorische deprivatie (onthouding van zintuiglijke prikkels) en is er sprake van een significant verlies van autonomie, en een forse beperking van activiteiten en betekenisvol contact met anderen. 

De toename van het aantal isolaties baart onze organisaties grote zorgen. Wij roepen de overheid op ervoor te zorgen dat (ook in de vreemdelingendetentie) het beleid er op is gericht isolatie te voorkomen en uiteindelijk uit te bannen.

https://meldpuntvreemdelingendetentie.nl/wp-content/uploads/Rapport-Isolatie-Webversie-2020.pdf, sept20

UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries: The use of private military and security services in immigration and border management

The Working Group examines how private-sector enforcement of migration law has led to widespread human rights abuses—particularly in situations where migrants are deprived of their liberty. Highlighting the power many private companies possess and their ability to push for repressive immigration laws and practices, the Working Group underscores the way in which private companies reinforce security over humanitarian approaches to immigration and border management.

https://undocs.org/A/HRC/45/9, 9.7.20

Leo Bormans: De knikkers van Qadir - Het waargebeurde verhaal van een vader op de vlucht

De jonge Qadir groeit op in een klein dorp in Afghanistan met de droomverhalen van zijn moeder en de wilskracht van een vader die van geen wijken wil weten. Zijn enige bezit: acht knikkers. Alles ademt oorlog. Overal sterven dierbare mensen. Qadir houdt zich overeind door te werken voor de internationale troepen die zijn land komen bevrijden. Tot ook hij, achtervolgd door de taliban, met vrouw en kinderen moet vluchten voor het geweld. Over de bergen en over de zee. Na drie maanden belanden ze in Europa. Maar de Grote Portier laat hen niet binnen. Stuk voor stuk verliest Qadir de rinkelende knikkers van zijn leven. En toch is er hoop.

 https://www.lannoo.be/nl/de-knikkers-van-qadir, 24.8.20

Nieuwsbrief 18, 2020

ICMPD: What policy communication works for migration? Using values to depolarise

Promoting a deeper awareness and understanding of perceptions of and attitudes towards migration is imperative to move scientific evidence back to the core of the migration discourse, which in turn will help rebalance the narrative and consequently regain the public’s trust. This is particularly vital in the Euro-Mediterranean context, where migration can be considered part and parcel of the economic recovery if implemented in a conscientious and diligent way and on the basis of sound, effective migration policies.

https://www.icmpd.org/fileadmin/user_upload/202007EMM4_OPAM__3rd_chapter_Using_values_to_depolarise.pdf, aug20

EMN: Migratiebeleid per EU-lidstaat in 2019

De Country Factsheets geven de meest relevante cijfers over migratie- en asiel per EU-lidstaat over  2019. Met data over economische migratie, asiel, mensenhandel, alleenstaande minderjarige migranten en meer.

AIDA: The implementation of the Dublin Regulation in 2019 and first half of 2020

Based on current practices, case-law and up-to-date statistics from 29 European countries, this report provides an overview of developments relating to the application of the Dublin III Regulation. It indicates that nearly one in three asylum seekers is subject to a Dublin procedure in countries which have received a significant number of applicants in 2019 such as Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands or Switzerland. Yet, the number of persons being actually transferred remains low. More than half the countries covered in the report have a transfer rate below 30%. In Belgium, less than one in ten people channelled into the Dublin procedure is transferred to another European country in practice. Reasons for that are various, such as administrative hurdles and delays; practical obstacles resulting from health and security risks; and the incorrect application of the Dublin criteria. Many Member States continue to trigger requests on the ground of irregular entry and issue ‘take back’ requests to countries with low or insufficient reception capacity and an asylum system that is under pressure, ultimately making the transfer impossible. At the same time, the number of cases in which countries become responsible by default due to non-compliance with the transfer deadline of 6 months has continued to increase significantly; reaching at least 14,000 cases in 2019 – far more than the 2,000 cases registered in 2015.

Despite their potential, the application of the Dublin Regulation’s hierarchical criteria – and in particular the family unity criteria – as well as the application of the discretionary clauses remain illusionary. In at least 13 countries, the share of family unity requests out of the total of outgoing Dublin requests represented less than 1%, while the use of discretionary clauses is not applied at all or only in exceptional cases in several other countries.

https://www.asylumineurope.org/sites/default/files/shadow-reports/aida_dublin_update_2019-2020.pdf, aug20

WI 2020/14: DNA-onderzoek in reguliere procedures

In deze werkinstructie wordt uiteengezet wanneer sprake is van een DNAonderzoek in gezinsherenigingszaken binnen het proces regulier. Deze werkinstructie is niet van toepassing binnen het proces naturalisatie. Deze werkinstructie is ook niet van toepassing binnen Asiel, waarvoor thans werkinstructie 2018/20 geldt.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2020-14.pdf, 20.8.20

EMN: Ad-hoc onderzoek Kinderpardon

Naar aanleiding van het publieke debat zijn verschillende maatregelen genomen, waaronder het beëindigen van de regeling op 29 januari en het aankondigen van een overgangsregeling met soepelere criteria voor langdurig verblijvende kinderen. EMN Nederland vroeg daarop aan andere EU-lidstaten hoe ze omgaan met  vergelijkbare situaties.  

  • Negen lidstaten hebben beleid waarbij (alleenstaande) kinderen zonder verblijfsvergunning in aanmerking komen voor een verblijfsvergunning als gevolg van een lang verblijf in hun lidstaat (BE, CY, DE, FI, LU, NL, PL, IT,  PT). In BE geldt dit beleid alleen voor alleenstaande minderjarigen.
  • BE, CZ, FR, EE, HR, SE, LV, HU en LT hebben geen specifiek beleid voor het verlenen van een verblijfsvergunning aan kinderen met begeleiding die zonder permanent verblijfsrecht lange tijd in hun land verblijven.

http://emnnetherlands.nl/onderzoeken/ad-hoconderzoek-kinderpardon, 1.7.20

Statewatch: Deportation Union - Rights, accountability and the EU's push to increase forced removals

This book provides a critical examination of recently-introduced and forthcoming EU measures designed to increase the number of deportations carried out by national authorities and the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, Frontex. It focuses on three key areas: attempts to reduce or eliminate rights and protections in the law governing deportations; the expansion and interconnection of EU databases and information systems; and the increased budget, powers and personnel awarded to Frontex.

The measures and initiatives being introduced by the EU to scale up deportations will require massive public expenditure on technology, infrastructure and personnel; the strengthening and expansion of state and supranational agencies already-lacking in transparency and democratic accountability; and are likely to further undermine claims that the EU occupies the moral high ground in its treatment of migrants. Anyone wishing to question and challenge these developments will first need to understand them. This report attempts to go some way towards assisting with that task.

For a quick overview, see the infographic: How the EU is building a 'deportation machine'
Read the press release here: EU's planned 'deportation machine': expensive, dangerous and lacking in transparency and accountability measures
The report is available as a PDF here, or you can read it online here. (21.8.20)

Tasar Isskreah: De gouden littekens van mijn hart - Autobiografisch verhaal over een Syrische vluchteling

Tasar is opgegroeid in Syrië, getrouwd in Dubai en met haar kinderen gevlucht naar Nederland. Of haar toekomst hier ligt, weet zij niet. Maar wat wil ze graag ergens wortelen.

https://www.boekscout.nl/shop2/boek.php?bid=10405, 21.8.20

Mebrhatom, Filimon (Autor): Ich will doch nur frei sein - Wie ich nach Unterdrückung, Gefangenschaft und Flucht weiter für eine Zukunft kämpfe

Filimon aus Eritrea ist 14 Jahre alt, als Schleuser den Nichtschwimmer mit Waffengewalt auf ein Schiff über das Mittelmeer setzen. Durch gewaltsame Strukturen, die die Hilflosigkeit der Flüchtlinge ausnutzen, um eigenen Profit daraus zu schlagen, wird er gezwungen, zum Islam zu konvertieren, und seine Familie erpresst, die menschenunwürdige Reise zu bezahlen, bevor er nach zwei Jahren endlich in Deutschland ankommen darf, in der Hoffnung hier nun endlich frei sein zu können.

https://www.komplett-media.de/de_ich-will-doch-nur-frei-sein_200453.html, 24.8.2020

Nieuwsbrief 17, 2020

Minke Hajer &Christian Bröer: We Are Here! Claim-making and Claim-placing of Undocumented Migrants in Amsterdam

Through everyday practices, excluded and marginalised undocumented migrants struggle for citizenship, question bordering practices, and can achieve forms of inclusion incrementally. Based on an ethnographic case study in Amsterdam, this article evidences and theorises these piecemeal struggles of undocumented migrants. We show how undocumented migrants—discursively and spatially—claim ‘the right to have rights’. We demonstrate how forms of inclusion emerge as the result of ‘claim-making’: by making appeals to human rights, the use of (limited) legal rights, and identity claims. We combine the analysis of claim-making with research into an understudied but highly relevant process of ‘claim-placing’, which refers to how the use (public) spaces and places can add weight to discursive claim-making. We demonstrate that an incremental process of ‘claim-making’ and ‘claim-placing’ leads to a slightly increased recognition as political subjects and forms of inclusion.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23254823.2020.1774911, 10.8.20

Sarah B. Horton and Josiah Heyman Paper Trails - Migrants, Documents, and Legal Insecurity

Across the globe states have long aimed to control the movement of people, identify their citizens, and restrict non-citizens' rights through official identification documents. Although states are now less likely to grant permanent legal status, they are increasingly issuing new temporary and provisional legal statuses to migrants. Meanwhile, the need for migrants to apply for frequent renewals subjects them to more intensive state surveillance. The contributors to Paper Trails examine how these new developments change migrants' relationship to state, local, and foreign bureaucracies. Among other topics, they analyze immigration policies in the United Kingdom, the issuing of driver's licenses in Arizona and New Mexico, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, and community know-your-rights campaigns. By demonstrating how migrants are inscribed into official bureaucratic systems through the issuance of identification documents, the contributors open up new ways to understand how states exert their power and how migrants must navigate new systems of governance.

Read the introduction here,
https://www.dukeupress.edu/paper-trails, aug20

Vluchtelingenwerk: Vluchtelingen in getallen 2020

VluchtelingenWerk Nederland brengt jaarlijks de publicatie ‘Vluchtelingen in getallen’ uit. De publicatie geeft een uitgebreid overzicht van de meest actuele cijfers uit openbare bronnen over vluchtelingen en asielzoekers in Nederland, Europa en wereldwijd. Zo is informatie van de IND, het COA, het CBS, Eurostat en UNHCR in één document terug te vinden. 

https://www.vluchtelingenwerk.nl/sites/default/files/u36436/vluchtelingen_in_getallen_2020_v11.pdf, aug20

WI 2020/12: toepassing glijdende schaal

In art. 3.86 Vb wordt een verband gelegd tussen de duur van de onherroepelijk opgelegde straf voor een misdrijf en de duur van het rechtmatig verblijf in Nederland. In deze werkinstructie staat hoe de glijdende schaal moet worden toegepast. Aan bod komen onder meer het toepassingsbereik van de glijdende schaal, de vraag welke schaal van toepassing is, de berekening van de duur van de bestraffing en de verblijfsduur, het bepalen van de intrekkingsdatum en de regeling in art. 3.86 lid 10 ingeval de vreemdeling een verblijfsduur heeft van tien jaar of meer.
De vraag welke schaal van toepassing is heeft niet alleen betrekking op de keuze uit de drie in art. 3.86 Vb genoemde schalen maar ook op de keuze uit de in de loop der jaren gepubliceerde regelingen. In bijlage 1 zijn de normen van de oude glijdende schalen terug te vinden.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2020-12.pdf, 11.8.20

EASO: annual asylum report 2019

The report provides key developments in the field of asylum in EU Member States and EU+ States. It is intended to provide accurate information to policymakers, national asylum authorities, researchers and practitioners. The document presents selected case law and highlights the emerging trends and effectiveness of asylum systems at a European and national level.

The report provides detailed information on, inter alia, major developments in asylum in the EU throughout 2019; an in-depth examination of specific areas of asylum in Europe, including the Dublin procedure and protection for vulnerable groups; and developments in asylum legislation at a national level.

https://www.easo.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EASO-Asylum-Report-2020.pdf, juni20

EASO: Country of origin information report - Afghanistan

The report is divided into substantive sections which provide information on, inter alia, the situation relating to armed conflict and AGEs in Afghanistan; the structure, activities and modus operandi of the Taliban and the Islamic State Khorassa Province; and the targeted profiles relating to these groups.

https://coi.easo.europa.eu/administration/easo/PLib/2020_08_EASO_COI_Report_Afghanistan_Anti_Governement_Elements_AGEs.pdf, 10.8.20

Europees Migratienetwerk: Onderzoek Procedures en regels voor naturalisatie verschillen in EU-lidstaten

De procedures en wet- en regelgeving voor naturalisatie voor migranten van buiten de EU verschillen per EU-lidstaat. Het beleid varieert onder meer voor dubbele nationaliteiten (mogelijkheid in 16 lidstaten), een staatsburgerschap- of integratietoets (verplicht in 13 lidstaten ) en het meewegen van de economische of financiële situatie van een migrant (praktijk in 14 lidstaten). Dat blijkt uit een onderzoek van het Europees Migratienetwerk. Lees meer >>

http://emnnetherlands.nl/onderzoeken/onderzoek-procedures-en-regels-voor-naturalisatie-verschillen-eu-lidstaten, 23.7.20

Jacob Soboroff: Separated: Inside An American Tragedy

In Separated, Soboroff weaves together his own experience unexpectedly covering this national issue with other key figures in the drama he met along the way, including feuding administration officials responsible for tearing apart and then reuniting families, and the parents and children who were caught in the middle. He reveals new and exclusive details of how the policy was carried out, and how its affects are still being felt. 
Today, there is still not a full accounting of the total number of children the President ripped away from their parents. The exact number may never be known, only that it is in the thousands. Now the President is doubling down on draconian immigration policies, including threatening to hold migrant families indefinitely and making tens of thousands applying for asylum wait in some of Mexico’s most dangerous cities. 

https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/49604006-separated, 7.7.20

Julia Rose Kraut: Threat of Dissent - A History of Ideological Exclusion and Deportation in the United States

Beginning with the Alien Friends Act of 1798, the United States passed laws in the name of national security to bar or expel foreigners based on their beliefs and associations—although these laws sometimes conflict with First Amendment protections of freedom of speech and association or contradict America’s self-image as a nation of immigrants. The government has continually used ideological exclusions and deportations of noncitizens to suppress dissent and radicalism throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, from the War on Anarchy to the Cold War to the War on Terror.

The author delves into the intricacies of major court decisions and legislation. We follow the cases of immigrants and foreign-born visitors, including activists, scholars, and artists such as Emma Goldman, Ernest Mandel, Carlos Fuentes, Charlie Chaplin, and John Lennon. Kraut also highlights lawyers, including Clarence Darrow and Carol Weiss King, as well as organizations, like the ACLU and PEN America, who challenged the constitutionality of ideological exclusions and deportations under the First Amendment. The Supreme Court, however, frequently interpreted restrictions under immigration law and upheld the government’s authority.

https://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674976061, 21.7.20

Eiri Ohtani : Alternatives to detention: building a culture of cooperation

Key observations include: 

Case management has had a positive impact on individuals' ability and capacity to work towards case resolution and can help them to stay engaged in migration processes. 99% of individuals had improved ability to participate in informed decision making and 96% had improved ability to engage with the immigration procedures over time.

Of the 126 individuals with irregular immigration status who received case management from the pilots, 86% remained engaged, 12% disengaged or absconded and 2% were forcibly removed. 25% achieved case resolution, with a permanent or temporary migration outcome. 

Given the positive impact generated by the pilots, their approach and principles could beneficially be extended more broadly throughout the migration systems. A sustained and collaborative process of reform, based the learning of the pilots and involving structured collaboration among governments, migrants, civil society and other actors, could deliver systemic improvements that would benefit all stakeholders.

https://www.epim.info/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/2020-ATD-Evaluation-Report_Final.pdf, juli20

Nieuwsbrief 16, 2020

Neza Kogovsek Salamon : Causes and Consequences of Migrant Criminalization

The book illustrates how the trend of associating migrants and refugees with criminality is on the rise. In political discourses and popular media alike, migrants and refugees are frequently portrayed as being dangerous, while cultures intent on welcoming newcomers are increasingly seen as being naïve, and providing assistance to migrants is more and more frequently subject to administrative or criminal penalties. At the same time, nondemocratic trends and practices that violate human rights and equality are gaining momentum in Europe, the US and Australia. Racism, xenophobia and anti-Islamism are simultaneously becoming more open and public; they are no longer restricted to clandestine platforms but are increasingly being mainstreamed into the political programs of parties that are entering both the EU parliaments and member state legislatures. Similar developments can be seen in the US and Australia. Such transformations in societies, governments, and institutions seem to reflect a growing amnesia regarding the lessons of the two World Wars of the 20th century, and the role that Europe, the US and Australia played in developing a post-war legal framework based on a shared, if imperfect, commitment to human rights.

Therefore, it is more important than ever to critically examine the cause and consequences of migrant criminalization. This collection does so from a variety of disciplinary perspectives and political traditions, seeking to overcome the distractions of charismatic politicians and the peculiar factions of national political systems, in order to reveal the underlying trends and disturbing patterns that are of interest to a broad, internationally-focused audience.

https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783030437312, juli20

Groupe URD: Migration and the Covid-19 Crisis: Current and Future Impacts

People on the move are very vulnerable to the spread of epidemics due to the crowded conditions in camps and temporary settlements, their mobility, or the lack of prevention messages directed towards them, even though the presence of humanitarian actors can limit the risks. The explosion of cases that humanitarian organisations working with uprooted populations feared has not yet taken place. These fears are nevertheless legitimate and require a high level of vigilance, and the implementation of essential preparatory and prevention measures.

The socio-economic impact of the measures taken to stop the spread of the epidemic is being felt, notably through the reduction of money being sent by migrant workers, and is already having a major impact on the economies of households and developing countries. It is therefore important to imagine or reinvent ‘safety net’ type mechanisms in order to meet the needs of numerous families and limit the risk of an explosion of social anger and food riots. Once the worst of the epidemic and the crisis have passed, respect for fundamental human rights will also be a concern, and particularly those related to mobility and asylum. With the closing of borders, emergency laws, the holding up or suspension of asylum procedures, infringements on refugee and migrant rights will need to be monitored and opposed.


EAPN: The impact of Covid-19 on people experiencing poverty and vulnerability - Rebuilding Europe with a social heart

The conditions of people suffering from poverty and vulnerability in countries participating in the study are described and analysed in detail, considering the impact that this crisis has also had on gender as well as other forms of inequality. EAPN makes important recommendations to national and European authorities, in order to leave no one behind, by rebuilding a rights-based Europe with a social heart and a commitment to ending poverty and reducing inequality.

https://www.eapn.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/EAPN-EAPN_REPORT_IMPACT_COVID19-4554.pdf, 14.7.20

Peter Gatrell 'The Unsettling of Europe: How Migration Reshaped a Continent'

Readers of Peter Gatrell's outstanding book will learn that the NHS has relied on migrants from its beginnings in the 1940s: an early chapter opens with a Latvian woman who endured forced labor in Nazi Germany, landed in a displaced persons camp, and then moved to the UK, where she eventually became a nurse and proud contributor to the NHS. They will discover that in the decades that followed, many other migrants came to the UK from the Commonwealth countries (e.g., New Zealand), as well as from southern Europe (e.g., Portugal). And in moments like Enoch Powell's infamous "Rivers of Blood" speech of 1968, they will hear not-so-distant echoes of current anti-migrant voices in Britain. All this supports Gatrell's larger argument that one cannot understand migration in Europe today without grasping its history since the Second World War, just as one cannot understand this era of European history without studying migration.

https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/41717007-the-unsettling-of-europe, juli20

CBS: migratieredenen 2018

In 2018 kwamen 191 duizend immigranten naar Nederland die geen Nederlandse nationaliteit hadden. Voor de 110 duizend immigranten uit EU- of EFTA-landen was werk het belangrijkste migratiemotief. De 81 duizend immigranten die van buiten de EU/EFTA kwamen hadden gezinshereniging of -vorming als voornaamste reden. Dat blijkt uit cijfers van het CBS over migratiemotieven.

https://www.cbs.nl/?sc_itemid=07786b72-2d37-4e2e-aa5c-f622791aa54a&sc_lang=nl-nl, 23.7.20

EASO: COI report “Afghanistan - criminal law, customary justice and informal dispute resolution"

As well as providing updated information on State structure and security forces, the report addresses, inter alia, three key areas: an overview of the socio-legal structure in Afghanistan; information on the topic of land disputes as a source of conflict, and the Taliban's involvement in resolving such conflicts; and an overview of conflicts relating to blood feuds and revenge killings.

https://coi.easo.europa.eu/administration/easo/PLib/2020_07_EASO_COI_Report_Afghanistan_Criminal_Law_Customary_Justice_Dispute_Resolutions.pdf, 22.7.20


  • Guinea: Retaliation against political opponents (AFR2020-16) - ENG
  • Sierra Leone: LGBT (AFR2020-28) – ENG
  • Eritrea: Document Verification (MEN2020-07) - ENG


Izabella Majcher, Michael Flynn, and Mariette Grange : Immigration Detention in the European Union: In the Shadow of the "Crisis"

Even as the "refugee crisis" began to recede from the borders of many European countries and as detections of unauthorised border crossings into the EU declined, authorities in many European states have been adopting increasingly restrictive border and detention policies.

https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-030-33869-5, juli20

Nieuwsbrief 15, 2020

Masterthesis M. Haidari: Is de uitsluiting van onrechtmatig verblijvende vreemdelingen in Nederland van collectieve voorzieningen in overeenkomst met het discriminatieverbod?

Het doel van de Koppelingswet is het voorkomen van voortzetting van wederrechtelijk verblijf van onrechtmatig verblijvende vreemdelingen die door een aanspraak op collectieve voorzieningen mogelijk wordt gemaakt en het voorkomen dat illegalen en nog niet toegelatenen een schijn van legaliteit kunnen verwerven, waardoor zij een rechtspositie of de schijn van een rechtspositie opbouwen dat zij na ommekomst van de procedure zo goed als onuitzetbaar blijken. Dit betekent dat er onderscheid wordt gemaakt naar nationaliteit en verblijfstatus.

De Koppelingswet heeft tot gevolg dat regelmatig veel onrechtmatig verblijvende vreemdelingen op straat terecht komen en in zeer slechte situatie verkeren. Daarom heeft de Protestantse Kerk Nederland via de Conferentie van Europa Kerken (CEC) tegen Nederland een klacht ingediend bij de Europees Comité voor Sociale Rechten (ECSR). De ECSR oordeelt dat het recht op noodzakelijke onderdak, voeding en kleding nauw verbonden is met de verwezenlijking van de meest fundamentele mensenrechten en menselijke waardigheid. De overheid biedt onder druk van deze uitspraak sinds 2014 bepaalde voorzieningen. Deze voorzieningen zijn erg beperkt en worden onder voorwaarde geboden en hiermee helemaal niet te vergelijken met collectieve voorzieningen.

Het uitsluiten van onrechtmatig verblijvende vreemdelingen van toegang tot collectieve voorzieningen brengt grote gevolgen met zich mee voor deze groep en in bepaalde gevallen voor hun partners en kinderen. Om deze redenen kan de evenredigheid van de Koppelingswet of ten minste de toepassing daarvan in de praktijk in bepaalde gevallen in twijfels worden getrokken.

www.ubvu.vu.nl/pub/index_oclc.cfm?SearchObjectId=8&objectid=109&ordering=3&openitem=194432, juli20

CBS: Verkenning Bevolking 2050: meer inwoners met een migratieachtergrond

De Tweede Kamer heeft bij de Algemene Politieke Beschouwingen van 2018 aan de regering gevraagd om de gevolgen van veranderingen in de omvang en samenstelling van de bevolking halverwege deze eeuw in kaart te brengen. Namens negen ministeries heeft het ministerie van SZW aan het NIDI gevraagd dit onderzoek te coördineren. In dit onderzoek hebben het NIDI en het CBS zeven toekomstige bevolkingsvarianten opgezet, elk uitgaand van een andere ontwikkeling voor de geboortecijfers, levensverwachting en internationale migratie. De toekomstvarianten vormen een aanvulling op de bestaande bevolkingsprognoses van het CBS.

Het aantal inwoners van Nederland met een migratieachtergrond zal tot 2050 zeer waarschijnlijk toenemen. Afhankelijk van hoe de migratie naar Nederland zich in de toekomst ontwikkelt, groeit hun aantal van 4,2 miljoen inwoners met een migratieachtergrond in 2020 naar tussen de 5,3 en 8,4 miljoen in 2050.

https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2020/28/verkenning-bevolking-2050-meer-inwoners-met-een-migratieachtergrond, 7.7.20

Statewatch: Automated suspicion: The EU’s new travel surveillance initiatives

This report examines how all applicants for short-stay Schengen visas and new ‘travel authorisations’ will be checked against millions of files in police databases, screened by automated profiling tools, and have their name checked against a new ‘pre-crime’ watchlist operated by Europol, the EU’s policing agency, as part of long-term plans to bolster EU systems for migration and security. The age for collecting biometrics will also be lowered, meaning that millions of children from the age of six upwards will be fingerprinted and photographed.

Before visitors arrive in the Schengen area, during their stay and after they leave, their data will be held in enormous centralised databases accessible by thousands of officials, and made available for a variety of uses such as identity checks and law enforcement investigations.

Travellers’ personal data will also be used as the raw material for building the profiling tools being introduced into the visa and travel authorisation systems. These will try to detect potentially ‘risky’ individuals who are unknown to the authorities through the use of “screening rules” and “risk indicators” relating to factors such as age range, nationality, country and city of residence, destination, purpose of travel and occupation. The new systems that underpin these changes are meant to be in place by the end of 2022, as part of the EU’s plans to make policing and migration databases “interoperable”.

The report argues that gathering more personal data from non-EU citizens to use them as guinea pigs for untested and controversial technologies is particularly dangerous at a time when EU governments have shown themselves all too willing to subvert democratic norms and the rule of law whilst presenting foreigners as scapegoats for society’s ills.

The new systems will combine millions of datasets from a variety of different databases already known to be riddled with poor quality data, massively raising the risk of errors. There is also little guarantee that giving government officials access to more information will help improve security – it is well-established that the authorities have difficulty dealing with the data they already have.

The use of profiling tools raises particular risks, as data fed into the systems may be based on biased data, reinforcing the likelihood of further discrimination in decision-making – for example, people of a particular age and gender from a particular region may be identified as potential risks and face unwarranted questioning and searches at borders. Safeguards in the legislation agreed so far are lax, and foreign nationals may face extreme difficulties in exercising their rights to redress.

https://statewatch.org/automatedsuspicion, 13.7.20

ChristenUnie: Een goed verhaal over migratie

'Wat je gedaan hebt voor de minsten van mijn broeders, dat heb je voor mij gedaan.' Het is een uitspraak van Jezus, die wel wordt gebruikt om aan te zetten tot gastvrijheid aan migranten. Maar in de politiek bestaat er veel verdeeldheid over de mate waarin we de poort voor migranten open zetten. En ook binnen de ChristenUnie wordt daarover heel verschillend gedacht. Hoe komen we, met al die verschillen, toch tot een goed verhaal over migratie? In een reeks essays gaat wetenschappelijk medewerker Laurens Wijmenga op zoek naar dat verhaal, naar een christelijk-sociaal antwoord op migratie. Daarvan is nu het eerste deel verschenen: 'Een goed verhaal over migratie'. 



  • Sierra Léone: Traitements pour HIV (AFR2020-06) - FR
  • Nigeria: Forced marriages and FGM (AFR2020-01) - ENG
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo: Treatment of Political Opponents (AFR2020-22) – ENG


Vítor Lopes Andrade, Carmelo Danisi, Moira Dustin, Nuno Ferreira and Nina Held: ‘Queering Asylum in Europe - A Survey Report’

This report discusses the data gathered through two surveys carried out in the context of the SOGICA project. SOGICA – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Claims of Asylum: A European human rights challenge – is a four-year (2016-2020) research project funded by the European Research Council (ERC) that explores the social and legal experiences of people across Europe claiming international protection on the basis of their sexual orientation or gender identity (SOGI).

http://www.sogica.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/The-SOGICA-surveys-report_1-July-2020-1.pdf, 1.7.20

Lysley Tenorio THE SON OF GOOD FORTUNE (roman)

Excel spends his days trying to seem like an unremarkable American teenager. When he’s not working at The Pie Who Loved Me (a spy-themed pizza shop) or passing the time with his girlfriend Sab (occasionally in one of their town’s seventeen cemeteries), he carefully avoids the spotlight.
But Excel knows that his family is far from normal. His mother, Maxima, was once a Filipina B-movie action star who now makes her living scamming men online. The old man they live with is not his grandfather, but Maxima’s lifelong martial arts trainer. And years ago, on Excel’s tenth birthday, Maxima revealed a secret that he must keep forever. “We are ‘TNT’—tago ng tago,” she told him, “hiding and hiding.” Excel is undocumented—and one accidental slip could uproot his entire life.
Casting aside the paranoia and secrecy of his childhood, Excel takes a leap, joining Sab on a journey south to a ramshackle desert town called Hello City. Populated by drifters, old hippies, and washed-up techies—and existing outside the normal constructs of American society—Hello City offers Excel a chance to forge his own path for the first time. But after so many years of trying to be invisible, who does he want to become? And is it possible to put down roots in a country that has always considered you an outsider?

https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/50172133-the-son-of-good-fortune, 7.7.20

Nieuwsbrief 14, 2020

Regioplan: Plan- en procesevaluatie Landelijke Vreemdelingenvoorzieningen

In de periode mei 2019 tot en met april 2020 heeft onderzoeksbureau Regioplan een plan- en procesevaluatie van de LVV-pilot uitgevoerd. Het doel van het onderzoek was om inzicht te bieden in de gestelde doelen binnen de pilot, de opzet van de pilot (o.a. de rollen en verantwoordelijkheden van betrokken partijen en de geboden begeleidings- en opvangvormen) en de tussentijdse resultaten (o.a. de instroom en uitstroom van vreemdelingen en de samenwerking tussen betrokken partijen). Daarnaast moest het onderzoek bouwstenen opleveren voor de effectevaluatie van de LVV-pilot die in juli 2020 van start gaat.

https://wodc.nl/binaries/3068%20volledige%20tekst_tcm28-451600.pdf, 1.7.20

PICUM: Residence Permits for Victims of Crime

Everyone has the right to be protected from abuse, to receive assistance if they’ve been mistreated, and to feel safe and respected when they approach services or the authorities for help. This is essential to keep individuals and communities safe. It means that everyone feels equally protected and supported if they are victimised – by a spouse, an employer or a stranger.

Undocumented people have these rights. But how can these rights be realised if seeking help and reporting abuse risks being uprooted from their lives, detained and deported?

The structures in place to support and protect people who have been victimised need to work for everyone. We should all be able to count on the criminal justice system to protect us, no matter our background, and to investigate crimes committed against us. Every child or adult who faces violence or abuse should have access to help and justice without risking immigration detention and deportation.

https://picum.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Residence-permits-victims-of-Crime-FULL-REPORT.pdf, 24.6.20

EU Strategy on Victims' Rights (2020-2025)

Irregular migrants who become victims of crime are also often in a situation of vulnerability and may have difficulty to access justice74. If they report a crime to the police, they may be ordered to return to their home country75. Under the Victims’ Rights Directive, victims’ rights shall apply to victims in a non-discriminatory manner, independently of their residence status76. This shall also apply to unaccompanied minors. Under this strategy, the Commission will assess legal and practical tools at EU level to improve reporting of crime and access to support services for migrant victims, independently of their residence status. In particular, the Commission will promote exchange of good practices among the Member States aimed at disconnecting reporting of crime from the return procedure without jeopardising the effectiveness of such procedures.

https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/law/2_en_act_part1_v10.pdf, 24.6.20
meer info: https://ec.europa.eu/info/policies/justice-and-fundamental-rights/criminal-justice/protecting-victims-rights_en

Merve Erdilmen and Iseult Honohan: How far do citizenship laws in the European Union Member states safeguard the children born there from statelessness?

This article considers the diverse approaches to conferral of nationality at birth in the laws of European Union (EU) Member States and how these laws fall short of safeguarding children from statelessness, despite most EU Member States participating in the international conventions on statelessness of 1954 and 1961.

https://globalcit.eu/how-far-do-citizenship-laws-in-european-union-member-states-safeguard-the-children-born-there-from-statelessness/, 15.6.20

EASO: Asylum Report 2019

In 2019, applications for asylum in EU+ countries[ rose by 11% to 738 425, followed by a 16% increase recorded in the first two months of 2020. While the COVID-19 emergency has led to a recent 87% drop in applications, EASO expects the overall increasing trend to resume.

The increase in asylum applications in 2019 was in part due to a sharp rise in applicants from Venezuela (+103% over 2018) and Colombia (+214% over 2018). Some EU+ countries – such as Cyprus, France, Greece, Malta and Spain – received more asylum applications in 2019 than during the so-called migration crisis in 2015 and 2016.

In 2019, the majority of asylum applications were lodged in Germany (165 615; 22%), France (128 940; 17%) and Spain (117 795; 16%), while the fewest were lodged in Liechtenstein (50), Estonia (105) and Latvia (195). Most asylum applicants were Syrians (80 205; 11%), Afghans (60 700; 8.2%) and Venezuelans (45 645; 6.2%).

The recognition rate for Venezuelans was 96% in 2019, compared to just 29% in 2018. This was largely composed of national protection status. Other nationalities to receive a high number of positive decisions included: Syrians (86%), Eritreans (85%) and Yemenis (82%).

https://easo.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EASO-Asylum-Report-2020.pdf, 25.6.20

Mr J.P.H. Donner en mr. dr. M. den Heijer: Verkenning ‘Terechte vraag, verkeerd aanknopingspunt’

De auteurs stellen vast dat de omstandigheden wat betreft het vluchtelingenvraagstuk en de asielmigratie onmiskenbaar zijn veranderd ten opzichte van het tijdvak waarin het Vluchtelingenverdrag werd opgesteld. Wat vooral is veranderd, zijn de zichtbaarheid en bereikbaarheid van Europa, de omvang en intensiteit van het grensoverschrijdend verkeer en de verfijning van recht en regels met betrekking tot het asielbeleid.

Het verdrag uit 1951 is ongetwijfeld gedateerd, maar niet verouderd en het staat niet in de weg aan een verantwoord asielbeleid. Veel nadrukkelijker vloeien beperkingen voort uit het Europees Verdrag voor de Rechten van de Mens (EVRM), het recht van de EU en de jurisprudentie inzake het Verdrag en de EU wet- en regelgeving. Wijziging of opzegging van het Vluchtelingenverdrag zal de Nederlandse verplichtingen jegens asielzoekers en vluchtelingen niet wezenlijk veranderen en – gegeven de veel nadrukkelijker regels die voortvloeien uit het EVRM en het recht van de EU - zeker niet verlichten.

https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/ministeries/ministerie-van-justitie-en-veiligheid/documenten/rapporten/2020/07/03/tk-bijlage-advies-vluchtelingenverdrag-april-2020, 3.7.20

Ambtsbericht Azerbeidzjan, 2 juli 2020
Ambtsbericht China, 1 juli 2020

AIDA 2019 Update: Greece

The updated AIDA Country Report on Greece tracks numerous legislative, policy and practice-related developments relating to the asylum procedure, reception conditions, detention of asylum seekers, and content of international protection. While it mainly covers the year 2019, it also contains information on the first five months of 2020 as well as COVID-19 related measures.

https://www.asylumineurope.org/sites/default/files/report-download/aida_gr_2019update.pdf, 23.6.20

Masterscriptie R. de Wit: Bewijs in 1F-zaken - Een onderzoek naar het bewijs voor toepassing van Artikel 1F Vluchtelingenverdrag

Voor toepassing van artikel 1F hoeft de schuld van de asielzoeker niet wettig en overtuigend te worden bewezen, het criterium is ernstige redenen om te veronderstellen dat zij zich schuldig hebben gemaakt aan misdrijven zoals genoemd in artikel 1F. Het huidige onderzoek geeft antwoord op de vraagstelling: Hoe wordt de toepassing van artikel 1F Vluchtelingenverdrag onderbouwd met bewijs?

De bevindingen van de kwantitatieve en kwalitatieve analyse laten zien dat aan bewijs voor de toepassing van artikel 1F weinig eisen wordt gesteld. Algemene en individuele ambtsberichten worden voor waar aangenomen, tenzij de asielzoeker concreet bewijs aanlevert dat aanleiding geeft tot twijfel aan het ambtsbericht. Controle van de bewijsmiddelen vindt niet of niet inzichtelijk plaats.

Open PDF file, mrt20

ELENA Legal Note: Derogating from EU Asylum Law in the Name of “Emergencies”: The Legal Limits Under EU Law

The Note examines whether, and in what circumstances, Member States may lawfully bend legislative processes as a result of emergency measures and justify non-compliance with EU and International asylum obligations. The declaration of emergency measures does not provide a carte blanche to derogate from asylum procedures. The Note highlights that there must, firstly, be a legislative basis for States to derogate from asylum procedures. Secondly, a lawful derogation must relate to circumstances provided for by EU law including, inter alia, the maintenance of law and order and the safeguarding of internal security under Article 72 TFEU. Thirdly, the security situation prompting the introduction of emergency measures must require the use of legislative basis to derogate, and the scope of this derogation may only then be justified to the extent provided for in the applicable EU Regulations and Directives.

Furthermore, if a State successfully argues that the asylum acquis does not sufficiently cover its security interests, the State must present evidence demonstrating that the measures are proportionate, necessary and appropriate to the action taken. Finally, all introduced measures must be fully compliant with non-derogable rights established under the ECHR and corresponding to the rights of the Charter.

https://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/LN_6-final.pdf, 26.6.20

PvdA Migratienotitie

Het huidige maatschappelijke en politieke debat wordt vooral gevoerd op de uitersten en verschillende groepen migranten worden op één hoop gegooid. Met deze notitie willen we inzetten op een eerlijk migratiebeleid gebaseerd op feiten en een aanpak per migrantencategorie die elk groep recht doet.

Het tienpuntenplan van Asscher (2018) was de aanzet. Deze notitie pakt daarop door. Arbeid zien we als de basis, het echte PvdA-uitgangspunt. Want arbeid biedt mensen bestaanszekerheid en binding en maakt dat onze publieke zorg, onderwijs en overheid functioneren en dat we van onze welvaart kunnen delen. Voor elke categorie migranten geven we aan welke maatregelen we nodig vinden voor een samenhangend sociaaldemocratisch migratiebeleid.

https://www.foundationmaxvanderstoel.nl/uploads/dossier/notitiefinal.pdf, 31.5.20

IND Werkinstructie 2020/10 - Het recht van de EU

In deze werkinstructie worden uitgebreid de verblijfsrechten op grond van Richtlijn 2004/38 besproken. Er wordt ingegaan op afgeleide verblijfsrechten voor familieleden van Unieburgers en Nederlanders o.g.v. art. 21 VWEU. Hierbij komt ook de Europa-route aan bod. Daarnaast worden het verblijfsrecht o.g.v. art. 10 Vo 492/2011 en de verblijfsrechten van familieleden van dienstenverrichters besproken.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2020-10.pdf, 22.6.20

Council of Europe: GRETA Guidance Note on International Protection in the Context of Human Trafficking

The guidance explores the International legal framework and its practical application, including both the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings and the Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (Istanbul Convention). In particular, GRETA recalls the importance of protecting victims or potential victims of human trafficking throughout the entire international protection procedure; refraining from punishing the irregular entry into a State; and ensuring a fair and efficient access to the asylum and reception system in a safe, child- and gender-sensitive manner, with due respect for human dignity.

Finally, in the light of the principle of non-refoulement, States shall ensure the effective implementation of an examination to determine the pre-removal risk of human trafficking, considering, inter alia, the risk of re-victimisation and re-trafficking, together with the realistic options for reintegration and societal participation, both in the country of origin and under the Dublin regulation.

https://www.coe.int/en/web/anti-human-trafficking/-/world-refugee-day-trafficked-people-must-be-protected-from-dangers-back-home, 19.6.20

CTIVD Toezichtsrapport nr. 68 over het handelen van de AIVD in het kader van intrekking van het Nederlanderschap in het belang van de nationale veiligheid

Gedurende de onderzoeksperiode (maart 2017 – februari 2020) heeft de AIVD twaalf ambtsberichten uitgebracht. De MIVD heeft geen rol gespeeld bij de uitvoering van de wet. Het onderzoek heeft zich daarom uitsluitend op de AIVD gericht. De CTIVD concludeert in haar rapport dat de door de AIVD uitgebrachte ambtsberichten steeds voldoende onderbouwd, noodzakelijk en proportioneel waren. De twaalf ambtsberichten zijn daarmee naar het oordeel van de CTIVD rechtmatig uitgebracht.

www.ctivd.nl/binaries/ctivd/documenten/rapporten/2020/06/16/index/CTIVD+NR68+Toezichtsrapport.pdf, 16.6.20

Davide T. Mosca, Claudia Marotta et al: Situational Brief: Deportations and Irregular Migrants during the Covid-19 Pandemic

The expulsion of irregular migrants to under-prepared countries puts migrants and communities at risk, and is against the principles of solidarity and public health that should inspire action during these challenging times. It also puts at risk the staff who implement these policies. Detention, overcrowded conditions and lack of hygiene all render irregular migrants more vulnerable to the impact of COVID-19. Irregular laborers, agricultural and food workers, cleaners and caregivers are all essential in the response to the pandemic, therefore the temporary or longer term regularisation of migrants to facilitate their access to health, social services and employment should be considered as a humane, practical and self-interested alternative to forcible return.

https://1bec58c3-8dcb-46b0-bb2a-fd4addf0b29a.filesusr.com/ugd/188e74_87617047c5a7442b9f127cd1f9986dcb.pdf, 1.6.20

WODC: Toekomstgerichte begeleiding en vrijwillige terugkeer van afgewezen alleenstaande minderjarige vreemdelingen - Knelpunten en mogelijke oplossingen

Deze factsheet beschrijft hoe de toekomstgerichte begeleiding van AMV’s met een afgewezen asielaanvraag eruitziet en welke knelpunten en mogelijke oplossingen er zijn met betrekking tot zowel deze begeleiding als aantoonbaar, vrijwillig vertrek uit Nederland.

Voor de begeleiders van AMV’s met een afgewezen asielaanvraag is het meest prominente knelpunt de bespreekbaarheid van een toekomst in het land van herkomst: jongeren willen het er niet over hebben en mentoren vinden het op hun beurt moeilijk om het onderwerp aan te kaarten. Andere knelpunten zijn: onvoldoende tijd om te investeren in een betere vertrouwensrelatie, een negatieve groepsdynamiek in de opvang, verwachtingen van mentoren en jeugdbeschermers die niet altijd overeenkomen betreffende elkaars taakverdeling, een onderwijssysteem dat gericht is op integratie en een starre Internationale Schakel Klas.

Het inzetten van kindvriendelijke informatie en communicatietechnieken vanaf het begin van de asielprocedure, het afschaffen van vreemdelingenbewaring voor AMV’s, langdurige begeleiding van teruggekeerde jongeren en monitoring van hun situatie in het herkomstland zijn oplossingen die aangedragen zijn voor vrijwillige, duurzame terugkeer van AMV’s.

https://wodc.nl/binaries/FS%202020-2_3070b_Volledige%20tekst_tcm28-453859.pdf, 30.6.20

WODC: Integratie en vertrek van een recent cohort AMV’s in Nederland (2014-2019)

Tussen 1 januari 2014 en 31 augustus 2019 werden 8.775 asielaanvragen ingediend door alleenstaande minderjarige vreemdelingen (AMV’s). In eerste aanleg werd 69% van de aanvragen ingewilligd en 26% afgewezen (de overige 5% zat op de peildatum van 31 december 2019 nog in de procedure of had deze voortijdig stopgezet).

Meer dan de helft van de afgewezen (ex-)AMV’s is met onbekende bestemming vertrokken. Tien procent heeft Nederland aantoonbaar verlaten (hetzij vrijwillig, hetzij gedwongen).

Onder afgewezen ex-AMV’s van 18 jaar of ouder (op 31 december 2019) die werden opgevangen onder het nieuwe opvangmodel, ligt het aandeel dat met onbekende bestemming vertrok hoger, terwijl het aandeel dat op de peildatum rechtmatig in Nederland verbleef lager ligt dan onder de groep die onder het oude model werd opgevangen. Het aandeel vrijwillig vertrek onder het oude en nieuwe opvangmodel is vergelijkbaar.

https://wodc.nl/binaries/FS%202020-3_3070a_%20Volledige%20tekst_tcm28-453860.pdf, 30.6.20

Scriptie Frederiks, Rogier: Wating on the border. A micropolitics of temporal and spatial, migrant penitentiary practices in the city of Rotterdam

This thesis focusses on inductively assessing the migrant penitentiary practices of the Netherlands by inquiring into the Rotterdam case. It is argued – in this thesis – that not only a recent centralization of migrant detainment practices has been taking place, but also a process of fluidization of these practices is taking place outside of the migrant detention center’s walls. It is observed that increasingly, restrictive policies of detainment and deportation are extended to migrant shelter facilities which are primarily managed by non-governmental actors. These developments are contextualized within a theoretical framework of the ‘biopolitical apparatus’, and by putting them against the historical backdrop of the process of European ‘schengenization’. Finally, the observed phenomena of centralization and fluidization are analyzed through Esposito’s concept of ‘immunization’; contextualizing recent detainment practices within a wide and dominant grid of societal sentiment much apparent in the whole of the EU: the ‘stranger’ is he who reminds us of our existential vulnerability. The ‘stranger’ becomes a symbol of asymmetry and is wrongly perceived to be the immanent threat to our ‘way of life’, while in reality we have been blind in noticing our heightened vulnerability due to increased exercises of state and corporate surveillance.

https://theses.ubn.ru.nl/bitstream/handle/123456789/9148/Frederiks%2c_Rogier_1.pdf, 23.3.20

EP: evaluatie return directive

The European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) has published the European Implementation Assessment on the Return Directive. The study covers 10 member states: Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Sweden (collectively responsible of issuing 85% of the return decisions in the EU in 2019). 

The Report highlights that some of the measures laid down in the Directive are not only ineffective but also counterproductive, such as: entry bans, short periods of time for voluntary departure, long detention periods. It also stresses that some provisions of the Directive introduce important safeguards but frequent derogations (i.e .on border procedures, on the interpretation of the risk of absconding, on access to legal aid and interpreters, and on AtD) significantly reduce that effect.

https://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/document.html?reference=EPRS_STU(2020)642840, 26.6.20

ICMPD Sergo Mananashvili : EU Return Rates, COVID-19, and the Future of Return Policies and Partnerships

While the COVID-19 has triggered the largest repatriation operation in history, it has brought the return of irregular migrants to a standstill in Europe. On the other side of the ocean, the combination of removals and COVID-19 creates inter-state tensions, which can be a premonition of what might be ahead when it comes to readmission cooperation. All this begs the question: how will COVID-19 and its short-, mid- and long-term implications shape the future of return policies and inter-state cooperation?

https://www.icmpd.org/fileadmin/1_2018/Mananashvili_Return_and_Covid_policybrief.pdf, mei20

Lillo Montalto Monella  & Sara Creta: only one-third of the migrants who have started reintegration assistance have completed the process. 

Between May 2017 and February 2019, IOM had helped over 12,000 people return to Nigeria. Of them, 9,000 were “reachable” when they returned home, 5,000 received business training and 4,300 received “reintegration aid”. If access to counselling or health services is included, IOM Nigeria says, a total of 7,000 out of 12,000 returnees - or 58% - received reintegration support.

But the number of people classified as having completed the reintegration assistance programme was just 1,289, and research by Jill Alpes, a migration expert and research associate at the Nijmegen Centre for Border Research, found that surveys to check the effectiveness of these packages were conducted with only 136 returnees.

Meanwhile, a Harvard study on Nigerian returnees from Libya estimates that 61.3% of the respondents were not working after their return, and an additional 16.8% only worked for a short period of time, not long enough to generate a stable source of income. Upon return, the vast majority of returnees, 98.3%, were not in any form of regular education.

https://www.euronews.com/2020/06/19/paying-for-migrants-to-go-back-home-how-the-eu-s-voluntary-return-scheme-is-failing-the-de, 19.6.20

Eva Dolan: Between Two Evils

When a doctor at an women’s detention centre is murdered, there are no immediate suspects but plenty of people who seem to be putting roadblocks in the way of the latest investigation for Peterborough cops DI Zigic and DS Ferreira.

Two years ago, Dr Josh Ainsworth had acted as a whistle-blower in a scandal that had engulfed the Long Fleet detention centre, where several members of staff had lost their jobs amidst accusations of systematic abuse of the women detainees. Two years is a long time for someone to have borne a grudge over a job loss, but that’s not something that Zigic and Ferreira can afford to ignore. Their enquiries are hindered by Securitect, the private contractor who run the centre and whose director is clearly only affording them the bare minimum of cooperation.
At the same time, the pair have to contend with the release of serial rapist Lee Walton due to an irregularity at the lab that had run forensic tests in the case that had seen him sent down for life. Walton isn’t showing any signs of wanting to keep his head down and instead he gets straight in Ferreira’s face, wanting to find his girlfriend and child, convinced that Ferreira knows where she’s gone.

https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/52886963-between-two-evils, feb20

Nieuwsbrief 13, 2020

Council of Europe Guidelines on Protecting NGO Work in Support of Refugees and Other Migrants

The guidelines stress that laws, policies and practices should not prohibit or prevent NGOs from helping migrants at sea or on land, and that NGOs should be protected from any form of denigration, hatred or vilification.

https://rm.coe.int/expert-council-conf-exp-2020-3-guidelines-on-protecting-ngo-work-in-su/16809e4a81, mei20

F. Defrang : How do International and European law respect the protection of unaccompanied minors in relation to the Convention on the Rights of the Child?

The high influx of unaccompanied minors arriving in Europe in recent years has shaped the political attitude towards migrants. Their protection is mostly ruled by the United Nations Convention on Rights of the Child, which introduced the principle of the best interest of the child (Article 3) and which operates as a red thread through the Convention. As the Convention has been ratified by all European States, the question follows as to what extent this particular protection is guaranteed by the European legislation.

This research will focus on the implementation of provisions and recommendations which set the legal framework for guardianship, accommodation, education as well as procedural safeguards concerning the asylum application of unaccompanied and separated minors. A further analysis will focus on the eventual consequences of age assessment procedures and detention on unaccompanied minors. Furthermore, the research will concentrate on how the rights of the child concerning unaccompanied minors are implemented the Netherlands. This introspective will give details on the national legal framework of the Netherlands, especially in regard to guardianship, asylum procedure and legal decisions of the Council of State.

http://www.ubvu.vu.nl/pub/fulltext/scripties/14_2641238_0.pdf, mei20

Fiorito, T.R.: Struggling with success : Emotion, experience, and subjectivity in the undocumented youth movement in Los Angeles

Based on longitudinal ethnographic research (2011–2018) in Los Angeles, this dissertation seeks to understand the political success of the undocumented youth movement in the United States. It conceptualizes that political success in two divergent ways. On the one hand, the movement’s political success consists of undocumented youths successfully mobilizing around the assimilationist narrative and collective identity of the Dreamers, thereby becoming legitimate political actors in mainstream American politics, accomplishing concrete political wins, and experiencing upward social mobility. Their shame is turned into pride, and they are able to experience their political agency as “undocumented and unafraid.”

This dissertation then looks at the consequences of that political success and argues that it also has a darker side, as it came at the cost of an increase in immigration enforcement and the further criminalization (detention and deportation) of undocumented immigrants. This led to a strong critique within the immigrant rights movement concerning the divisiveness of the Dreamer narrative and eventually to the subsequent deconstruction of the Dreamers’ collective identity. This resulted in undocumented youths experiencing feelings of guilt and no longer wanting to be identified as Dreamers. It also led to more inclusive and radical organizing strategies, with undocumented youths now mobilizing for all 11 million undocumented immigrants in the United States.

https://pure.uva.nl/ws/files/48071218/Thesis.pdf (juni20)

Guido Cuyvers: Weerloos en zonder waarde - Moderne slavernij in al haar vormen

Dit boek focust op een grote groep mensen, wereldwijd meer dan veertig miljoen, die in een of andere vorm van slavernij leven. Elke burger heeft als consument te maken met slavernij, onder meer door de kleding die we kopen, koffie die we drinken, sieraden of elektronica die we gebruiken.

Slavernij bestaat in zeer diverse vormen, zowel met kinderen als volwassenen, waarvan dwangarbeid en seksuele uitbuiting de omvangrijkste zijn. We nemen ook de oorzaken onder de loep en schetsen de gevolgen van en voor de samenleving. Een overzicht van wat er nodig is en wat er nog moet en kan gebeuren helpt om een hoopvol perspectief aan te reiken, niet enkel voor beleidsmakers maar ook voor de burger als consument.

https://www.huizingaveendam.nl/9789044137309/guido-cuyvers/weerloos-en-zonder-waarde/, apr20

EMN Rapport staatloosheid in EU

The European Migration Network (EMN) was entrusted by JHA Council Conclusions in 2015 with the creation of a platform to exchange information and good practices in the field of statelessness.

This EMN Inform is an update to the EMN Inform on Statelessness in the EU, published in November 2016.

EMN: Comparative Overview of National Protection Statuses in the EU and Norway

The study explores the key characteristics of non-harmonised protection statuses and the types of national statuses granted by Member States and Norway to address a protection need not covered by international protection statuses as set out in the Qualification Directive or temporary protection in the Temporary Protection Directive. The report includes an overview of national statuses granted by particular protection ground, reviewing the conditions and rights associated with each. It also considers commonalities and differences with the minimum standards established at EU level for the EU-harmonised statuses (refugee status, subsidiary protection and, in one case, temporary protection).


Migrations forcées, discriminations et exclusions

Spécialistes dans un domaine ou l’autre des SHS, sociologues, juristes, politologues, anthropologues, mais aussi militants, les auteurs offrent des perspectives à large spectre sur le phénomène contemporain de la migration forcée. Elles et ils s’interrogent sur les causes et les conséquences des discriminations et des rejets dont exilées et exilés sont l’objet dans les pays détenant le pouvoir économique, financier et militaire. Leurs propositions engagent autant au soutien humanitaire qu’à l’action politique dans la défense de ces victimes du nouvel ordre mondial.

https://editions-croquant.org/hors-collection/613-migrations-forcees-discriminations-et-exclusions.html, juli20

Ambtsbericht Venezuela, 11.6.20
Ambtsbericht Libië, 10.6.20

ACVZ advies over de Tijdelijke wet afschaffing dwangsommen IND

De ACVZ vindt het een zorgelijke ontwikkeling dat de rechtsbescherming van asielzoekers wordt beperkt omdat de overheid er niet in slaagt aan haar wettelijke verplichtingen te voldoen. De ACVZ is er niet van overtuigd dat het in dit geval noodzakelijk en proportioneel is om asielzoekers de toegang tot de rechter te onthouden indien de IND niet tijdig op asielaanvragen beslist.

De financiële prikkel van een dwangsom is ingesteld als stok achter de deur voor de overheid om tijdig te beslissen. Gelet op de ontstane situatie heeft de ACVZ er begrip voor dat de mogelijkheden om de IND in gebreke te stellen en de bestuursrechter een dwangsom op te laten leggen aan de IND tijdelijk buiten toepassing worden gelaten. Deze prikkel dient naar het oordeel van de ACVZ echter weer in ere te worden hersteld na het verstrijken van de vervaldatum voor de tijdelijke wet.

Klik hier voor het advies (16.6.20)

ECRE Analysis of Asylum Statistics in Europe

As statistics on asylum have become a central topic of the political debate in Europe in recent years, ECRE has critically analysed the current collection and use of asylum statistics finding a need for caution. ECRE recommends that Member states take the following issues into account.

The focus on first-instance decision-making: First instance rates are not a reliable indicator of protection needs or even of asylum decision-making, given that a significant number of negative decisions are successfully challenged on appeal. It would be more accurate to use figures after the completion of legal processes, rather than focusing on first instance decisions.

The “asylum lottery”: poor decision-making. Flawed decision-making undermines the fundamental rights of those seeking protection, not least through contributing to refoulement. It is also a factor generating onward movement within the EU+. It is best addressed through supporting compliance with the provisions of the CEAS rather than embarking on legislative reform.

Statistics and forms of protection: With few exceptions, most EUMS+ primarily granted refugee status in recent years. Nevertheless, there has been an increase in the use of other forms of protection and Member States continue to grant different statuses to similar cases. In the use of asylum statistics and resulting political conclusions, this can be misused to claim that people do not need protection because they are not granted refugee status. Figures for overall protection rates should be used , in order to give an accurate picture of all in need of protection in Europe.

https://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Statistics-Briefing-ECRE.pdf, juni20

ECRE Policy Note: Return as “Non-Essential Travel” in the Time of Pandemic

ECRE argues that return and pre-removal detention are non-essential measures in the context of the pandemic and its aftermath. Given the scale of the public health emergency hitting both host and destination countries, return of migrants cannot be considered a policy area that should absorb resources, especially as it risks putting individuals and communities at risk. Although most restrictions in the EU, including on intra-EU travels, may be lifted in the near future, in other parts of the world the pandemic is still at its height and economic fallout will be difficult to contain.

However, almost no government adopts a policy to officially halt returns. Instead of tacitly postponing removals and keeping people in limbo, states should take a principled stance and place a moratorium on removals. An official policy to suspend returns would reflect both principles underlying EU return policy, namely effectiveness and fundamental rights, and would show solidarity with third countries.

As return is currently mostly impossible and in the near future will be disproportionately difficult to carry out, people in an irregular situation should be offered a residence permit, based on article 6(4) of the Directive. The underlying approach of the Directive is clear: states should either return a person or grant the person a regular status. Leaving people in an undocumented situation in the current pandemic would also prevent them from accessing health care and adequate services, essential for the prevention of the spread of the virus. In addition, as labour shortages in various vital sectors became patent, it is wasteful not to allow migrants to contribute their knowledge and skills for the benefit of society.

With removals suspended, pre-removal detention loses its legal basis. Under article 15(4) of the Directive, when a reasonable prospect of removal no longer exists, detention ceases to be justified and the person should be released immediately. In addition, considering public health considerations, detention would hardly stand the necessity and proportionality test.

https://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/PN_26.pdf, 5.6.20

Rapport 'Voorbij Terugkeer' (Belgie)

In België is het migratiebeleid steeds meer gericht op de strijd tegen de zogenaamde "irreguliere" migratie: controle, afschrikking en terugkeer staan in het middelpunt van de belangstelling. Ondanks die klemtoon op terugkeer en de groeiende middelen hiervoor, blijkt uit de cijfers – en uit de klachten in verband met mensenrechtenschendingen - dat het Belgisch beleid hierin weinig succesvol is.

Dit rapport is een verslag van een conferentie in december 2019 met als titel “Voorbij Terugkeer". Op zoek naar een menswaardig en duurzaam beleid voor personen in precair of onwettig verblijf”. Daarmee willen we tonen dat een andere, doeltreffende aanpak op basis van de mensenrechten en met aandacht voor het hoogste belang van het kind mogelijk is.


Soup, Marie : Nach der Flucht - Chronik einer drohenden Abschiebung

Dieses Buch ist eine Einladung, sich der immer noch unter uns weilenden Flüchtlinge zu erinnern, die 2015 nach Deutschland gekommen sind, und einen intimen Blick auf das Dasein nach der Flucht zu werfen. Aus der Sicht einer Außenstehenden werden die Erlebnisse eines jungen Afghanen dokumentiert, dem die Abschiebung droht. Dabei ergeben sich auch Rückblicke auf spannende, erschütternde oder berührende Erlebnisse vor und während der Flucht. Die Chronik enthält Bedrückendes und Komisches und zeigt Fragmente eines Lebens, das schwankt zwischen Depressionen und Humor, Enttäuschungen und Vertrauen, Freundschaften und Verlorenheit. Es wird hier versucht, den Blick zu weiten auf viele Facetten des Daseins nach der Flucht.

https://www.lesejury.de/marie-soup/buecher/nach-der-flucht/9783957801968, 1.6.20

Nieuwsbrief 12, 2020

UN Secretary-General's Policy Brief on COVID-19 and People on the Move

COVID-19’s disproportionate impact on people on the move contrasts with their outsized role on the frontlines of responding to the crisis - highlighting their broader contributions to societies around the world - while caring for the sick and elderly or keeping up food supplies during lockdowns.

Against this background, the COVID-19 crisis presents us with an opportunity to reimagine human mobility for the benefit of all while advancing our central commitment of the 2030 Agenda to leave no one behind.

https://www.un.org/sites/un2.un.org/files/sg_policy_brief_on_people_on_the_move.pdf, juni20

UN Women Guidance note: Addressing the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on women migrant workers

This guidance note highlights the emerging impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on women migrant workers, focusing on the key challenges and risks they face. It makes recommendations in the context of the economic and social response and recovery packages that governments are putting forward, supported by examples of existing good practices from around the world.

Publication in full (PDF, 272KB)

PICUM: A Worker is a Worker: How to Ensure that Undocumented Migrant Workers Can Access Justice

This report explores judicial and state-based non-judicial labour complaints and redress mechanisms that are in place in 15 EU member states, and what happens or would happen when undocumented workers try to use them. While noting some challenges related to the criminal justice system, the report is focused on the mechanisms managed by labour authorities and civil courts. It is based on the experiences of organisations working on the frontline assisting workers in those countries. It points to some practices that are noteworthy for being particularly problematic or promising, including some interesting examples from outside of the EU. Finally, it suggests recommendations to improve enforcement of labour standards and access to justice.

https://picum.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/A-Worker-is-a-Worker-full-doc.pdf, mrt20

Joint Guidance Note by UN Experts on the Respect of Migrants’ Human Rights in the Context of COVID-19 Pandemic

The UN Committee on Migrant Workers (CMW) and the UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants published a Join Guidance Note on the Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Human Rights of Migrants, urging States to adopt prompt safeguards for migrants and their families, irrespective of their legal status.

The experts recalled the significant contribution given during the crisis by a large number of migrants involved in essential sectors such as health, agriculture, delivery services, care work, recommending states not to exclude anyone from the social assistance measures carried out in the last months, in particular those already in a situation of severe vulnerability such as irregular migrants, migrant women and children.

The 17 Guidelines recall that the use of emergency power in response to the health crisis must be carried out in compliance with human rights standards including, medical care, education, family unity and unemployment benefits. In relation to detention, the document notes how “Migrants and their families often face confinement at administrative detention centers that are cramped, overcrowded, and understaffed by healthcare professionals” and urge states to reduce restrictions of liberty to a minimum, keeping in consideration measures as the temporary suspension of deportations and the promotion of migrants’ regularization.

https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Migration/CMWSPMJointGuidanceNoteCOVID-19Migrants.pdf, 26.5.20

Annika Lems, Kathrin Oester, Sabine Strasser: Children of the crisis: ethnographic perspectives on unaccompanied refugee youth in and en route to Europe

This special issue explores the ways unaccompanied refugee youth in and en route to Europe actively deal with the intensification of exclusionary practices towards migrants and refugees. In the Introduction we aim to set the scene for the individual articles by sketching the various political, historical and discursive levels at which the unaccompanied minor has come to be constructed as a crisis figure in Europe. We show how the sense of exceptionality attached to this figure translates into ambiguous and at times extremely contradictory social practices that have far-reaching effects on the lives of refugee youth. In paying attention to the conceptual flaws and dangers inherent in linking unaccompanied minors to ideas of crisis, we aim to demonstrate the importance of taking seriously the ways young people themselves make sense of the ascriptions, ideas and practices they are subject to. We suggest that ethnographically driven research that lays the focus on the ways young people actively navigate the ambiguous social landscapes they are confronted with can form an important means to move beyond the simplistic and ahistorical models of explanation put forward by frameworks of crisis

Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies v46 n2 (20200125): 315-335

Jules Lepoutre: Citizenship loss and deprivation in the European Union

This report describes the rules regarding withdrawal of citizenship within the Member States of the European Union (EU) plus the United Kingdom, comparing legislation and analysing historic and recent trends across several categories: possession of another nationality; residence abroad; disloyalty or lack of merit; fraud and other similar acts; and loss linked to family relationship.

https://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/66958/RSCAS_2020_29.pdf, mei20

UNHCR Guidelines on Statelessness No. 5: Loss and Deprivation of Nationality under Articles 5-9 of the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness

UNHCR has released new guidelines on the loss and deprivation of nationality, to assist governments and policy makers in interpreting the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness and complementary international human rights law relevant to deprivation of nationality.

https://www.refworld.org/docid/5ec5640c4.html, mei20

European Network of Statelessness (2020) Briefing: Birth registration and the prevention of statelessness in Europe: Identifying good practices and remaining barriers

This new briefing is the first in a series of thematic briefings using extensive country analysis of law, policy and practice from the StatelessnessINDEX. In this briefing, the European Network on Statelessness examines data from 24 countries to identify good practices as well as barriers preventing children from having their birth registered.  The analysis shows that, while some countries in Europe perform well across most international norms and good practices on birth registration, there are still barriers preventing children in some countries from realising their right to immediate birth registration.

https://index.statelessness.eu/news/new-index-thematic-briefing-birth-registration-and-prevention-statelessness-europe, 5.5.20

ACVZ: Weten en Wegen

Op verzoek van staatsecretaris Broekers-Knol heeft de Adviescommissie voor Vreemdelingenzaken (ACVZ) onderzoek gedaan naar hoe de IND zo goed mogelijk kan omgaan met bronnen van landeninformatie. De IND gebruikt meestal de ambtsberichten van het ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken waarin de situatie in die landen wordt beschreven. Maar er zijn niet steeds voor alle landen (actuele) ambtsberichten beschikbaar. De vraag die in dit advies wordt beantwoord is, hoe andere openbare bronnen dan het ambtsbericht zo goed mogelijk kunnen worden gebruikt in het asielproces.

De adviescommissie doet een aantal aanbevelingen die zijn gericht op een zorgvuldiger en consistenter verzameling, gebruik en weergave van bronnen van landeninformatie. De IND dient allereerst zelf op een meer systematische en transparante manier dan nu gebeurt, landeninformatie uit relevante bronnen te verzamelen en te publiceren. Ook draagt een toetsing van de landeninformatie door een extern panel van deskundigen volgens de ACVZ bij aan het borgen van de kwaliteit en het verhogen van het draagvlak. Verwijzing naar landeninformatie in besluiten moet daarnaast op een eenduidige, nauwkeurige, en herleidbare manier plaatsvinden. Landgebonden asielbeleid dient te worden gepubliceerd. Verder draagt een voortgaande investering in Europese samenwerking volgens de adviescommissie duidelijk bij aan een kwalitatief hoogwaardiger en eenduidiger omgang met landeninformatie binnen de Europese Unie.

https://www.adviescommissievoorvreemdelingenzaken.nl/publicaties/publicaties/2020/05/25/25, 25.5.20

AIDA: Updated Country Report Italy

The updated AIDA Country Report on Italy documents the main developments in the area of asylum procedures, reception conditions, detention of asylum applicants and content of international protection throughout 2019.

Regarding access to the territory and asylum procedures, it is noted that a closed ports policy, indirect refoulement to Libya, and privatised collective expulsions were reported in 2019. At least 8,406 people were tracked down by the Libyan coastguard and brought back to Libya. Despite the opposition of numerous associations including ASGI, and the call of the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, the Memorandum of Understanding between Italy and Libya was renewed in February 2020. The report also notes that a border procedure, applicable in border areas and transit zones, has now been implemented. 

The updated report also provides detailed information on issues relating to, inter alia: reception conditions, including access to housing, education, health care and other services; detention measures, including legal frameworks and detention conditions; and updated information on measures as a result of COVID-19.


IND-werkinstructie 2020/8 - Erkenning referent

Deze werkinstructie ziet enkel op de (aanvraag voor) erkenning als referent. Om dubbelingen te voorkomen zijn alleen aspecten van het beleid beschreven die niet in de Vw, het Vb, het VV en de Vc zijn opgenomen. Met deze werkinstructie is niet beoogd om aanvullende voorwaarden te stellen voor de (aanvraag voor) erkenning als referent.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI%202020-8.pdf, 25.5.20

WODC: De weg(en) naar verblijfsrecht - Waarom buitenlandse slachtoffers van mensenhandel gebruikmaken van de asielprocedure

Speciaal voor buitenlandse slachtoffers mensenhandel is er een verblijfsregeling (B8/3-regeling en B9). Een tijdelijke verblijfsvergunning wordt (bijna altijd) verstrekt zodra een vermeend slachtoffer aangifte doet van mensenhandel. Wanneer het strafrechtelijk onderzoek wordt geseponeerd vervalt de tijdelijke verblijfsvergunning.

De Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel (NRM) vermoedt dat een vervolgaanvraag niet-tijdelijk humanitair vaak uitblijft doordat veel slachtoffers kiezen voor een reguliere asielprocedure. Wat is de reden daarvoor en hoe kansrijk is een dergelijke asielaanvraag? Worden de rechten en speciale belangen van vermeende slachtoffers van mensenhandel voldoende gewaarborgd in een asielprocedure?

https://wodc.nl/binaries/Cahier%202020-6_3067_Volledige%20tekst_tcm28-450776.pdf, 5.6.20

Johan Gortworst: Paula: liefde en vergelding

Paula, die als tiener met haar ouders naar Nederland vluchtte, ligt levenloos langs de weg. De politieman Brouwer staat voor raadsels. Een collega van Paula vertelt niet alles wat hij weet. Wat ging er mis?

'Iedereen maakt wel eens een fout. Maar wat te doen als onze fouten al eerder zijn begaan? Wat als die fouten het plan zijn?' Dat was mijn vraag. Het was ook de vraag waar de collega van Paula voor kwam te staan. Was hij te lichtvaardig omgesprongen met de regels van de cultuur waarin Paula opgroeide?

Kan je in deze tijd nog een verhaal van twee mensen met een verschillende culturele traditie terugbrengen tot een ontmoeting tussen mensen? Ik ben hierbij geholpen door gesprekken met vrouwen met een migratieachtergrond. Ze bleken een onmisbare bron van inspiratie. In deze roman heb ik ook veel van wat ik ervaren heb in mijn werk voor de vrouwenopvang in Nederland, verwerkt.

Meer weten? https://www.johangortworst.com/paula

Justin Zeit: PROIZVOD - Mijn koninkrijk Tartarus in de wereld van de vrouwenhandel

Proizvod is het verhaal van binnenuit, over de wijze van handelen, de gehanteerde methodes en de structuur van sex trafficking. Het beschrijft de indoctrinatie en manipulatie van de slachtoffers. Hoe de vrouwen, ontdaan van hun identiteit, verkracht, getatoeëerd en geconditioneerd werden en hoe ze vanuit het buitenland naar West-Europa werden getransporteerd.

Justin Zeit (1972) besloot zijn ervaringen met de vrouwenhandel op te schrijven vanuit het perspectief van de dader. Hij koos ervoor om nu, bijna 25 jaar later, het verhaal alsnog te vertellen. Hoe een student uit nieuwsgierigheid en zucht naar avontuur begint met ogenschijnlijk onschuldige reizen als medepassagier tot aan het moment dat er geen weg meer terug is.

"Proizvod' (Kroatisch voor "product') is een bijna ziekmakend relaas van gruwelijkheden, maar het laat ook de denkwijze van de mensenhandelaar zien. Waarom deed hij wat hij deed? En waarom kon hij dat zo overtuigend voor zichzelf rechtvaardigen?
Met dit boek wil hij de mensen de ogen openen. De vrouwenhandel is nog steeds een verzwegen grote open wond in de Nederlandse maatschappij.

https://www.bol.com/nl/c/pumbo-nl-b-v/16141607/?lastId=40342, mei20

Willemsen, Clemens: Identiteitsvaststelling van verdachten en illegale vreemdelingen door opsporingsdiensten in het buitenland - Vaststelling van de identiteit in een zevental landen op een rij

Hoe wordt de identiteit vastgesteld van verdachten en illegale vreemdelingen in het buitenland? Hoe verloopt dit in België, Caribisch Nederland, Duitsland, Oostenrijk, Polen, het Verenigd Koninkrijk en de Verenigde Staten? Dit boekwerk vormt een aanvulling op het (bijna) gelijknamige proefschrift waarop Clemens Willemsen in 2019 promoveerde aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Clemens Willemsen studeerde in 1985 af in de Bestuurlijke Informatica aan de Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen van de Rijksuniversiteit te Groningen. Het proefschrift bouwt daar voor een deel op voort in de vorm van een gegevensmodel en matching van gegevens doch bevat ook juridische, biometrische en kwaliteits-managementaspecten. Het proefschrift vormt een weergave van zijn interesse in het vergaren, verrijken en delen van kennis. Deze aanvulling een praktische betekenis voor de opsporingsdiensten.

Proefschrift: https://research.tilburguniversity.edu/en/publications/identiteitsvaststelling-van-verdachten-en-ilegale-vreemdelingen-d, okt19

Boek: https://www.boekhandeldouwes.nl/boek/9789463989435-identiteitsvaststelling-van-verdachten-en-illegale-vreemdelingen-door-opsporingsdiensten-in-het-buitenland, jan20

IND-werkinstructie 2020/9 - Grensprocedure

Per 20 juli 2015 kent Nederland een grensprocedure. Dit betreft de procedure aan de grens (of in een transitzone) waarin wordt beslist op de asielaanvraag van een vreemdeling die aan de Schengenbuitengrens te kennen heeft gegeven een asielaanvraag te willen indienen en die niet voldoet aan de voorwaarden voor toegang tot Nederland. De grensprocedure is geregeld in art. 3.109b Vb (uitwerking van art. 43 Procedurerichtlijn). De invoering van de grensprocedure heeft geleid tot een aantal wijzigingen in wet- en regelgeving. Sinds de invoering van de grensprocedure heeft de ABRvS een aantal belangwekkende uitspraken gedaan die hebben geleid tot een aanpassing van de wet, het beleid en werkwijze. In deze werkinstructie komt het volgende aan de orde:
1. Kader
2. De grensprocedure
3. Toegangsweigering en de omzetting van de maatregel
4. Rechtsmiddelen 
In bijlage 1 is een actueel Stroomschema toegangsweigering en grensdetentie opgenomen.
https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2020-9.pdf, 27.5.20

Catherine Bruton: De balletschoenen van Aya

Als jong meisje in Syrië droomt Aya ervan ballerina te worden. Door de oorlog ontvlucht ze met haar ouders en pasgeboren broertje Moosa haar land. Tijdens de gevaarlijke overtocht van Turkije naar het Griekse eiland Chios verliest ze haar vader. Als ze eenmaal in Engeland is, staat de 11-jarige vluchteling opnieuw een periode met veel problemen te wachten, maar gaat ze ook weer balletles volgen.

Hoewel het boek zich in Engeland afspeelt, verschillen Aya’s ervaringen weinig van die van haar leeftijdgenoten in Nederlandse azc’s. Een rode draad in het boek is dat Aya gezien wil worden „gewoon als een meisje in een balletpak dat een pirouette kon”, en niet als asielzoeker, liefdadigheidsproject, sneu geval of oorlogskind. Dat zal weinig anders zijn bij Syrische, Afghaanse en Iraanse vluchtelingenkinderen in Nederland, ook als ze niet dromen van een toekomst als ballerina maar als onderwijzer, advocaat of arts. Ze willen vooral gewoon kind zijn.

Nieuwsbrief 11, 2020

Ana Raquel Minian : Undocumented Lives : The Untold Story of Mexican Migration

In the 1970s, the Mexican government decided to tackle rural unemployment by supporting the migration of able-bodied men. Millions of Mexican men crossed into the United States to find work. They took low-level positions that few Americans wanted and sent money back to communities that depended on their support. They periodically returned to Mexico, living their lives in both countries. After 1986, however, U.S. authorities disrupted this back-and-forth movement by strengthening border controls. Many Mexican men chose to remain in the United States permanently for fear of not being able to come back north if they returned to Mexico. For them, the United States became a jaula de oro-a cage of gold. Undocumented Lives tells the story of Mexican migrants who brought their families across the border and raised a generation of undocumented children.

https://history.stanford.edu/publications/undocumented-lives-untold-story-mexican-migration, 29.5.20

WI 2020/7 Evenredigheidstoets op verlies Unieburgerschap na van rechtswege verlies Nederlanderschap

Deze werkinstructie ziet uitsluitend op situaties waarin door het verlies van het Nederlanderschap tevens het Unieburgerschap werd verloren. Het gaat bij de evenredigheidstoets om de afweging van het algemeen belang van Nederland om in bepaalde gevallen te voorzien in automatisch verlies van de Nederlandse nationaliteit (omdat de betrokkene geen of niet langer een band heeft met Nederland), tegenover het concrete belang van de betrokkene om het Unieburgerschap te behouden. Het Europese Hof van Justitie oordeelde in het Tjebbes-arrest van 12 maart 2019 (C-221/17) dat ook bij automatisch verlies van de Nederlandse nationaliteit op grond van artikel 15, eerste lid en onder c en artikel 16, eerste lid en onder d RWN rekening gehouden moet worden met de gevolgen van het verlies van het Unieburgerschap. De Afdeling Bestuursrechtspraak van Raad van State heeft vervolgens op 12 februari 2020 uitspraak gedaan (ECLI:NL:RVS:2020:423) in de bodemzaken.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2020-7.pdf, 8.5.20

Ambtsbericht Syrie, 15.5.20

EMN: EU-lidstaten trekken start-ups en innovatieve ondernemers aan van buiten de EU

Met het aantrekken van start-ups van buiten de EU wil de EU haar concurrentiepositie op de wereldmarkt verbeteren. Veel EU-lidstaten zetten dan ook in op het aantrekken van startende innovatieve ondernemers. Dat geldt ook voor Nederland.

http://emnnederland.m3.mailplus.nl/nct5717897/Y6EBzjmnI4bBftM, 23.3.20

DT&V: landenlijst vertrekbeperkingen

Tot nu toe stond werkte de DT&V met een lijst van landen die geen vluchten uit Nederland toelaten en een lijst met landen die beperkte maatregelen hanteren voor inkomende reizigers. Alle informatie is nu in één Excel-bestand gezet. Het eerste tabblad ‘Overzicht’ laat de reismogelijkheden zien, zowel voor gedwongen vertrek zonder (depu) of met escorts (depa) en vrijwillig vertrek. Een nadere toelichting en bijzonderheden per land, bijvoorbeeld wat betreft transits en het quarantainebeleid, zijn te vinden onder het tabblad ‘Detail’. Het tabblad ‘Toelichting’ geeft een toelichting over gebruikte termen en bronnen. Hier staat ook een link naar het actuele overzicht van Frontex, waarop de afbeelding van Europa steeds wordt bijgewerkt.

Landenlijst vertrekbeperkingen, 15.5.20

IOM: Forced returns of migrants must be suspended in times of COVID-19

Forced returns can intensify serious public health risks for everyone – migrants, public officials, health workers, social workers and both host and origin communities. Forced returns place additional strain on countries of return. Many health systems are already stretched and lack capacity to protect returnees and their communities, including through testing upon arrival and quarantine and self-isolation measures that preserve family unity and ensure the best interests of children. Returnees may face additional risks during transfer and upon return, such as lack of access to adequate health care, poor water and sanitation systems, halted ground transportation, additional restrictions on movement and violent discrimination and stigma in communities of return. In some contexts, returned migrants and asylum-seekers may also be at risk of experiencing protracted displacement, trafficking in persons, and extreme financial hardship with increases to already high levels of unemployment due to COVID-19. ...

The Network reiterates the Secretary-General’s recent call to alleviate situations of vulnerability for individuals living outside their country of origin in the context of COVID-19, including by granting temporary residence to migrants and imposing a moratorium on deportations and other forced returns. 

https://www.iom.int/news/forced-returns-migrants-must-be-suspended-times-covid-19, 13.5.20

Aravind Adiga: Gratie

Danny - oorspronkelijk Dhananjaya Rajaratnam - is gevlucht uit Sri Lanka en woont illegaal in Sydney, Australië. Hij verblijft in een voorraadkamer, werkt als schoonmaker, en is al drie jaar bezig een nieuwe identiteit voor zichzelf te creëren. Hij heeft zijn accent weggepoetst, hij heeft highlights in zijn haar en een vegan vriendin. Het normale leven ligt bijna binnen handbereik.

Maar dan hoort hij dat een van zijn klanten is vermoord. Danny kende haar goed, en hij heeft een sterk vermoeden wie het gedaan heeft. Moet hij bekennen wat hij weet met het risico het land uitgezet te worden? Of moet hij zijn mond houden en rechtvaardigheid de rug toe keren? Terwijl de uren verstrijken, laat hij alles de revue passeren: het gewicht van zijn verleden, zijn toekomstdromen, en de onvoorspelbare, vaak absurde realiteit van een onzichtbaar leven zonder papieren. Danny moet diep in zijn geweten tasten om een antwoord te vinden. Heeft iemand zonder rechten wel verantwoordelijkheden?

https://www.libris.nl/boek/?authortitle=aravind-adiga/gratie--9789046826386/, 18.2.20

Nieuwsbrief 10, 2020

FLEX and LEAG: Improving responses to labour exploitation with secure reporting

Building on interviews with workers, this research helps us to better understand the barriers documented and undocumented migrants face reporting workplace abuse and exploitation to the police and labour inspectors in the UK. This negatively affects the UK’s efforts to tackle labour exploitation because:

  • Migrants are enduring long periods of exploitation for fear that reporting will lead to arrest, detention and/or removal which would make them unable to continue providing for themselves and their families
  • Documented migrants who are unaware of their status or the rights derived from it also fear reporting workplace abuse and exploitation
  • Labour inspectors and police are missing valuable opportunities to support workers and identify exploiters due to their relationship with immigration authorities
  • Simultaneous operations with Immigration Enforcement are leading to misidentification and detention of victims of modern slavery offences
  • The UK is experiencing a cycle of employer impunity, with a number of abusive employers financially benefiting from underpaying their workforce without facing consequences. This cycle of impunity makes everyone worse off by putting fair employers at a disadvantage, directly or indirectly pressuring workers in low-paid sectors to endure worse wages and conditions, and obstructing efforts to prevent modern slavery offences and prosecute exploitative employers.

To address these issues, LEAG is calling for the introduction of secure reporting systems that guarantee workers will not face immigration consequences when they report problems at work.

https://www.labourexploitation.org/news/new-report-%E2%80%9Copportunity-knocks-improving-responses-labour-exploitation-secure-reporting%E2%80%9D, 27.4.20

Trade Unions: protection needed for undocumented workers during the pandemic

Thousands of migrant workers, many of whom undocumented, continue to toil in dire conditions in European fields and farms, often with little to no protective equipment against COVID-19. The European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions (EFFAT) issued a joint statement, calling EU leaders to protect migrant workers in the agri-food sector.

The International Labour Organisation has published global policy guidance to protect migrant workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The ILO recommends including migrant workers in national income and related policy responses; extending access to health services and social protection coverage to migrant workers; ensuring migrant workers have regular status or do not fall into irregular status; and providing  all  migrant  workers  with  access  to  legal  remedies  for  unfair  treatment.

The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) has published a statement calling EU institutions and national governments to adopt necessary measures to protect migrant workers in Europe. The recommendations include: ensuring income support measures for all those that have no access to any social protection, ensuring safe access to health care for undocumented migrants, and introducing regularisation measures and extending or issuing temporary permits or visas to prevent further irregularity.

Financial support for destitute undocumented migrants during pandemic

  • Some countries and cities have made government financial support - linked to the COVID-19 pandemic - available to undocumented migrants too.
  • Using a $20 million donation from Open Society Foundations, the New York City COVID-19 Immigrant Emergency Relief programme will create a citywide network of community based organizations that will provide direct, one-time emergency relief payments to immigrant families – including undocumented workers.
  • California's $75 million (state-funded) Disaster Relief Fund will support undocumented Californians impacted by COVID-19 who are ineligible for unemployment insurance benefits and disaster relief, due to their immigration status. The Fund will be dispersed through a community-based model of regional non-profits with expertise and experience serving undocumented communities.
  • In Ireland, undocumented migrants are eligible to apply for the Pandemic Unemployment Payment, and can access information from social welfare services free from fear of personal data transfer for immigration purposes.
  • In the US, the Zolberg Institute on Migration and Mobility, the Columbia Program on Forced Migration and Health, and the Cornell Migration and Human Rights Program have developed 14 Principles of protection for migrants, refugees, and other displaced persons to help policy-makers uphold human rights for all in their response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

FRA Bulletin: measures EU Member States have put in place to protect public health during the COVID-19 pandemic

The bulletin covers the impact on people "living in institutional settings", including migrants, who are found to be at greater risk of infection.
https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2020/covid19-rights-impact-april-1, 7.4.20


Thematisch ambtsbericht Guinee over Vrouwelijke genitale verminking en minderjarigen, 1.5.20
EASO, Syria Security situation, May 2020

WI 2020/6: twv-verlening

Met deze werkinstructie wordt duidelijkheid verschaft in welke gevallen een bepaalde arbeidsmarktaantekening aangetekend moet worden op de sticker ‘Verblijfsaantekening Algemeen’. Deze sticker houdt verband met de aanvraag om verlening of verlenging van de verblijfsvergunning dan wel met de aanvraag om wijziging van de beperking waaronder de verblijfsvergunning eerder was verleend. Daarom zijn in deze instructie ook de arbeidsmarktaantekeningen opgenomen zoals die op de verblijfsdocumenten staan.


ISI: Shapeless Shapes

This is a collaborative arts and advocacy project prevailing narratives and highlighting activism around the instrumentalisation of citizenship. It is a graphic novel about identity, belonging, history, xenophobia, freedom, racism, discrimination, injustice, activism citizenship and statelessness.

https://files.institutesi.org/Shapeless_shapes.pdf, april20

ENS: No child should be stateless: ensuring the right to a nationality for children in migration in Europe

This report identifies which children in migration are at risk of statelessness in Europe, including those who are undocumented, born en route to Europe or came to Europe unaccompanied.

https://www.statelessness.eu/sites/www.statelessness.eu/files/attachments/resources/ENS_Right-to-a-nationality-for-children-in-migration.pdf, 17.4.20

Vietnam: returned victims of trafficking

This joint report by Asylos and ARC Foundation addresses an information gap on the topic of victims of trafficking returned to Vietnam from the UK. The topic was chosen after consultation with legal representatives who identified a major gap in country-of-origin information (COI), in particular in relation to treatment upon return and the associated risk of re-trafficking. In 2019 alone, Vietnamese nationals represented the second most common nationality of all referrals to the UK National Referral Mechanism. Additionally, Vietnamese nationals regularly form one of the top 10 largest groups of asylum seekers in the UK, with a large proportion being unaccompanied minors. 

The report covers seven research areas relating to the return of victims of trafficking to Vietnam and includes interviews with six different interlocutors based in Vietnam and the UK. In sharing our findings, Asylos and ARC Foundation hope to help fill the gap in COI literature about the situation of Vietnamese victims of trafficking post- return to Vietnam and to contribute to a more complete picture of the consequences of those who are returned.

https://www.asylos.eu/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=46799dc2-689c-48dc-b120-0d0e10bd9b3d, mei20

ADMIGOV: Advancing Alternative Migration Governance: The Political Economy of Entry Governance 

This report details how private and commercial actors also yield a crucial influence on the development, adoption and implementation of EU measures related to immigration. It is based on the assumption that in order to provide the general public and policy-makers with tools to pursue a sustainable and forward-looking policy on migration, the supply-chain of border technologies, functions and infrastructures must be acknowledged. The same is the case for the way in which it features in the processes of multileveled EU border governance, and how commercial actors are positioned and positioning themselves on a profitable market for EU border control that is worth billions of euro. This perspective on border control challenges standard assumptions which privilege the territorial unit of the nation-state, or the stated self-image of the EU as a supranational area of freedom, security and justice.
http://admigov.eu/upload/Deliverable_D13_Lemberg-Pedersen_The_Political_Economy_of_Entry_Governance.pdf, mei20

Raad van Europa Expert Council on NGO Law: New Guidelines on Protecting NGO Work in Support of Refugees and Other Migrants

These guidelines state that laws, policies, and practices should not prohibit or prevent NGOs from helping refugees or other migrants in distress at sea or on land; monitoring the treatment of refugees at border crossings or reception centres; providing food, shelter, medical treatment or legal advice to those in need. Moreover, NGOs should not be prevented from submitting or initiating proceedings under national or international mechanisms with respect to the rights and treatment of refugees.

The guidelines also outlined good practice, suggesting that policies should allow for NGOs to monitor the treatment of refugees, including cases where individuals are deprived of their liberty; facilitate NGOs to provide legal advice and assistance to refugees; and ensure NGO staff and members are protected from harassment, intimidation, and threats of prosecution as a result of assistance that they may have provided.

https://www.coe.int/en/web/ingo/newsroom/-/asset_publisher/BR9aikJBXnwX/content/new-guidelines-on-protecting-ngo-work-in-support-of-refugees-and-other-migrants, 4.5.20
Zie ook: https://rm.coe.int/expert-council-conf-exp-2019-1-criminal-law-ngo-restrictions-migration/1680996969, dec19

Statements on Immigration Detention during pandemic

UN Migration Network Working Group on Alternatives to Immigration Detention : What Can Governments and Other Stakeholders Do?

This document seeks to help States and other stakeholders to operationalize Objective 13 of the Global Compact for Migration, where governments reaffirmed the commitment “to prioritize non-custodial alternatives to detention that are in line with international law, and to take a human rights-based approach to any detention of migrants, using detention as a measure of last resort only.” This involves, among other things, “reduc[ing] the negative and potentially lasting effects of detention on migrants by guaranteeing due process and proportionality, that it is for the shortest period of time, [and] that it safeguards physical and mental integrity”; “provid[ing] access to justice for all migrants who are or may be subject to detention, as well as access to information and the right to regular review of a detention order”; and “protect[ing] and respect[ing] the rights and best interests of the child at all times, regardless of migration status, by ensuring availability and accessibility of a viable range of alternatives to detention in non-custodial contexts, favoring community-based care arrangements that ensure access to education and health care and respect the right to family life and family unity, and by working to end the practice of child detention in the context of international migration.”

https://migrationnetwork.un.org/sites/default/files/docs/un_network_on_migration_wg_atd_policy_brief_covid-19_and_immigration_detention_0.pdf, 6.5.20

PICUM: Implementing Case Management Based Alternatives to Detention in Europe

This briefing:

  • Provides guidance for governments and civil society organisations interested in seizing the opportunity to develop pilot case management-based alternatives designed for their own context
  • Presents growing evidence on the effectiveness and advantages of case management as an innovative alternative to migration detention
  • Collects examples, good practices and lessons learned from existing pilots across Europe

https://picum.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Conept-Paper-on-Case-Management_ENg.pdf, mrt20

Nieuwsbrief 9, 2020

Informatie in diverse talen over corona-maatregelen

De Rijksoverheid ontwikkelde posters in het Arabisch, Engels, Papiamento, Papiamentu, Pools, Spaans en Turks over de maatregelen en adviezen om verspreiding van Corona te voorkomen.

Op de website van het Rode Kruis vind je flyers over het Coronavirus met informatie in het Arabisch, Engels, Portugees, Turks en Nederlands over algemene voorzorgsmaatregelen. Filmpjes over Corona in diverse talen.

GGD Noord Oost Gelderland heeft korte filmpjes gemaakt. Een gezondheidsbevorderaar geeft, samen met een tolk/sleutelpersoon, informatie en adviezen in de volgende talen: Arabisch, Berbers, Engels, Farsi, Frans, Koerdisch/Kurmanji, Pools, Roemeens, Somalisch, Tigrinya en Turks.

ECRE :   list of measures related to asylum and migration in response to the corona crisis

https://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/COVID-INFO-23-April.pdf, 23.4.20

GREVIO: Istanbul Conventie en COVID-19

We are pleased to announce the launch of a dedicated resource page on information on national measures taken to prevent and combat domestic, sexual and gender-based violence, and to mitigate the impact of the COVID 19 pandemic on equality between women and men.

https://www.coe.int/en/web/genderequality/women-s-rights-and-covid-19, 24.4.20

WODC: Biometrics in the aliens' identity chain - A literature study

This literature study focuses exclusively on the role of biometric data in the aliens’ identity chain. At present the fingerprint is the single biometric mode automated for this purpose. It aimed at understanding the capabilities and limits of the fingerprint made in the current operational biometric process and to make an inventory of what is known about the possibilities to improve and/or combine the use of fingerprints and other biometric modes in a multimodal approach. Eventually, the purpose is to improve the verification of identity and identification processes in the aliens’ identity chain as applied by the Netherlands.

https://wodc.nl/binaries/2965_volledige_tekst_tcm28-442367.pdf, 15.4.20

Elżbieta M. Goździak, Izabella Main, Brigitte Suter: Europe and the Refugee Response: A Crisis of Values?

This book explores how the rising numbers of refugees entering Europe from 2015 onwards played into fears of cultural, religious, and ethnic differences across the continent. In this volume, philosophers, legal scholars, anthropologists and sociologists discuss practical strategies to reconcile the values that underpin the European project with multiculturalism and religious pluralism, whilst at the same time safeguarding the rights of refugees to seek asylum.

Country case studies in the book are drawn from France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom; representing states with long histories of immigration, countries with a more recent refugee arrivals, and countries that want to keep refugees at bay and refuse to admit even the smallest number of asylum seekers. Contributors in the book explore the roles which national and local governments, civil society, and community leaders play in these debates and practices, and ask what strategies are being used to educate refugees about European values, and to facilitate their integration."

https://www.routledge.com/Europe-and-the-Refugee-Response-Open-Access-A-Crisis-of-Values-1st/Gozdziak-Main-Suter/p/book/9780367233266, feb20

Donatella Di Cesare: Resident Foreigners  -  A Philosophy of Migration

From the shores of Europe to the Mexican-US border, mass migration is one of the most pressing issues we face today. Yet at the same time, calls to defend national sovereignty are becoming ever more vitriolic, with those fleeing war, persecution, and famine vilified as a threat to our security as well as our social and economic order. In this book, written amidst the dark resurgence of appeals to defend 'blood and soil', Donatella Di Cesare challenges the idea of the exclusionary state, arguing that migration is a fundamental human right. She develops an original philosophy of migration that places the migrants themselves, rather than states and their borders, at the centre.

Through an analysis of three historic cities, Athens, Rome and Jerusalem, Di Cesare shows how we should conceive of migrants not as an other but rather as resident foreigners. This means recognising that citizenship cannot be based on any supposed connection to the land or an exclusive claim to ownership that would deny the rights of those who arrive as migrants. Instead, citizenship must be disconnected from the possession of territory altogether and founded on the principle of cohabitation - and on the ultimate reality that we are all temporary guests and tenants of the earth.

https://www.wiley.com/en-us/Resident+Foreigners%3A+A+Philosophy+of+Migration-p-9781509533572, mrt20

Häberli-Nef, Ursula : Ausgeliefert - Macht und Ohnmacht in der Flüchtlingskrise

Ausgeliefert – so müssen sich Ariam und Dawit hier fühlen, vermutet Katharina Schneider. Sie ist Freiwilligenhelferin und begleitet das geflüchtete Liebespaar aus Eritrea. Vor, während und nach der Flucht begegnen dem Paar immer wieder Situationen der Ohnmacht und Hilflosigkeit.
In Kriegen, bei Repressionen, durch Paragraphen, Schlepperorganisationen, Willkür durch Ämter oder eine restriktive Flüchtlingspolitik: Geflüchtete sind vielen Mechanismen ausgeliefert, und sich in der neuen Heimat zu integrieren ist schwierig. Katharina will den beiden helfen. Sie recherchiert über die Macht und Ohnmacht auf beiden Seiten und betrachtet die Hintergründe der Flüchtlingskrise.

https://www.lesejury.de/ursula-haeberli-nef/buecher/ausgeliefert/9783863170431, 15.4.20

Jaarcijfers IND 2019


Ambtsbericht Somalie 31.3.20


EMN: Vermiste alleenstaande minderjarige asielzoekers in Europa

Nederland gebruikt, zoals de meeste EU-lidstaten, bij vermissing van een alleenstaande minderjarige asielzoekers dezelfde procedures als bij de vermissing van andere kinderen. Het Centraal Orgaan opvang asielzoekers (COA) en voogdijinstelling Nidos maakten met de politie aanvullende afspraken over het melden van vermissingen.

In Nederland houden zowel COA, Nidos als de politie gegevens bij over vermiste minderjarigen. Van 2015 tot en met 2018 verdwenen  1.750 minderjarigen uit de Nederlandse asielopvang. Het grootste deel (88%) was jongen en 15-17 jaar oud (75%). Ongeveer de helft verdween vóór een beslissing op hun asielverzoek was genomen. Van het grootste deel van de vermisten kon worden achterhaald dat ze voor hun komst naar Nederland in een andere EU-lidstaat verbleven. 

How do EU Member States treat cases of missing unaccompanied minors? (pdf), apr20

Valsamis Mitsilegas, Violeta Moreno-Lax and Niovi Vavoula: Deflection, Criminalisation and Challenges for Human Rights

Since the past few years, the considerable influx of refugees to the EU has led to a profound reconceptualisation of its immigration control strategy, with emphasis on the co-option of new partners, such as the private sector or third countries, and the prevention of movement through extraterritorial controls. The externalisation of immigration control has also been increasingly linked with the securitisation and criminalisation of asylum, particularly in the form of tackling human smuggling to which those in need usually resort to.

This edited volume that comprises of contributions by both legal scholars and practitioners, provides a multi-faceted overview of these legal responses and examines their implications from a human rights and rule of law perspective.

https://brill.com/view/title/54698, 20.4.20

Nieuwsbrief 8, 2020

Elizabeth F Cohen: Illegal : How America's Lawless Immigration Regime Threatens Us All

A political scientist explains how the American immigration system ran off the rails -- and proposes a bold plan for reform Under the Trump administration, US immigration agencies terrorize the undocumented, target people who are here legally, and even threaten the constitutional rights of American citizens. How did we get to this point? In Illegal, Elizabeth F. Cohen reveals that our current crisis has roots in early twentieth century white nationalist politics, which began to reemerge in the 1980s. Since then, ICE and CBP have acquired bigger budgets and more power than any other law enforcement agency. Now, Trump has unleashed them. If we want to reverse the rising tide of abuse, Cohen argues that we must act quickly to rein in the powers of the current immigration regime and revive saner approaches based on existing law. Going beyond the headlines, Illegal makes clear that if we don't act now all of us, citizen and not, are at risk.

https://www.basicbooks.com/titles/elizabeth-f-cohen/illegal/9781541699854/, 28.1.20

ISI: World's Stateless Report: Deprivation of Nationality

In this era of rising authoritarianism, growth of the security state, increasing populism, xenophobia and racism, citizenship is under threat in ways not seen for generations. As more states instrumentalise nationality and treat it as a privilege that can be taken away, members of minority communities, human rights defenders, dissidents and suspected terrorists are all more likely to be stripped of their nationality – facing acute human rights deprivations as a result. The growing (mis)use of citizenship stripping powers to target some, undermines the sanctity of citizenship for all.

The World's Stateless 2020 explores the issue of citizenship deprivation. Various experts and organisations have contributed material – essays, interviews, reflections and more – collectively forming a truly interdisciplinary view on the subject. The report also includes the Principles on Deprivation of Nationality as a National Security Measure. As with every edition, the report also offers an overview of the state of statelessness globally in 2020.

https://files.institutesi.org/WORLD's_STATELESS_2020.pdf, mrt20

FRA: Children in migration in 2019

In a year that marked 30 years of the United Nation’s child rights convention, 2019 saw many migrant children in the EU with their rights under threat. The latest report from the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights draws attention to the plight of migrant children as they enter and stay in the EU or return to their home countries.

https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2020/migrant-children, 30.3.20

EASO Guidance on the Dublin procedure: operational standards and indicators

The Dublin system sets up clear and mainstream procedural practice. However, given the differences in national legislation and organisational setups, diverse national practices exist when applying the regulation. The implementation of the Dublin procedure varies across Member States, causing a number of challenges. It is in this context that this guidance has been developed.

This guidance therefore aims to help Member States with operationalising the existing legal provisions in applying them in a harmonised way. It is not the intention of this guidance to give an overview of the implementation of the Dublin system in the European Union and associated countries (EU+).

https://www.easo.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EASO-Guidance-Dublin-procedure-EN.pdf, feb20

EMN: Ad-hoconderzoek: Controle van brondocumenten

Welke brondocumenten moeten migranten aanleveren voor de aanvraag van een verblijfsvergunning in een EU-lidstaat? Hoe controleren lidstaten de inhoud van deze documenten?

EMN: Terugkeer van reguliere migranten van buiten de EU

Procedures van EU-lidstaten voor de terugkeer van reguliere migranten naar herkomstlanden. Hoe gaan lidstaten om met reguliere migranten, van wie de verblijfsvergunning wordt ingetrokken of niet meer vernieuwd?

Ad-hoconderzoek: Terugkeer van reguliere migranten van buiten de EU , 24.3.20

Nieuwsbrief 7, 2020

Karla Cornejo Villavicencio: The Undocumented Americans

The author was one of the first undocumented students to be accepted into Harvard University and is now a Ph.D. candidate at Yale. Her parents brought her to the United States illegally from Ecuador when she was 5. In her captivating and evocative first book, “The Undocumented Americans,” Villavicencio aims to tell “the full story” of what it means to be undocumented in America, in all of its fraughtness and complexity, challenging the usual good and evil categories through a series of memoir-infused reported essays. In doing so, she reveals how her subjects, including her own family members, struggle with vices like adultery and self-harm, even while doing backbreaking, demeaning work to support their families. Writing honestly about one of the most politicized groups in the country, she says, “requires you to be a little bit crazy. And you certainly cannot be enamored by America, not still. That disqualifies you.”

“Many of us are indigenous in part or whole and do not believe borders should exist,” Villavicencio writes. “I personally subscribe to Dr. King’s definition of an unjust law as being ‘out of harmony with the moral law.’ And the higher moral law here is that people have a human right to move, to change location, if they experience hunger, poverty, violence, or lack of opportunity, especially if that climate in their home countries is created by the United States, as is the case with most third world countries from which people migrate. Ain’t that ’bout a bitch.”

https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/558229/the-undocumented-americans-by-karla-cornejo-villavicencio/, mrt20

Amnesty: Punishing compassion: Solidarity on trial in Fortress Europe

According to Amnesty International, "European countries are misusing immigration and counterterrorism laws to punish civil society organizations and private citizens who are trying to help asylum seekers”. “Those who have helped migrants by handing out warm clothes, offering shelter and saving lives at sea have been subjected to "unfounded criminal proceedings, undue restrictions of their activities, intimidation, harassment and smear campaigns" in multiple EU countries, Amnesty said.

Amnesty recorded cases of restriction and criminalization of assistance to migrants in Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Spain, Switzerland and the U.K. These included incidents in which governments seized boats used by NGOs to rescue migrants at sea, and brought spying and terrorism-related charges against people suspected of helping migrants, such as the case of a Frenchman who faced trial for "facilitating irregular entry" into France after giving asylum seekers tea and clothing."

Punishing compassion: Solidarity on trial in Fortress Europe (pdf)

ACVZ : Oproep tot een duurzaam migratiebeleid

In deze notitie bespreekt de ACVZ een aantal onderwerpen die een belangrijke rol zullen spelen in de discussie over hoe het migratiebeleid er in de toekomst uit moet zien. De notitie is gericht aan de programmacommissies van politieke partijen. De ACVZ hoopt dat de notitie hen ondersteunt bij het schrijven van de migratieparagraaf van hun verkiezingsprogramma. De onderwerpen betreffen arbeidsmigratie, asielmigratie, staatloosheid, terugkeer, inburgering en integratie en de onderbouwing van beleid (verzamelen en gebruiken van migratiedata). Daarnaast wordt een overzicht gegeven van migratie in cijfers. Per thema worden ontwikkelingen en aanknopingspunten voor beleid opgesomd. De thema's zijn gebaseerd op adviezen en rapporten die de ACVZ de afgelopen jaren heeft uitgebracht. Met deze publicatie wil de ACVZ een bijdrage leveren aan een onderbouwd debat over migratie.

https://www.adviescommissievoorvreemdelingenzaken.nl/publicaties/publicaties/2020/03/17/notitie-oproep-tot-een-duurzaam-migratiebeleid, 16.3.20

FMS: Migration: African Perspectives

Irregular migration of Africans into the EU is a humanitarian disaster because the routes people take are often dangerous. Many migrants have died whilst crossing the Mediterranean Sea or in the Sahara desert. In Libya, there are many examples of migrants detained in horrible detention camps. Moreover, living and working in Europe without papers often results in extreme poverty and increases risks of exploitation. Furthermore, it is a political problem for the EU. There is a lack of willingness to accept migrants and the burden is not equally shared by all EU countries.

When targeting the root causes of migration, it is crucial to know what these root causes are. Stakeholders in Ghana and Tunisia identified unemployment, high levels of corruption, no future prospects, and large inequalities in the world as key root causes for migration. EU policies do, to a certain extent, target these kinds of issues. But are they sufficient? This study shows that an effective EU strategy is lacking. Many resources serve different objectives, including the European wish to improve border management and control in African countries themselves, which has no effect whatsoever on alleviating the root causes of migration. We will argue that the resources that do go towards tackling root causes, such as unemployment and corruption, often lack sufficient scale to really make a difference. A long-term perspective is needed


IND-werkinstructie 2020/3 - Wet inburgering buitenland

Het basisexamen in het buitenland is bedoeld om gezinsmigranten een betere startpositie in Nederland te geven. De volgende onderwerpen komen in deze werkinstructie aan bod:
1. Wie moet het basisexamen inburgering doen?
2. Vrijstellingen, de ontheffingscategorie 'bijzondere individuele omstandigheden' en art. 4:84 Awb.
3. Geldigheidsduur examenuitslag (art. 3.71 a, eerste lid, Vb)
4. Bezwaar-, klachten- en restitutieprocedure basisexamen inburgering
De werkinstructie heeft twee bijlagen:
Bijlage 1 Overzicht tijdelijke verblijfsdoelen als bedoeld in de Wet inburgering
Bijlage 2 Toelichting medische omstandigheden
Geldig van 12 maart 2020 tot en met 12 september 2020.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2020-3.pdf, 12.3.20

SvJ&V: onderzoeken verdwijning (Vietnamese) AMV’s

Van de amv’s die met onbekende bestemming vertrekken, is de helft al weg voordat de beslissing van de Immigratie- en Naturalisatiedienst (IND) op de eerste asielaanvraag is genomen. Dat blijkt uit een interne data-analyse van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid naar alle amv’s met een registratie van vertrek met onbekende bestemming tussen 2015-2018 bij het COA of Nidos (de voogdij-instelling voor amv’s). Het merendeel van de onderzochte groep is tussen de 15 en 17 jaar oud (75%) en mannelijk (88%). Uit het onderzoek blijkt verder dat 64% al een keer eerder door een andere EU-lidstaat aangetroffen en geregistreerd is....

Vietnamese amv’s lijken, meer dan de andere onderzochte groep, ingesteld te zijn op doorreis en Nederland slechts als transitland te zien. Uit onderzoek van het Expertisecentrum Mensenhandel en Mensensmokkel (EMM) naar de verdwijning van Vietnamese amv’s blijkt dat deze jongeren vaak georganiseerd vertrekken. Deze signalen wijzen op mensensmokkel en mensenhandel, daarom worden Vietnamese amv’s standaard in de beschermde opvang geplaatst.

EMM: De vermissing van Vietnamese amv’s en de relatie van Vietnamezen met mensenhandel en mensensmokkel in Nederland (2015 tot en met 2018), 5.12.19
APM-Analyse: Alleenstaande minderjarige vreemdelingen die met onbekende bestemming vertrekken, 20.2.20
Bijlage 23.3.20

Ferreira, N., et al. : Governing protracted displacement: An analysis across global, regional and domestic contexts

This paper is an effort to make sense of the legislative and policy frameworks of protection that apply globally, regionally and domestically, and the way in which these frameworks facilitate or hinder solutions for people in protracted displacement. We evaluate how these frameworks contribute (directly or indirectly) to resolving or creating protracted displacement, assess how they contribute to relevant policy developments and identify engagement trends and (unintended) effects. Along the way, we also draw comparative insights across different global, regional and domestic levels, including eight different countries that host large groups of displaced people and are the focus of the TRAFIG project: Greece, Germany and Italy in Europe; Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Tanzania in Africa; and Jordan and Pakistan in Asia.

We explore some selected gaps in the current systems of governance of displacement, while concentrating on three key perspectives: governing protection, exercising rights and accessing services, and mobility and transnational dimensions of displacement. We conclude with ten key messages regarding the shortcomings of the current governance system of displacement. They highlight the need for stronger stakeholder collaboration, integration of global and local policies, enhanced focus on IDPs, investment in progressive regional policies, redesign of EU policies to avoid promotion of protracted displacement, greater ownership of processes and resources, de-politicisation of displacement policies, alignment of durable solutions with development-oriented interventions, realisation of the development potential of refugee integration. They also focus on mobility and translocal connectivity as a fourth durable solution to protracted displacement.

https://trafig.eu/output/working-papers/trafig-working-paper-no-3/D031-TWP-Governing-Protracted-Displacement-Ferreira-et-al-2020-v02p-2020-02-03.pdf, 3.2.20

Valsamis Mitsilegas, Violeta Moreno-Lax and Niovi Vavoula (ed): Securitising Asylum Flows - Deflection, Criminalisation and Challenges for Human Rights

Since the past few years, the considerable influx of refugees to the EU has led to a profound reconceptualisation of its immigration control strategy, with emphasis on the co-option of new partners, such as the private sector or third countries, and the prevention of movement through extraterritorial controls. The externalisation of immigration control has also been increasingly linked with the securitisation and criminalisation of asylum, particularly in the form of tackling human smuggling to which those in need usually resort to. This edited volume that comprises of contributions by both legal scholars and practitioners, provides a multi-faceted overview of these legal responses and examines their implications from a human rights and rule of law

https://brill.com/view/title/54698, 19.3.20

FRA: Fundamental rights of refugees, asylum applicants and migrants at European Borders

The note provides a summary of safeguards stipulated by European law as they apply at the EU's external borders, bearing in mind that relevant CoE instruments apply to all borders. It reiterates that while Council of Europe and European Union Member States have an undeniable sovereign right to control the entry of non-nationals into their territory, states have a duty to protect the fundamental rights of all people under their jurisdiction, regardless of their nationality and/or legal status. Under EU law, this includes providing access to asylum procedures.

Safeguards covered by the note include, inter alia: access to asylum procedures; the principle of non-refoulement; collective expulsion; and protection for vulnerable persons, including unaccompanied and separated children. It also provides an overview of legal principles in relation to the use of special measures in the event of a pandemic.

https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2020/fundamental-rights-refugees-asylum-applicants-and-migrants-european-borders, 27.3.20

Ellebrecht, Sabrina: Mediated Bordering - Eurosur, the Refugee Boat, and the Construction of an External EU Border

The external border of the EU remains under permanent construction. Sabrina Ellebrecht engages with two of its primary building sites - the European Border Surveillance System (Eurosur) and the Refugee Boat. She analyzes how the function and quality of the EU's current political border is crafted, shaped, produced and eventually stabilized through these two mediators. Eurosur and the Refugee Boat catalyze and craft a level of Europeanization which has hitherto - and would otherwise have - been impossible. While Eurosur mobilizes the limits of border policing in various ways, the Refugee Boat functions as the vacillating European Other to legitimize both control and humanitarian interventions. The study shows the specific, if not constitutive, ambivalences of EU border policies, and explores the emergence of 'viapolitics'.

https://www.degruyter.com/view/product/526276?format=EBOK, mrt20

J. Johanson : A reflection of the state of child immigration detention in the European Union

An analysis of children’s position in immigration detention, mainly in the EU, with additional approaches from the international human rights law perspectives. As detention of children is not prohibited by the EU law, the laws regulating detention and its conditions should be explicit in order assure children the protection they are entitled to. However, migrant children are often treated as migrants rather than children, while ignoring their vulnerability and best interests. In this thesis, it is argued that the combination of the lack of quality and certainty in domestic laws and their incorrect application results in violation children’s rights, regardless of the protection provided by the international law treaties. Moreover, the inconsistencies in the EU law and the European Convention on Human Rights (the ECHR or the Convention) result in the lack of fundamental rights' protection. In addition, conditions of detention centers are of crucial importance as a variety of factors, such as access to education, medical and legal assistance, but also food and shelter in general, play an important role in a child’s further development. This thesis concludes that while detention still occurs, a lot can be improved by better implementation and application of the laws and seeing children for who they really are – vulnerable young individuals caught in the crossroads of migration.

www.ubvu.vu.nl/pub/index_oclc.cfm?SearchObjectId=8&objectid=109&ordering=3&openitem=193904, feb20

B.Carrot: Alle dagen ui

Als Saied na drie jaar van omzwervingen besluit asiel aan te vragen in Nederland, belandt hij in detentiecentrum Schiphol. Het mensonterende gevangenisregime en de vernederingen door sommige bewakers, staan in schril contrast tot de hulp die Saied verwacht had te krijgen. Maar hij is niet het ene onrechtmatige regime ontvlucht om zich het andere te laten welgevallen. Op slinkse wijze weet Saied de huisregels te bemachtigen waarmee hij kan controleren of het personeel zich aan de regels houdt. Doen ze dat niet dan dient hij een officiële klacht in. Dit tot grote ergernis van de staf.
Wie asiel aanvraagt bij de marechaussee op Schiphol komt terecht in uitzetcentrum Schiphol. Een eufemistische naam voor een gevangenis met beperkte faciliteiten, slechte medische zorg en minimaal contact met de buitenwereld. Een misstand waar zowel Amnesty International als Stichting Vluchtelingenwerk zich in het verleden openlijk druk over hebben gemaakt. Saied zat er meer dan een jaar, zonder ooit te weten hoelang hij nog te gaan had.

http://www.soulfoodcomics.nl/nieuws/alle-dagen-ui, feb20

Nieuwsbrief 6, 2020

Tara Fiorito: Promotie ‘Dreamers’ en hun politieke successen

Rond 2010 kwamen ongedocumenteerde jongeren in Amerika in opstand, wierpen het stigma van de illegaliteit van zich af en presenteerden zich op het publieke toneel als ‘ongedocumenteerd en onbevreesd’. Sindsdien staan zij bekend als de Dreamers, vanwege hun politieke campagnes voor de federale Development Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act. Deze immigratiewet behelst het verkrijgen van bepaalde burgerschapsrechten voor ongeveer 800.000 ongedocumenteerde jongeren die als kind met hun ouders ongeautoriseerd de VS binnenkwamen en daar opgroeiden en naar school gingen. Tegenwoordig is de term Dreamers niet meer weg te denken uit het politieke en publieke debat. Zo worden de Dreamers besproken in de Amerikaanse politiek, in mainstream media, bij de Oscaruitreiking en zelfs op het Nederlandse journaal. Tara Fiorito onderzoekt het politieke succes van de ongedocumenteerde jongerenbeweging in Los Angeles.

Download de samenvatting (pdf, 11 p.)

NIDI: Verkenning Bevolking 2050 Inventarisatie van toekomstverkenningen, Achtergronddocument

Dit rapport bevat een overzicht van recent gepubliceerde toekomstverkenningen op het gebied van bevolking, fysieke omgeving (wonen, mobiliteit, energie), onderwijs en opleiding, economie en arbeidsmarkt, het sociale en culturele domein en gezondheid en zorg. Daarbij is voornamelijk naar verkenningen voor Nederland als geheel gekeken, en niet zozeer naar studies die alleen op een specifieke regio of gemeente betrekking hebben.

https://nidi.nl/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Verkenning-bevolking-2050-achtergronddocument.pdf, nov19

PBS: Verkenning bevolking 2050 Zekerheden en onzekerheden over de gevolgen van veranderingen in de bevolking  - Voortgangsrapportage

De Tweede Kamer heeft gevraagd om de gevolgen van veranderingen in de omvang en samenstelling van de bevolking halverwege deze eeuw in kaart te brengen. De regering heeft aan het NIDI (coördinatie), CBS, CPB, PBL, RIVM en SCP gevraagd om dit onderzoek uit te voeren. Dit onderzoek, dat wordt uitgevoerd onder de naam Verkenning Bevolking 2050, bestaat uit twee fasen. De eerste fase wordt afgesloten met dit rapport. Het bestaat uit een inventarisatie van bestaande toekomstverkenningen en een ontwerp van nieuwe bevolkingsvarianten die mogelijke ontwikkelingen in de omvang en samenstelling van de bevolking schetsen. In de tweede fase worden de demografische varianten berekend en de mogelijke maatschappelijke gevolgen ervan verkend. • https://www.pbl.nl/sites/default/files/downloads/pbl-2019-verkenning-bevolking-2050-zekerheden-en-onzekerheden-over-de-gevolgen-van-veranderingen-in-de-bevolking-voortgangsrapportage-3974.pdf, nov19

The New Humanitarian: Migration

More people are on the move than at any time for several decades, many of them fleeing conflict or the effects of climate change. The New Humanitarian tells their stories and documents the world’s changing responses to migration and refugees.

https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/migration, mrt20

RvE: 'Gender-based asylum claims and non-refoulement: Articles 60 and 61 of the Istanbul Convention'

The study aims to support the implementation of Articles 60 and 61 of the Istanbul Convention by providing policy makers and border and immigration officials with practical advice, information and examples of forms of gender-based violence that may be recognized as persecution. The study also identifies how the gendered dimensions and protection needs of women seeking international protection have been largely overlooked, leaving significant gaps in protection.

The paper also discusses the additional protection of non-refoulement principle, and concludes with a summary of requirements of provisions affecting asylum seeking and refugee women. These requirements include, inter alia, the need to ensure: that gender-based violence is recognized as a form of persecution; consideration is given to an applicant's personal circumstances; a gendered understanding is used when assessing the grounds for granting international protection status.

https://rm.coe.int/conventionistanbularticle60-61-web/1680995244, 10.2.20

AIDA: Updated Country Report on Hungary

Detention remains a frequent practice, rather than an exceptional measure in Hungary. The report notes that majority of the people seeking international protection are being held in the Röszke and Tompa transit zones. Moreover, it describes litigation on the issue, including cases brought before the ECtHR, as well as reports and statements by the UN bodies, the CoE and the EC concerning the deprivation of asylum seekers' freedom of movement in the transit zones.
The report notes that 2019 was further characterized by a very low international protection recognition rate (rejection rate is 91.5%) and extremely lengthy asylum procedures. For those who have obtained international protection status in Hungary, the circumstances remain dire. Since in 2016 the Hungarian state has completely withdrawn integration services provided to beneficiaries of international protection, they are often left in a position of destitution. Only non-governmental and church-based organisations provide the needed services aimed at integration such as housing, assistance with finding an employment, learning Hungarian language or family reunification.

http://asylumineurope.org/reports/country/hungary, 12.3.20


  • Afghanistan: Access to Psychiatric Care (AFG2019-25) - ENG
  • Georgia: Access to treatment of multiple development disorders (CIS2020-01) - ENG
  • Albania: Do family members of the LGBTI community in Albania face discrimination, harassment, and/or persecution, at school and/or in the family? (GLO2019-42) - ENG
  • Morocco: Forced Marriage in Law and Practice (MEN2019-19)- ENG
  • Syria: Documentation of Stateless Palestinians (MEN2020-01) - ENG

AIDA 2019 Update: Bulgaria

In 2019, the national border monitoring registered 337 alleged pushback incidents affecting 5,640 individuals. Those who are able to access Bulgaria often transit through and exit the country without being registered by the authorities seeking to avoid any responsibility under the Dublin Regulation or under readmission arrangements. As a result, the official statistics on new arrivals are at the lowest since the first influx in 2013. During most of 2019 and at the time of writing, the national reception centres operated around or below 10% of their capacity.

The recognition rate of asylum applicants remained much lower compared to other European countries, namely 11% for the refugee status and 19% for the subsidiary protection status.

Although there is no systematic review of protection status in practice, cessation procedures initiated by the SAR when the MOI provides information indicating that status holders have either returned to their country of origin, obtained residence or citizenship in a third country, or have not renewed their Bulgarian identification documents for a period exceeding 3 years. The latter broadened interpretation of the recast Qualification Directive de facto introduces an additional cessation ground in violation of national and EU legislation. The undue cessation of protection status affected a total of 3,378 status holders in 2018 and 2019; i.e. 770 persons in 2018 and 2,608 persons in 2019 respectively. Out of the 2,608 cessations in 2019, 1,981 concerned Syrians, 267 concerned stateless persons, 177 Iraqis, 81 Afghans and 102 other nationalities).

No integration activities are planned, funded or made available to recognised refugees or subsidiary protection holders; thus marking the sixth consecutive year of the national “zero integration” policy.

https://www.asylumineurope.org/reports/country/bulgaria, 21.2.20

BCHR: Report on the Right to Asylum in Serbia 2019

According to the report, despite a solid legal framework in place, the lack of effective coordination and systematic solutions from state authorities means that: “legal gaps and inconsistent enforcement of the existing legislation impede the exercise of both the right to asylum and many other refugee rights…”.As a result, refugees and asylum seekers depend to a large extent on NGO assistance.

The practises of competent authorities, the combination of strict deadlines and slow processing, inadequate information and translation, and inability of applicants to launch applications on their own initiative in some cases prevent people wishing to seek protection in Serbia from accessing the asylum procedures.

The Republic of Serbia (RS) remains a country of transit. The UNHCR estimates that RS saw 30,2016 arrivals during 2019. 12,937 registrations of intent to seek asylum, which is the first step of entering the asylum procedures, were recorded in 2019 with only 252 people actually submitting an asylum application. This number of registrations include people using the registration certificate to temporarily regulate their legal status before travelling on.

The report includes a set of recommendations on all identified challenges to relevant authorities.

https://www.ecre.org/serbia-report-on-the-right-to-asylum-in-2019/, 6.3.20

Refugee International, Seeking Asylum in Greece: Women and unaccompanied children struggle to survive

The Greek government continues to implement a “containment” policy that forces incoming asylum seekers to remain on the islands until they go through their asylum procedures. While there, they lack adequate access to essential services and often even the most rudimentary accommodations.  

These conditions create enormous protection risks for asylum seekers, especially for women, girls, and unaccompanied children (UAC).[1] Women and girls are at heightened risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), and UAC are at risk of being trafficked and exposed to other forms of exploitation, yet there are not enough trained law enforcement officers at the reception centers to ensure the security of these vulnerable groups.

Furthermore, there is a severe shortage of social service providers, such as doctors, psychologists, and social workers, as well as interpreters. The situation for asylum seekers on the islands of Lesvos, Chios, and Samos is particularly stark. Massive overcrowding, deteriorating conditions, and a backlog of asylum cases endanger asylum seekers’ well-being and safety.

https://www.refugeesinternational.org/reports/2020/2/21/seeking-asylum-greece-women-unaccompanied-children-struggle-survive, feb20

CBS: Internationale kenniswerkers: Nederland in vergelijking met 13 andere Europese landen

In opdracht van het ministerie van EZK heeft het CBS enquêteonderzoek uitgevoerd naar de aantrekkelijkheid van Nederland voor kennismigranten in vergelijking met 13 andere Europese landen. Belangrijkste conclusies:

Het aandeel internationale kenniswerkers in de beroepsbevolking is in Nederland relatief klein. Ook de toename van internationale kenniswerkers in de periode 2016 t/m 2018 t.o.v. 2003 t/m 2005 was relatief klein. Zowel in 2003-2005 als in 2016-2018 had gemiddeld 70% van de internationale kenniswerkers in Nederland werk met een hoog beroepsniveau. Nederland kent relatief veel internationale kenniswerkers van buiten Europa (o.a. Nederlandse Antillen en Suriname) en relatief weinig van binnen Europa.

Het percentage internationale kenniswerkers in de sector nijverheid is relatief laag in Nederland. Alleen in Luxemburg is dat percentage in 2016-2018 nog lager. In Nederland zijn van de vier onderscheiden sectoren, net als bij de meeste andere landen, de meeste internationale kenniswerkers te vinden in de quartaire sector (incl. cultuur, recreatie en 'overig'), en vervolgens de dienstensector. Bij de internationale kenniswerkers in Nederland zijn de 'sociale wetenschappen en bedrijfskunde' de meeste populaire opleidingsrichtingen (41% in 2016-2018). Dat geldt voor alle geselecteerde landen, maar Nederland hoort hierbij tot de top 3. Het aandeel Nederlandse internationale kenniswerkers dat een opleiding heeft gevolgd in de 'techniek, industrie en bouwkunde' is relatief laag t.o.v. de andere geselecteerde landen (11% in 2016-2018). In Duitsland, Oostenrijk, Noorwegen en Zweden ligt dit aandeel twee keer zo hoog.
https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2020/07/in-vergelijking-met-eu-landen-relatief-weinig-internationale-kenniswerkers, 10.2.20

Amnesty international Europe: Punishing Compassion: Solidarity On Trial In Fortress Europe

This report shows that national authorities, within the framework of agreed EU migration and asylum policies, have on multiple occasions deliberately misused migration laws and policies and other measures to crack down on human rights defenders of people on the move. Measures purportedly used to combat smuggling fail to meet the threshold of necessity, legality, and proportionality, leading to undue interferences with the right to defend human rights.

Amnesty International urges European leaders at the EU and national levels to stop undermining and criminalizing human rights defenders. The criminal cases against the HRDs featured in this report should be dropped or dismissed. It is also urgent that the Facilitators’ Package and national laws on the facilitation of irregular entry, transit and stay are amended to prevent them from being misused to punish acts of solidarity and humanity. In addition, Amnesty International calls on governments and EU institutions to take all appropriate measures to ensure that the UN Declaration on Human Rights Defenders is fully implemented within Europe to provide a safe and enabling environment for human rights defendershttps://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/EUR0118282020ENGLISH.PDF, mrt20

Izabella Majcher, Michael Flynn, Mariette Grange: Immigration Detention in the EU: In the Shadow of the "Crisis"

The book offers a unique comparative assessment of the evolution of immigration detention systems in European Union member states since the onset of the “refugee crisis.” By applying an analytical framework premised on international human rights law in assessing domestic detention regimes, the book reveals the extent to which EU legislation has led to the adoption of laws and practices that may disregard fundamental rights and standards. While emphasizing policies and laws adopted in response to the “refugee crisis,” the volume also shows how these policies have evolved—and in many cases grown more restrictive—even as the “crisis” has begun to recede from the borders of many European countries. To sharpen awareness of contrasting developments across the region, the book’s country chapters are organised into geographic sections that reveal how variations in migration pressures have in some cases resulted in contrasting detention practices even as the EU directives have sought to harmonise immigration laws. A critical focus of the book are the evolving domestic norms related to grounds for detention, length of detention, non-custodial “alternatives to detention,” the treatment of children, and conditions of detention. With its systematic and comparative assessment of immigration detention regimes across the EU, the book will be helpful for both academics and practitioners who seek a comprehensive guide to the evolution of one of today’s more important human rights dilemmas—states’ efforts to control global migration.

https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/immigration-detention-in-the-european-union-in-the-shadow-of-the-crisis, 5.3.20

Nieuwsbrief 5, 2020

Kevin Escudero: Organizing While Undocumented : Immigrant Youth's Political Activism under the Law

Undocumented immigrants in the United States who engage in social activism do so at great risk: the threat of deportation. In Organizing While Undocumented, Kevin Escudero shows why and how-despite this risk-many of them bravely continue to fight on the front lines for their rights.
Drawing on more than five years of research, including interviews with undocumented youth organizers, Escudero focuses on the movement's epicenters-San Francisco, Chicago, and New York City-to explain the impressive political success of the undocumented immigrant community. He shows how their identities as undocumented immigrants, but also as queer individuals, people of color, and women, connect their efforts to broader social justice struggles today.

https://www.amazon.com/Organizing-While-Undocumented-Immigrant-Political/dp/1479803197, 3.3.20

Suketu Mehta : Manifest van een immigrant

Volgens Mehta wordt het Westen niet bedreigd door immigranten, maar door de angst voor hen. Daarom hebben we volgens hem een nieuw narratief nodig rondom migratie. Mehta stelt dat migranten zowel bijdragen aan de plek waar zij aankomen, als aan de plek die zij verlaten.

https://www.libris.nl/boek/?authortitle=suketu-mehta/manifest-van-een-immigrant--9789045031101, sept19

Solvig Ekblad: Ethical Aspects of Psychotherapy in Forced Migrants

For the time being, the international literature lacks examples of elaborated ethical guidelines for cross-cultural psychotherapy. We require an ethical code for psychotherapy, which is based on the five general ethical principles (beneficence and non-maleficence, fidelity and responsibility, integrity, justice, and respect for people’s rights and dignity) that to discard the human rights of the other is to reject our own humanity.

The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of psychotherapeutic ethics towards forced migrants with traumatic life events and to increase understanding of how they are adversely affected by globalization, pre- and post-migration stress, and limited access to ethical psychotherapeutic interventions. A bio-psycho-social model that is based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and utilizes a humanist theoretical framework is recommended.

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-24082-0_14, sept19

EASO: Country of Origin Information Report Syria - Situation of women

The report analyses the situation of women in Syria, including the effects of armed conflict and the prevalence of gender-based violence by government forces. It also comments on the situation of women in areas under the control of non-state armed groups and provides useful information relevant for international protection status determination.
The report is the latest in the series on COI reports on Syria, following Security SituationSyria Actors, and the Exercise of Authority in Recaptured Areas.

https://coi.easo.europa.eu/administration/easo/PLib/02_2020_EASO_COI_Report_Syria_Situation_of_women.pdf, feb20

Europarlement Study: Dublin Regulation on international protection applications

The Dublin Regulation aims at determining which Member State is responsible for examining an asylum application and ensuring that each claim gets a fair examination in one Member State. In 2015, asylum application numbers increased considerably, putting a strain on the Common European Asylum System (CEAS). In this context, the procedures engendered by the application of the Regulation have been put to an unprecedented test. This study presents an analysis of the implementation of the various provisions of the Regulation. It shows many weaknesses in their current application. In particular, the initial aim of the Regulation (i.e. swift and fair access to asylum procedure in a single Member State) is not being achieved and the extent to which the rights of asylum-seekers are ensured is far from satisfactory.

https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2020/842813/EPRS_STU(2020)842813_EN.pdf, feb20

EMN: Actief beleid Nederland voor asielstatushouders die terugreizen naar landen van herkomst

Een asielstatushouder die tijdelijk teruggaat naar het herkomstland, of contact heeft met de betreffende autoriteiten, kan de asielstatus verliezen. Dat geldt in Nederland en andere lidstaten van de Europese Unie (EU), Noorwegen en Zwitserland. Nederland heeft voor het intrekken van een asielstatus meer ontwikkeld beleid dan andere lidstaten.

https://emnnetherlands.nl/onderzoeken/actief-beleid-nederland-voor-asielstatushouders-die-terugreizen-naar-landen-herkomst , 16.12.19

European Data Protection Supervisor:  Guide for exercising the right of access 

This Guide provides you with detailed information on your rights under the SIS II legal framework. It also lists all the competent authorities in the Member States and contains two model letters, one for the right of access and one for the right of correction or deletion.

Guide for exercising the right of access, 15.10.15

UNODC: Global study on smuggling of migrants 2018 : a checklist

This study shows that migrant smuggling routes affect every part of the world. It is based on an extensive review of existing data and literature. The study presents detailed information about key smuggling routes, such as the magnitude, the profiles of smugglers and smuggled migrants, the modus operandi of smugglers and the risks that smuggled migrants face. It shows that smugglers use land, air and sea routes - and combinations of those - in their quest to profit from people's desire to improve their lives. Smugglers also expose migrants to a range of risks; violence, theft, exploitation, sexual violence, kidnapping and even death along many routes

https://www.bookdepository.com/Global-study-on-smuggling-migrants-2018-United-Nations-Office-on-Drugs-Crime/9789211303506?ref=grid-view&qid=1582444356887&sr=1-26, 28.2.20

Díaz-Barriga and Dorsey: Fencing in Democracy, Border Walls, Necrocitizenship, Security State

Border walls permeate our world, with more than thirty nation-states constructing them. Anthropologists Margaret E. Dorsey and Miguel Díaz-Barriga argue that border wall construction manifests transformations in citizenship practices that are aimed not only at keeping migrants out but also at enmeshing citizens into a wider politics of exclusion. For a decade, the authors studied the U.S.-Mexico border wall constructed by the Department of Homeland Security and observed the political protests and legal challenges that residents mounted in opposition to the wall. In Fencing in Democracy Dorsey and Díaz-Barriga take us to those border communities most affected by the wall and often ignored in national discussions about border security to highlight how the state diminishes citizens' rights. That dynamic speaks to the citizenship experiences of border residents that is indicative of how walls imprison the populations they are built to protect.


Immigration Detention in the NetherlandsPrioritising Returns, in Europe and the Caribbean

The Netherlands places increasing numbers of foreigners—including asylum seekers, families, and children—in detention. The country's Caribbean territories—specifically, Aruba and Curaçao—have also ramped up their removal efforts in recent years as thousands of Venezuelans have sought refuge on the islands.

https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/countries/europe/netherlands, feb20

EMN: Vreemdelingenbewaring tijdens beroepsprocedures

Kan een asielzoeker, in afwachting van een beroepsprocedure na afwijzing van zijn asielaan-vraag, worden vastgehouden? Dit blijkt in de meeste EU-lidstaten (plus Noorwegen) het geval. 

http://emnnetherlands.nl/onderzoeken/ad-hoconderzoek-vreemdelingenbewaring-tijdens-een-beroepsprocedure, 21.1.20

RvE : Practical Guidance on Alternatives to Immigration Detention: Fostering Effective Results

This Guidance is based on the Council of Europe’s in-depth Analysis of legal and practical aspects of effective alternatives to detention in the context of migration, adopted in 2018. But its central focus is practical implementation. The handbook aims to help fill the implementation gap in relation to ATD by providing “concise and visual” user-friendly guidance to governments on how to develop alternatives that allow states to manage migration without over-reliance on detention.

Within this practical focus, a key innovation of the new guidance is that it looks at processes for developing alternatives to detention. Recognising the need for context-specific actions and tailor-made approaches, it sets out key questions and steps that are at the heart of a developing successful ATD. This includes questions for scoping national contexts and practical steps for governments to plan and test new programmes – manageable steps that governments could take to start moving away from detention. This is a welcome shift from the common focus on ‘examples’ of ATD, given that there are no one size fits all transferable models in this field.

https://rm.coe.int/practical-guidance-on-alternatives-to-immigration-detention-fostering-/16809687b1, juni19

PICUM: Non-Detention of Migrants: Some Facts and Figures

International and European law clearly states that detention may only be used as a last resort. In practice, this means that alternatives to detention must be in place, and that there must be an individual assessment of each case. The legal framework stipulates that detention should only be applied if there is no other effective measure, and for the shortest time possible.

Detention always has a harmful impact on individuals’ health and vulnerability. People with pre-existing vulnerabilities and children are disproportionately affected and should never be detained.

There is solid evidence that alternatives to detention based on case management and migrants’ engagement in migration procedures are more humane, effective and inclusive than detention.

Governments and civil society organisations should engage in the promotion of pilot projects targeted at the local context with a view to limit recourse to detention and increase case resolution.


ISI : "The Girl Who Lost her Country" 

This book tells the story of Neha, a girl from Nepal without a nationality, who travels the world to learn about the lives of different children and how they are impacted by statelessness. Along with the book, we created a website crammed with additional information, materials and activities on statelessness, developed to capture the imagination and interest of its primary intended audience – children. Also a teaching guide was created to expand the scope of the book.


Nieuwsbrief 4, 2020

Tendayi Bloom: Noncitizenism: Recognising Noncitizen Capabilities in a World of Citizens 1st Edition

Noncitizens have always been present in liberal political philosophy. Often hard to situate within traditional frameworks that prioritise citizenship, noncitizens can appear voice-less and rights-less, which has implications for efforts towards global justice and justice in migration. This book proposes an alternative and is aimed at students and scholars of political philosophy and those interested in noncitizenship and how it can inform the response of liberal theory, citizenship, global justice, migration studies, political theory and policy work.

https://www.routledge.com/Noncitizenism-Recognising-Noncitizen-Capabilities-in-a-World-of-Citizens/Bloom/p/book/9781138049185, nov17

ICMPD’s Ten Things to look out for in 2020

This report presents a brief analysis of migration and policy trends in the coming year and provides an outlook on developments and events to watch out for. While forecasting the future is not possible we use past experience to highlight what might happen and what is important to consider this year.

https://www.icmpd.org/fileadmin/ICMPD-Website/2019/Migration_Outlook_2020_FINAL_02.pdf, jan20
https://www.icmpd.org/fileadmin/ICMPD-Website/2019/ICMPD_Migration_Outlook_2020_WorkingPaper-FINAL.pdf, jan20

Doomernik and Gomes voor CEASEVAL: Report on the importance of the local level as a venue and political base for the CEAS; and Report containing the detailed models for a sustainable CEAS

To transform the CEAS into a sustainable and equitable common asylum and migration framework this report points towards three possible fundamental changes that might make the CEAS more sustainable and foster equity. First, for local and regional authorities (LRAs) to follow their local logic and needs one might suggest that they could benefit from direct EU funding and more autonomy from the Member States in the field of asylum and refugee integration policies. Second, this might include discretionary powers to grant some (limited) form of citizenship based on the notion of ‘jus domicile’ regardless of formal legal status. Third, it might considerably increase the odds of effective inclusion of refugees and thus reduce societal costs, if the EU were to have a refugee status valid for all its member states or the right for refugees to have their protection status transferred from one Member State to the other.

http://ceaseval.eu/publications/39_GomesDoomernikArdon_CEASlocallevel.pdf, aug19
http://ceaseval.eu/publications/40_GomesDoomernik_SustainableCEAS.pdf, sept19

EC: Immigration and trust in the EU - A territorial analysis of voting behaviour and attitudes

The importance of the residential environment in the relationship between electoral outcomes and the presence of immigrants. The case studies of Italy and the Netherlands show:

  • In the case of the EP election of 2019 in Italy, data at municipal level indicate that high shares of votes for parties favouring restrictive measures on migration are associated with low population density and low income rather than with the level and change of the share of migrants.
  • The analysis of the 2010 general elections in the Netherlands at the level of neighbourhoods confirms that economic and sociodemographic factors such as the age structure of the residing population, low education, and low income, explain the support for the local antiimmigration party better than the presence of migrants.
  • Both in the case of Italy and the Netherlands, when the local presence of migrants is considered together with local conditions and population density, its relationship with voting changes. More precisely, in areas that are relatively less populated or with lower levels of income, a positive and statistically significant association emerges between higher presence of migrants and voting for parties favouring restrictive measures on migration.

https://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC118855/immigration_and_trust_in_the_eu.pdf, feb20

EJO: How do the European media cover migration?

In the five years since the European refugee crisis began, controversies related to migration have deeply affected political landscapes across the EU, yet no “European solutions” have so far been found. A new study by the European Journalism Observatory (EJO) reveals that in each country, the media tell different stories about migrants and refugees. Clear differences in the quantity and quality of coverage can be discerned not only between Western and Central Eastern Europe, but even within Western Europe. The study also reveals a number of blind spots in the coverage of migration.

For this research project, a dozen EJO partners analyzed media coverage of migrants and refugees in 17 countries. The study is based on 2,417 articles published during six separate weeks selected between August 2015 and March 2018. It is the first international project to compare the coverage of migrants and refugees across so many different political systems, media systems and journalistic cultures. 

https://www.otto-brenner-stiftung.de/fileadmin/user_data/stiftung/02_Wissenschaftsportal/03_Publikationen/AP39_Migration_EN.pdf, 14.1.20



  • Arménie: Situation des membres de la communauté LGBTI (CIS2019-11)- FR
  • Burkina Faso: People's Movement for Progress (AFR2019-28) - ENG
  • Niger: Situation for Opposition Leaders (AFR2019-29) - ENG
  • DRC : Persecution of anti-Kabila Protesters (AFR2019-30) - ENG



Paolo Cuttitta and Tamara Last (ed): Border Deaths: Causes, Dynamics and Consequences of Migration-related Mortality 

Border deaths are a result of dynamics involving diverse actors, and can be interpreted and represented in various ways. Critical voices from civil society (including academia) hold states responsible for making safe journeys impossible for large parts of the world population. Meanwhile, policy-makers argue that border deaths demonstrate the need for restrictive border policies. Statistics are widely (mis)used to support different readings of border deaths. However, the way data is collected, analysed, and disseminated remains largely unquestioned. Similarly, little is known about how bodies are treated, and about the different ways in which the dead - also including the missing and the unidentified - are mourned by familiars and strangers. New concepts and perspectives contribute to highlighting the political nature of border deaths and finding ways to move forward. The chapters of this collection, co-authored by researchers and practitioners, provide the first interdisciplinary overview of this contested field.

http://www.statewatch.org/news/2020/jan/book-border-deaths-causes-consequences-dynamics.pdf, jan20

Advies ACVZ - Vervoerdersverplichtingen: luchtvaartmaatschappijen en immigratiecontrole

Onder invloed van Europese regelgeving kunnen niet of onjuist gedocumenteerde passagiers per vliegtuig de Schengen-buitengrens niet meer bereiken. De vervoerdersverplichtingen dragen feitelijk bij aan een effectievere uitvoering van de immigratiecontrole.
De overheid heeft geen structurele inzage in de aantallen grensgeweigerden en de gronden waarop passagiers door vervoerders worden geweigerd. Voor vervoerders bestaat geen verplichting om weigeringen en redenen daarvan te registreren en daarover te rapporteren.

Vervoerders kunnen de IND om advies vragen wanneer een niet of onjuist gedocumenteerde vreemdeling zich op asielmotieven beroept, maar van deze optie wordt geen gebruik gemaakt.

De ACVZ adviseert:

  • Leg vast dat vervoerders het aantal geweigerde passagiers en de redenen daarvoor registreren en daarover periodiek rapporteren aan het ministerie van J&V.
  • Schrap de huidige facultatieve beleidsregel en bezie of er een vervoerdersverplichting dient te worden vastgelegd om asielverzoeken van ongedocumenteerde passagiers ter beoordeling aan de IND voor te leggen.

https://www.adviescommissievoorvreemdelingenzaken.nl/binaries/adviescommissievoorvreemdelingenzaken/documenten/publicaties/2020/01/31/vervoerdersverplichtingen/Vervoedersverplichtingen_beleidsadvies_ACVZ_20200203.pdf, 31.1.20

Mixed Migration Centre: The ever-rising securitisation of mixed migration

Over the last decade there has been a surge in the securitisation of different aspects of migration, especially in relation to mixed flows, including refugees, using irregular pathways. This essay outlines what securitised and criminalised mixed migration looks like and how security concerns are used to justify and normalise what were previously exceptional policies and practices around the world. It will also explore how these trends might change in the future.

http://www.mixedmigration.org/articles/the-ever-rising-securitisation-of-mixed-migration/, 17.12.19

Nationale Ombudsman: Onderzoek naar de uitvoering van vreemdelingenbewaring

In 2015 is een wetsvoorstel ingediend waarin de staatssecretaris van Justitie en Veiligheid een nieuw regime voorstelt. Dit nieuwe regime houdt in dat er afdelingen zijn met meer vrijheden en afdelingen met een strenger regime. Sinds mei 2017 werkt detentiecentrum Rotterdam -vooruitlopend op de invoering van dit nieuwe systeem- met dit regime. Voor de Nationale ombudsman aanleiding te onderzoeken hoe dit regime in de praktijk werkt.


  • Zorg voor een zinvolle dagbesteding voor vreemdelingen. Geef hen bijvoorbeeld de mogelijkheid werk te verrichten of een kortlopende opleiding te volgen die ook waardevol is bij terugkeer in het land van herkomst;
  • Pas de accommodatie aan zodat die past bij het bestuursrechtelijke karakter van vreemdelingenbewaring en bied vreemdelingen de mogelijkheid voor verblijf in een eenpersoonscel;
  • Wees uiterst terughoudend met het plaatsen van vreemdelingen in afzondering;
  • Pas afzondering als strafmiddel niet langer toe als een vreemdeling een meerpersoonscel weigert;
  • Zorg voor standaard medisch toezicht bij alle gevallen waarin een vreemdeling in afzondering zit.

https://www.nationaleombudsman.nl/system/files/onderzoek/Rapport%202020-002%20Grenzen%20aan%20vreemdelingenbewaring.pdf, 6.2.20

Amelie Constant: Time-space dynamics of return and circular migration: Theories and evidence

This chapter undertook the monumental task of providing a complete outlook about return, repeat, circular and onward migration by bringing together the perspectives of the host and the home country. In this endeavor, it reviewed and evaluated all theories about why people move, when they circulate, where they go, who are the people who migrate, who are the people who return, and how they change the economic and social structures in the home country. In the process, it revealed the new norm of joint decision-making by the family as a unit and underlined the importance of non-economic reasons for return. The chapter further provided a state-of-the-art literature review about empirical evidence regarding the disparate phenomena of return, circular and onward migration. It emphasized commonalities and compared differences in findings, while connecting them to the theories, policies and institutions. Return, repeat, and circular migrants are self-selected and extremely heterogeneous people and cannot conform under one theory or empirical study. Their de facto migration comportment can be understood by several different theories and, in the absence of good data, it can be explained by a variety of studies. The chapter ends with a critical conclusion and hope to inspire new avenues of research on the topic.

https://www.merit.unu.edu/publications/working-papers/abstract/?id=8436, jan20

Jeanine Cummins: Wie omkijkt

Een binnenplaats in Acapulco, Mexico. Een familiefeestje. Een gruwelijke aanslag. Alleen Lydia en haar achtjarige zoontje Luca overleven, en moeten onmiddellijk zo ver mogelijk wegvluchten om uit de greep van het drugskartel te blijven. Wat volgt is een adembenemend vluchtverhaal: dwars door Mexico, bovenop de goederentrein die ook wel ‘het Beest’ wordt genoemd, op weg naar de Amerikaanse grens.

https://www.kokboekencentrum.nl/boek/wie-omkijkt/, 11.2.20

Nieuwsbrief 3, 2020

Boek: Dat wonderlijke kerkasiel

Een non-stop kerkdienst van 97 dagen en nachten in de Bethelkapel in Den Haag, van 26 oktober 2018 tot 30 januari 2019. Doel: een veilige plek bieden aan het met uitzetting bedreigde gezin Tamrazyan. Met een kinderpardon als wonderbaarlijk resultaat. Minstens twaalfduizend kerkgangers woonden de doorgaande viering bij. Onder hen tal van mensen die al jaren geen kerk meer binnen waren geweest of zelfs nooit eerder een dienst hadden bezocht.

Dit boek laat zien wat dit kerkasiel en de viering deed met voorgangers en kerkgangers, en doordenkt wat kerk en theologie van 'dit wonderlijke kerkasiel' kunnen leren.

Uitgegeven bij uitgeverij Skandalon. 30.1.20

Swiss Refugee Council : Reception conditions in Italy - Updated report

Given its geographical position, Italy is the main destination for transfers from Switzerland under the Dublin regulation, receiving 35 per cent of all transfers. The so-called Salvini decree restricted the access to second-line reception centres (SIPROIMI) in Italy to people with international protection and unaccompanied minors, leaving Dublin returnees including vulnerable people in the first-line reception centres. Most of these centres were originally established as emergency centres (CAS) and the quality of services according to the report: “have further deteriorated significantly.”

There is no standardized procedure at the national level for Dublin returnees to reenter the reception system, people often face bureaucratic difficulties in accessing the legal and reception procedures, often finding themselves irregular and homeless. Further, the weakness of social welfare, housing, employment and integration programs contribute to generally challenging conditions for refugees and asylum seekers in Italy.

Finally, particular attention is given to the conditions of vulnerable people. The report denounces the systemic deficiencies in the recognition of the victims of human trafficking and the impact of the recent reform on vulnerable asylums seekers (including families), no longer entitled to second-line accommodations.

The Swiss Refugee Council recommends states participating in Dublin not to transfer vulnerable people to Italy. In any other cases, responsible authorities should conduct a detailed individual assessment, including asking Italian authorities for accurate information about the reception facility allocated to the person.

https://www.fluechtlingshilfe.ch/assets/herkunftslaender/dublin/italien/200121-italy-reception-conditions-en.pdf, 21.1.20

RvE: Promoting child-friendly approaches in the area of migration - Standards, guidance and current practices 

The compilation brings together international and European standards on child-friendly practices in the context of migration, with real-life illustrations of the kinds of initiatives, programmes and procedures that serve to implement these standards. Its purpose is to share existing knowledge on how migration-related processes can integrate a child-friendly approach.

https://edoc.coe.int/en/refugees/8047-promoting-child-friendly-approaches-in-the-area-of-migration-standards-guidance-and-current-practices.html, dec19

EHRM: "Safe Third Country" in relation with the guarantees of Articles 2, 3, 8 and 13 ECHR

The Court has never questioned the legitimacy of the national lists of "safe third countries" as such, nor has it declared that a given third country was (or was not) safe. The current approach of the Court is rather focused on examining the procedural guarantees that must necessarily underpin the evaluation carried out by domestic authorities. The deporting State cannot simply rely on its own definition of the third country as safe, and it has a general procedural obligation to carry out a fair and thorough examination of the conditions in that third country.
The burden of proof in such cases is distributed in the following way: (1) the starting point is that it remains with the applicant; (2) if there is a well-known general risk in the third country, the authorities have a duty to carry out an assessment on their own motion; (3) concerning the individual risk, it remains with the applicant, but if the deporting State is made aware of relevant facts relating specifically to them, its authorities have to carry out an assessment on their own motion, especially if the applicant risks ill-treatment because of their membership of a persecuted group. Finally, the authorities have the obligation to provide the applicant with the necessary information in order to be able to challenge the definition of a third country as "safe".

https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Research_report_safe_third_country_ENG.pdf, 9.2.18

OXFAM The EU Trust Fund for Africa: Trapped between aid policy and migration politics

The ‘EU Emergency Trust Fund for stability and addressing root causes of irregular migration and displaced persons in Africa’ (the EUTF for Africa) is the financial instrument to implement the Action Plan conceived by European and African leaders at the Valetta summit on migration in 2015. Over the last four years the EUTF has been at the forefront of the EU’s attempts to integrate migration politics, foreign policy and partnerships for development. In several countries, for example Ethiopia, Niger, the Gambia and Morocco, development projects have been approved in parallel with progress in the negotiations of agreements on returns and readmission raising concern of African governments regarding the long-term implications it will have for sustainable development.

Oxfam recommends that the allocation of aid to partner countries should not be conditional on their cooperation with the EU’s demands regarding returns and readmission or border management. A clear structure is needed to ensure the use of funding is in line with development and humanitarian objectives and principles. Migration-related spending should aim to reduce vulnerabilities, address needs and promote resilient development and the amount of spending should be decided according to evidence-based projections, not on political positioning. Oxfam also provides recommendations for the design of new projects under the EUTF for Africa and for actors implementing existing projects as well as with regard to monitoring, reporting and review.

https://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/the-eu-trust-fund-for-africa-trapped-between-aid-policy-and-migration-politics-620936, 30.1.20

CPT: Report on conditions in detention centres in Denmark

This report provides an overview on the living conditions for foreign nationals held under aliens' legislation, and offers an analysis of, inter alia: ill-treatment in migrant detention facilities; living conditions; safeguards; and discipline and security measures.
The objective of the report is to provide an update and analysis on improvements and developments since its previous visit in 2014. The CPT was particularly critical of the 'prison like' living conditions, the use of fellow detainees as interpreters, the lack of procedures for reporting instances of ill-treatment, and the use of disciplinary solitary confinement. Moreover, the CPT expressed concerns on the right of all detained persons to be granted effective access to a lawyer from the very outset of their deprivation of liberty. The CPT recommended that the detained persons should be provided with clear information in a language they can understand about their rights in police custody and health-care services are improved.

https://rm.coe.int/1680996859, 7.1.20

Justine N Stefanelli: Judicial Review of Immigration Detention in the UK, US and EU

Immigration detention is considered by many states to be a necessary tool in the execution of immigration policy. Despite the apparently key role it plays in immigration enforcement, the law on immigration detention is often vague, especially in relation to determining the circumstances under which prolonged detention remains lawful. As a result, the courts are frequently called upon to adjudicate these matters, with scant legal tools at their disposal. Though there have been some significant judgments on the legality of detention at the constitutional level, the extent to which these judgments have had an impact at the lower end of the judiciary is unclear. Indeed, it is the lower courts which are tasked with judging the legality of detention through habeas corpus or judicial review proceedings.
This book examines the way this has occurred in the lower courts of two jurisdictions, the UK and the US, and contrasts this practice not only in those jurisdictions, but with judgments rendered by the Court of Justice of the European Union, a constitutional court at the other end of the judicial spectrum whose judgments are applied by courts and tribunals in the EU Member States. Although these three jurisdictions use similar tests to evaluate the legality of detention, case outcomes significantly differ. Many factors contribute to this divergence, but key among them is the role that fundamental rights protection plays in each jurisdiction. Through a forensic evaluation of 191 judgments, this book compares the laws on detention in the UK, US and EU, and makes recommendations to these jurisdictions for improvement.

https://www.bloomsburyprofessional.com/uk/judicial-review-of-immigration-detention-in-the-uk-us-and-eu-9781509930456/, 23.1.20

Nieuwsbrief 2, 2020

GREVIO: Baseline Evaluation Report Netherlands implementation of the Istanbul Convention

GREVIO is concerned about women victims of violence who do not possess a residence permit, for example because of overstaying the validity of their residence permit or visa, and asylumseeking women who experience violence. GREVIO notes that steps are being taken to make support available to those who are currently excluded through the terms of the Social Support Act. Measures seem to exist that would allow irregular migrant women to report incidents of violence to law-enforcement agencies without risking deportation (so-called firewall) but GREVIO is unsure as to its implementation in practice.

GREVIO strongly encourages the Dutch authorities to ensure that all women victims of violence and their children are provided with specialist women’s support services offering empowering, comprehensive and holistic support in all regions. Such services need to be accessible to all women without any discrimination, in particular irregular migrant women and refugee and asylum-seeking women.

https://rm.coe.int/grevio-report-on-netherlands/1680997253, 20.1.20

De Facto: En attendant les papiers

Migrer, ce n’est pas seulement partir, puis arriver. Entre ces deux bornes de l’itinéraire migratoire se jouent souvent des milliers de kilomètres, des traversées de mers, de frontières et surtout des années d’attente, de précarité et d’incertitude. C’est à cet intervalle, à cet entre-deux, que s’intéresse ce nouveau numéro de De Facto.

http://icmigrations.fr/defacto/defacto-014/, dec19

K. Bruce Newbold, Kathi Wilson: A Research Agenda for Migration and Health

Evidenced by Europe's refugee crisis and the movement of undocumented workers into the US, international migration has emerged as one of the most pressing issues faced by national and regional governments. The health impacts of migration can be significant and multifaceted, with access to health care often denied or limited, with immigrants experiencing declining health. The health of more vulnerable groups, including women and the disabled, is further compromised. A Research Agenda for Migration and Health provides insight into key research directions and scholarship, with topics including food security, disability, cultural safety, and health care access.

https://www.e-elgar.com/shop/a-research-agenda-for-migration-and-health, 2019

Expert Council on NGO Law : 'Using criminal law to restrict the work of NGOs supporting refugees and other migrants in council of Europe member states'.

The paper considers the situation of NGOs carrying out humanitarian assistance and related work in support of refugees and migrants within Council of Europe Member States. The investigation comes in the wake of the increasing use of criminal sanctions against NGOs supporting refugees and expresses concern about the abuse of criminal proceedings against NGOs and human rights defenders. The study comments on a number of areas, including, inter alia: criminalisation and freedom of association; rationales provided to criminalise NGO action; investigations, arrests, and prosecutions; and administrative responses to criminalisation, such as fines imposed.

CONF/EXP(2019)1, dec19

WODC: Ongenoegen, migratie, gastvrijheid en maatschappelijke onrust

De grote toestroom van asielzoekers in het najaar van 2015 is niet nieuw voor Nederland, maar de context is wel veranderd ten opzichte van het verleden. Het draagvlak voor opvang staat onder druk en er vindt in het publieke debat vermenging plaats van de vraagstukken rondom asielopvang met andere dossiers als integratie en de verhoogde terroristische dreiging. Verdringingseffecten en veiligheidsvraagstukken spelen een grote rol in het publieke debat en de vraag is wat dit betekent voor de ontwikkeling van het draagvlak onder de bevolking als geheel, buurtbewoners die met opvang te maken krijgen, asielzoekers/vluchtelingen, (lokale) bestuurders en professionals.

https://wodc.nl/binaries/2742%20Volledige%20Tekst_tcm28-425017.pdf, 17.1.20

Sergio Carrera / Marco Stefan / Roberto Cortinovis / Ngo Chun Luk: WHEN MOBILITY IS NOT A CHOICE - Problematising asylum seekers' secondary movements and their criminalisation in the EU

A key lesson learned from more than twenty years of implementation of the EU Dublin system is that the ‘presumption of safety’ between EU member states has been a powerful source of protective failures due to dysfunctions of asylum systems in member states to which asylum seekers have been transferred according to Dublin criteria. This circumstance has forced asylum seekers, subsidiary protection beneficiaries and refugees into situations of destitution, social exclusion, extreme poverty, and institutional discrimination.

The current overriding policy focus on the ‘symptoms’ of onward movements and the emphasis on the fact that asylum seekers should not be allowed to ‘choose’ their member state of destination has prevented a proper debate on the actual drivers and protection-related motivations that may lead protection seekers to move elsewhere inside the EU. Defining onward movements of asylum seekers as ‘choices’ or ‘preferences’ disregards the constraints and obstacles that asylum seekers face when trying to access adequate and durable protection in the EU.

Intra-EU mobility of asylum seekers should be de-securitised and de-criminalised. Due consideration should be paid to individuals’ legitimate and humanitarian-related reasons for seeking protection in a member state different from that of first irregular entry, and protecting their privacy as owners of their data held in EU information systems.

https://www.ceps.eu/download/publication/?id=26027&pdf=LSE2019-11-RESOMA..., 20.12.19

Borderline-Europe: Effects of the “Security Decrees” on Migrants and Refugees in Sicily, Italy

With the aim to make the asylum system more effective, the Law transformed the System of protection for asylum seekers and refugees (SPRAR) to the System of protection of refugees and unaccompanied minors (SIPROIMI), excluding asylum seekers and beneficiaries of humanitarian protection status from the second-line reception centres. This means that the two groups are channeled into the existing Emergency Accommodation Centres (CAS), which do not offer integration opportunities and are often located in isolated areas. Additionally, the new Law massively reduced funds for CAS, which accommodates approximately 75-90% of all migrants, as well as funds for mediation and legal advice in them. Due to the reduction of funds, many CAS had to lower their services or close their facilities in Sicily. The asylum procedure was affected through a legislate reform, abolishing the humanitarian protection status, which was frequently granted before the 2018 law reform.

The report highlights how this led to the irregularization of migrants who were eligible for the humanitarian protection status, aggravating their access to the reception system and leaving them in destitution. The Law also repealed the rules governing civil registration, prohibiting asylum-seekers to register as residence, excluding them from basic health care and social coverage.

https://www.borderline-europe.de/sites/default/files/readingtips/Sizilienbericht%202019%20final.pdf, dec19

Thesis Brouwer, J: Detection, detention, deportation : criminal justice and migration control through the lens of crimmigration

Border control has changed significantly in recent decades. Whereas globalisation appear s to have diminished the relevance of international borders, states have simultaneously sought ways to regain some form of control over cross-border mobility. In this process, alternative and novel means of border enforcement have emerged. What do these bordering practices look like? How are they implemented on the ground and experienced by those subjected to them? These are the main questions this dissertation aims to answer. To that end, it looks at bordering practices in the Netherlands through the lens of crimmigration, the term used to refer to the growing merger of criminal justice and migration control. Relying on extensive empirical fieldwork – including observations, focus group discussions, surveys, and in-depth interviews – the dissertation examines two border ing practices: intra-Schengen migration policing and the punishment and deportation of criminally convicted non-citizens. The different empirical chapters highlight the various ways these contemporary bordering practices are shaped by and in their turn shape the criminal justice system, and how this ultimately results in considerable challenges for the legitimacy of both the migration control and the criminal justice system.

https://www.boomdenhaag.nl/en/webshop/detection-detention-deportation, 8.1.20

Miguel Días-Barriga and Margaret E. Dorsey : Fencing in Democracy. Border Walls, Necrocitizenship, and the Security State.

Border walls permeate our world, with more than thirty nation-states constructing them. Anthropologists Margaret E. Dorsey and Miguel Díaz-Barriga argue that border wall construction manifests transformations in citizenship practices that are aimed not only at keeping migrants out but also enmeshing citizens into a wider politics of exclusion. For a decade, the authors studied the U.S.-Mexico border wall constructed by the Department of Homeland Security and observed the political protests and legal challenges that residents mounted in opposition to the wall. In Fencing in Democracy Dorsey and Díaz-Barriga take us to those border communities most affected by the wall and often ignored in national discussions about border security to highlight how the state diminishes citizens' rights. That dynamic speaks to the citizenship experiences of border residents that is indicative of how walls imprison the populations they are built to protect. Dorsey and Díaz-Barriga brilliantly expand conversations about citizenship, the operation of U.S. power, and the implications of border walls for the future of democracy.

https://www.dukeupress.edu/fencing-in-democracy, jan20

Justine N Stefanelli: Judicial Review of Immigration Detention in the UK, US and EU - From Principles to Practice

Despite the apparently key role it plays in immigration enforcement, the law on immigration detention is often vague, especially in relation to determining the circumstances under which prolonged detention remains lawful. As a result, the courts are frequently called upon to adjudicate these matters, with scant legal tools at their disposal. This book examines the way this has occurred in the lower courts of two jurisdictions, the UK and the US, and contrasts this practice not only in those jurisdictions, but with judgments rendered by the Court of Justice of the European Union, a constitutional court at the other end of the judicial spectrum whose judgments are applied by courts and tribunals in the EU Member States. Although these three jurisdictions use similar tests to evaluate the legality of detention, case outcomes significantly differ. Many factors contribute to this divergence, but key among them is the role that fundamental rights protection plays in each jurisdiction. Through a forensic evaluation of 191 judgments, this book compares the laws on detention in the UK, US and EU, and makes recommendations to these jurisdictions for improvement.

https://www.bloomsburyprofessional.com/uk/judicial-review-of-immigration-detention-in-the-uk-us-and-eu-9781509930456/, 23.1.20

Jason Phillips: Working with Detained Populations in Greece and Libya: A Comparative of the Ethical Challenges Facing the International Rescue Committee, june19

The humanitarian interventions for detained migrants and asylum-seeking populations in Greece and Libya are confronted with enormous operational constraints, while these populations experience the most severe needs. The horrific health conditions in detentions centres, for example, raise nagging questions about the quality of care. However, in these situations the influence of humanitarians is extremely limited. This poses humanitarian aid workers and NGOs, supporting these detained populations, for complex ethical tensions related to care, complicity, responsibility, the need for advocacy, independence, impartiality, and even humanity.


Gebre Zemichael en Gerda Crouset – De ijssalon van meneer Mebrat

Dit is het persoonlijke verhaal van een Eritrese jongen die samen met zijn dertienjarige neefje op de vlucht slaat om aan zijn lot te ontkomen. Een vlucht die zes jaar zal duren.

‘Kun je me vertellen waar je littekens vandaan komen?’, vroeg auteur en journalist Gerda Crouset op een dag aan de Eritrese vluchteling Gebre Zemichael. Ze was toen al een tijdje zijn taalcoach. Er volgde een lange reeks ontboezemingen: de voettocht, het gebrek aan geld en voedsel, de martelingen, de macabere taferelen langs de dodenweg in de woestijn, dedetentiekampen, de mensensmokkelaars en de emotionele telefoongesprekken met de familie thuis, in Asmara.

En toch waren er ook warme en ontroerende momenten, waarin de jongens met hulp van anderen de moed vergaarden om verder te trekken. Want in hun honger naar vrijheid konden Gebreen Hayat maar één kant opkijken.

https://www.uitgeverijdonker.nl/php/boekApart.php?isbn=97890%206100%20481%203, 21jan20

Natasja Bijl: ADEM

De Eritrese Meron Adem verlaat zijn geboorteland uit angst voor de dictatuur en vlucht naar buurland Sudan. Hier komt hij in handen van mensensmokkelaars die hem meevoeren naar Libië. Onder de meest vreselijke omstandigheden zit hij langer dan een jaar opgesloten, er zijn dagen dat hij de zon niet kan zien. Als hij de dood voelt naderen, neemt hij afscheid van haar die hem zo dierbaar is: zijn oma

Op een morgen schiet hij wakker. Hij rent de straat op, houdt een voorbijganger aan en vraagt: “Waar ben ik?” Het antwoord: “Op Sicilië, Italië", is bepalend voor de rest van zijn leven. Hij heeft een tweede kans gekregen! Maar hoe die aan te pakken in een land waar je niemand kent en in een cultuur die niet de jouwe is?

De Westerse Selma is op zoek naar geluk en zingeving. Is het toeval dat de twee elkaar ontmoeten en een band opbouwen die erom vraagt een ander toe te laten in je gevoelsleven?


Nieuwsbrief 1, 2020

Werkinstructie 2019/18: Bekeerlingen

Er is geen standaard antwoord te geven op de vraag hoe een bekering verloopt en wanneer een bekering geloofwaardig is. Als uitgangspunt geldt dat dit een individuele afweging is die onderdeel uitmaakt van de integrale geloofswaardigheidsbeoordeling door de IND. Met deze WI wordt inzicht geboden in wat een bekering is, hoe die tot stand kan komen en verder kan verlopen. Verder wordt het toetsingskader uiteen gezet en worden handvatten geboden bij het horen en beslissen in zaken waarin een bekering als asielmotief wordt aangevoerd. Daarnaast gaat deze WI in op de beoordeling van de zwaarwegendheid in zaken waarin een bekering als asielmotief naar voren is gebracht en deze bekering geloofwaardig is geacht.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2019-18.pdf, 30.12.19

Werkinstructie 2019/17: horen en beslissen bij LHBTI

In deze werkinstructie wordt ingegaan op het onderzoek dat de IND doet naar de geloofwaardigheid in zaken waarin lhbti-gerichtheid als asielmotief is aangevoerd en wordt ingegaan op de thema’s die daarbij aan de orde komen. Daarna komt de beoordeling van de geloofwaardigheid aan de orde en worden enkele handvatten geboden bij het horen en beslissen in zaken waarin het lhbti-zijn als asielmotief wordt aangevoerd. Hierbij wordt tevens ingegaan op de wijze van weging van de antwoorden. Tot slot volgt een korte passage over opvolgende aanvragen.

Het onderzoek naar en de beoordeling van de geloofwaardigheid van het lhbti zijn, is niet eenvoudig. Er is dan ook geen standaard antwoord te geven op de vraag wanneer het lhbti zijn geloofwaardig is. Dit blijft een individuele afweging welke onderdeel uitmaakt van de integrale geloofswaardigheidsbeoordeling die de IND uitvoert. Met deze werkinstructie wordt daarom niet beoogd een standaard checklist te geven, maar vooral om een richting aan te geven.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2019-17.pdf, 20.12.19

Werkinstructie 2019/16: horen in bezwaar

Gebleken is dat werkinstructie 2019/11 verduidelijking behoeft ten aanzien van het kennelijk ongegrond of kennelijk niet-ontvankelijk verklaren van een bezwaarschrift (Hoofdstuk 3).

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2019-16.pdf, 18.12.19

Nieuwsbrief 26, 2019

Louis Bourgois et Marion Lièvre: Volunteers activists: new agents of local migration policies?

This paper highlights new relations between state and civil society in the case of French local migration policies towards, and more specifically social inclusion policies. It is based on a multi-site ethnographic fieldwork in three cities. It shows a progressive institutionalization of voluntary action in public policy. We studied “insertion devices” (services for integration and active labour market policies) enacted by the State and contracted out to associations, having precarious European migrants — labelled as “Rom” and living in inadequate housing —, as target groups. The article proposes a two-step analysis: a first step that goes back to the choice of state services to entrust third-party “operator” by setting up “inclusion service”, by defining the role of each stakeholder, particularly volunteer individuals or organizations; a second time that concerns the choices made by these operators in terms of recruitment and selection of volunteers according to different criteria. The hypothesis developed through the article concerns the fact that migration policies are partially built on strategies of channelling, distancing and institutionalizing a depoliticized non-profit intervention.

https://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/lsp/2019-n83-lsp04994/1066090ar/, 27.11.19

Cevat Giray Aksoy, Panu Poutvaara: Refugees' and Irres' Self-Selection into Europe: Who Migrates Where?gular Migrant

We analyze self-selection of refugees and irregular migrants and test our theory in the context of the European refugee crisis. Using unique datasets from the International Organization for Migration and Gallup World Polls, we provide the first large-scale evidence on reasons to emigrate, and the self-selection and sorting of refugees and irregular migrants. Refugees and female irregular migrants are positively self-selected with respect to human capital, while male irregular migrants are negatively self-selected. These patterns are similar when analyzing individually stated main reason to emigrate, country-level conflict intensity, and sub-regional conflict intensity. Migrants respond to economic incentives and border policies.

http://ftp.iza.org/dp12800.pdf, nov19



UNICEF : Child Alert Afghanistan, “Preserving hope in Afghanistan. Protecting children in the world’s most lethal conflict”.

Uit het rapport blijkt dat Afghanistan een van de gevaarlijkste landen op de wereld is voor kinderen. Het conflict doodt of verminkt dagelijks minstens negen kinderen. Tussen 2009 en 2018 zijn bijna 6.500 kinderen gedood 15.000 anderen gewond geraakt als gevolg van het conflict. Het niveau van geweld waaraan kinderen in Afghanistan dag in dag uit worden blootgesteld, is schokkend.

UNICEF blijft bij haar oproep aan Nederland om te stoppen met het uitzetten van uitgeprocedeerde Afghaanse asielzoekers - waaronder kwetsbare kinderen - naar Afghanistan, zolang het daar nog zo gevaarlijk is.

https://www.unicef.org/child-alert/preserving-hope-afghanistan, 17.12.19

Office of the Special Representative on migration and refugees, Promoting child-friendly approaches in the area of migration - Standards, guidance and current practices

This compilation brings together international and European standards on child-friendly practices in the context of migration, with real-life illustrations of the kinds of initiatives, programmes and procedures that serve to implement these standards. Its purpose is to share existing knowledge on how migration-related processes can integrate a child-friendly approach. By doing this, the compilation contributes to meeting the objectives of the Action Plan on Protecting Refugee and Migrant Children in Europe (2017-2019). It addresses a wide range of issues, including the standards that must be applied to the child’s registration and age determination, the child’s treatment in the migration decision-making process and measures that promote their rights to protection, family care and education.
What the compilation shows is the range and depth of standards currently set out in international and European law – both in EU law and Council of Europe treaties and recommendations – and it provides detailed guidance for states and civil society on how best to incorporate child-friendly practices in the migration process.

https://edoc.coe.int/en/refugees/8047-promoting-child-friendly-approaches-in-the-area-of-migration-standards-guidance-and-current-practices.html, dec19

Verweij-Jonker: Evaluatie Wet tegengaan Huwelijksdwang

De werking van de Wet tegengaan huwelijksdwang heeft zich het meest duidelijk gemanifesteerd in het vreemdelingenbeleid ten aanzien van kindhuwelijken. Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat de meeste asielaanvragen voor verblijf van kindbruiden uit het buitenland, personen uit Syrië betreft. Het aantal kindhuwelijken waarbij een of beide echtgenoten op het moment van de verblijfsaanvraag voor echtgeno(te)ot, nog niet de leeftijd van achttien jaar heeft of hebben bereikt, bedraagt sinds de inwerkingtreding van de Wet minimaal circa 150 personen.

Dwang bij een huwelijk is moeilijk vast te stellen. Het probleem van het signaleren en vaststellen van huwelijksdwang is een van de grootste knelpunten die met de Wet tegengaan huwelijksdwang wordt ervaren. Zowel de professionals uit het veld benoemen dit als een knelpunt, alsook de ambtenaren bij de gemeenten en IND die dwang moeten beoordelen.

https://www.wodc.nl/binaries/3024_Volledige_Tekst_tcm28-419749.pdf, 25.11.19

A.S.F. Weatherburn (Promotie): Clarifying the scope of labour exploitation in human trafficking law

The agreement of the international definition of human trafficking in the 2000 Palermo Protocol is a noteworthy achievement, welcomed for providing the first internationally agreed definition of the offence. However, this international definition fails to provide clarity as to the exact scope and meaning of exploitation. Instead, it consists of an open-ended list of forms of exploitation that “at a minimum” amount to exploitation. Labour exploitation is enumerated as forced or compulsory labour, slavery or practices similar to slavery and servitude. This adds confusion since these forms of exploitation are also separately legally defined and criminally prohibited. Despite the international recognition of these severe forms of labour exploitation, the current legal framework thus engenders a lack of clarity as to the threshold between decent working conditions and labour exploitation. This thesis will address this legal gap by seeking to legally conceptualise labour exploitation.


Physical Fences and Digital Divides: Final Report of the Global Detention Project Special Investigation into the Uses of Electronic Media in Today's Migration Journeys

Smartphones, social media platforms, and other tech tools are today "migrant essentials" that can assist people in making life-saving decisions and bring public attention to abuses that migrants and refugees face as they confront the world's increasingly militarised borders. But they can also be exploited by unscrupulous actors in harmful ways and mislead people at perilous moments in their journeys. This GDP special report documents the trajectory and impact of this "tech turn" that has exploded since the onset of the refugee "crisis," exploring new tools that have emerged in recent years, the uses of these tools by people on the move in key hotspots in the Mediterranean region, and the array of critiques and concerns that have arisen as some of the early excitement and promise of digital humanitarianism have begun to fade. What lessons should we draw from this "tech turn"? In what ways can social media and other digital tools be used to reduce harms suffered by migrants and refugees? And is there a future for digital humanitarianism?

https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/physical-fences-digital-divides, 18.12.19

Izabella Majcher : The European Union Returns Directive and its Compatibility with International Human Rights Law

In her new book "The European Union Returns Directive and its Compatibility with International Human Rights Law: Analysis of Return Decision, Entry Ban, Detention, and Removal" (Brill, 2020), GDP Researcher undertakes a thorough human rights assessment of the EU Returns Directive. Exploring several protection gaps in EU return policy that may result in violations of migrants' rights, she highlights how the provisions of the Directive should be implemented in line with member states' human rights obligations. 

https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/the-european-union-returns-directive-and-its-compatibility-with-international-human-rights-law, 21.11.19

Izabella Majcher : Immigration Detention under the Global Compacts in the Light of Refugee and Human Rights Law Standards

In an article for International Migration, GDP Researcher Izabella Majcher explores how immigration detention is addressed in the Global Compact on Refugees (GCR) and Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM), and investigates the potential implications of the compacts on existing legal framework regulating the use of immigration detention. 

https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/immigration-detention-under-the-global-compacts-in-the-light-of-refugee-and-human-rights-law-standards, 17.11.19

Manfred Nowak : Global Study on Children Deprived of Liberty: States Must End Immigration Detention of Children and Families

On 20 November, the UN Independent Expert on Children Deprived of Liberty, released the Global Study on Children Deprived of Liberty. This study is the result of years of work by Nowak, with assistance provided by numerous external advisers and experts, including GDP staff members, evaluating all forms of deprivation of liberty of children—including children in migration-related situations. Acknowledging the clear trend in authoritative law and opinion regarding the necessity of prohibiting child immigration detention, the study makes various important recommendations. 

https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/global-study-on-children-deprived-of-liberty-states-must-end-immigration-detention-of-children-and-families, 18.11.19

M. von Werthern et  al: "The Impact of Immigration Detention on Mental Health: A Systematic Review

This review aims to update and expand on a 2009 systematic review on the mental health consequences of detention on adult, adolescent and child immigration detainees, which found (on the basis on 9 studies) that there was consistent evidence that immigration detention had adverse effects on mental health.

The literature base reviewed in this paper consistently demonstrated severe mental health consequences amongst detainees across a wide range of settings and jurisdictions. There is a pressing need for the proper consideration of mental health and consequent risk of detention-related harm in decisions surrounding detention as well as for improved care for individuals within detention facilities. Recommendations based on these findings are presented, including increased focus on the identification of vulnerability and on minimising the duration of detention


Deirdre Conlon ,  Nancy Hiemstra: Intimate Economies of Immigration Detention : Critical perspectives

International migration has been described as one of the defining issues of the twenty-first century. While a lot is known about the complex nature of migratory flows, surprisingly little attention has been given to one of the most prominent responses by governments to human mobility: the practice of immigration detention.
Intimate Economies of Immigration Detention provides a timely intervention, offering much needed scrutiny of the ideologies, policies and practices that enable the troubling, unparalleled and seemingly unbridled growth of immigration detention around the world. An international collection of scholars provide crucial new insights into immigration detention recounting at close range how detention's effects ricochet from personal and everyday experiences to broader political-economic, social and cultural spheres. Contributors draw on original research in the US, Australia, Europe, and beyond to scrutinise the increasingly tangled relations associated with detention operation and migration management. With new theoretical and empirical perspectives on detention, the chapters collectively present a toolbox for better understanding the forces behind and broader implications of the seemingly uncontested rise of immigration detention.

https://www.crcpress.com/Intimate-Economies-of-Immigration-Detention-Critical-perspectives/Conlon-Hiemstra/p/book/9781138900660, aug16

Statewatch: Analysis Monitoring “secondary movements” and “hotspots”: Frontex is now an internal surveillance agency

The EU's border agency, Frontex, now has powers to gather data on "secondary movements" and the "hotspots" within the EU. The intention is to ensure "situational awareness" and produce risk analyses on the migratory situation within the EU, in order to inform possible operational action by national authorities. This brings with it increased risks for the fundamental rights of both non-EU nationals and ethnic minority EU citizens.

http://www.statewatch.org/analyses/no-348-frontex-internal-surveillance.pdf, dec19

Humaniteit in het Terugkeer-Proces – Zicht op uitzettingen

Het Meldpunt Vreemdelingen-detentie van Stichting LOS onderzocht vijftien gevallen van gedwongen uitzetting. Wij ontdekten dat er veel mis ging: eenzame opsluiting de dagen ervóór, bagage en medicijnen die niet meekwamen, gebruik van handboeien...

Lees het rapport hier.

Timur Vermes: De hongerigen en de verzadigden

Europa heeft de grenzen gesloten. Miljoenen vluchtelingen zitten vast in gigantische kampen ten zuiden van de Sahara. Zonder toekomst en zonder hoop. Wanneer de Duitse tv-ster Nadeche Hackenbusch de grootste van deze kampen bezoekt, grijpt de jonge vluchteling Lionel deze unieke kans met beide handen aan. Voor het oog van de camera’s begint hij met 150.000 anderen aan een mars naar Europa.

De televisiester en de vluchteling worden in Duitsland een hit. Terwijl de live-uitzendingen een recordaantal kijkers trekken, reageert de Duitse politiek door hulpeloos weg te kijken. Als de colonne vluchtelingen Europa steeds dichter nadert, neemt de druk op de minister van Binnenlandse Zaken Joseph Leubl toe. De regering en het Duitse volk zullen twee urgente vragen moeten beantwoorden: hoe gaan we dit oplossen? En in wat voor land willen we eigenlijk leven?

https://www.bol.com/nl/f/de-hongerigen-en-de-verzadigden/9200000116370007/, okt19

Nieuwsbrief 25, 2019

Statement European Doctors : Access to health care for all migrants

The Standing Committee of European Doctors has adopted a new statement on the medical treatment of refugees which defends the right to access health care for all migrants regardless of their status.

http://doc.cpme.eu:591/adopted/2019/CPME_BoardNov19_071.medical.treatment.refugees.pdf, 16.11.19

European Parliament : resolution in support of undocumented children

To mark the 30th anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the European Parliament has adopted a resolution recalling "that the best interests of the child should be a primary consideration in all decisions concerning children and migration" and calling "to work out community-based alternatives to detention. The Parliament further called Member States to take into consideration the vulnerabilities of undocumented children.

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-9-2019-0066_EN.html, 26.11.19

FRA: Protecting migrant workers from exploitation in the EU: workers’ perspectives, oct19

These reports from EU Member States constitute the background material for a comparative analysis for the project ‘Severe forms of labour exploitation – workers’ perspectives’. The country studies were prepared by FRA’s research network, FRANET.

Download Netherlands[pdf]en

EPIM: 'Migrant-led advocacy across Europe'

The report identifies obstacles to migrant advocates' participation in policy-making and addresses recommendations to policymakers, non-migrant led civil society organisations, funders and migrant advocates. The report also includes a list of self-identified migrant advocates and migrant-led organisations, which conduct advocacy at local, national and/or regional level, from 22 EU Member States.


IOM - World Migration Report 2020

The number of international migrants in 2019 is now estimated at 270 million and the top destination remains the United States, at nearly 51 million. IOM noted that this figure remains a very small percentage of the world’s population (at 3.5 per cent), meaning that the vast majority of people globally (96.5 per cent) are estimated to be residing in the country in which they were bor. However, it is a 0.1 per cent increase on the level indicated in its last report, published two years ago. According to IOM, more than half of all international migrants (141 million) live in Europe and North America. An estimated 52 per cent are male, and nearly two-thirds of all migrants are looking for work; that’s around 164 million people.

IOM-World Migration Report 2020 (8.00 Mo), 28.11.19

WODC: Selectief naast Restrictief

Dit is het evaluatie onderzoek naar de Wet modern migratiebeleid (wet MoMi). Met de wet MoMi heeft de wetgever beoogd een snel, doeltreffend en beheersbaar migratiestelsel te creëren, dat uitnodigend is voor de migranten waar in Nederland behoefte aan bestaat en restrictief is ten aanzien van andere (reguliere) migranten.

https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/ministeries/ministerie-van-justitie-en-veiligheid/documenten/rapporten/2019/12/04/tk-bijlage-evaluatie-van-de-wet-modern-migratiebeleid, juni19

Philippe De Bruycker Marie De Somer Jean-Louis De Brouwer (eds.): From Tampere 20 to Tampere 2.0: Towards a new European consensus on migration

Time might have buried some of the ideas and concepts developed in Tampere in 1999. However, this year’s 20th anniversary provides an adequate opportunity to revisit them. Finland holds the rotating presidency of the European Council, just like in 1999, and is as committed to finding compromises as it was back then. A new European Commission – which has declared migration and asylum one of its top priorities – will take office soon. More than 60% of the European Parliament is composed of new members, and it continues to take a strong interest in migration. Tampere might prove to be a valuable beacon for all of these institutions.

The chapters in this book do not only reflect the research conducted by its respective authors but are also based upon on a series of intense debates, which were the centrepiece of our journey from Tampere 20 to Tampere 2.0. These five meetings benefited from contributions by experts from three continents, including European Council and European Commission officials, national and European lawmakers, journalists, academics, military and police officials, and human rights activists. We hope that readers will find inspiration in this publication when reassessing and reshaping European migration and asylum policie

https://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2014_2019/plmrep/COMMITTEES/LIBE/DV/2019/12-02/Tampere_WEB_EN.pdf, dec19

Ambtsbericht documenten Syrie, 6.12.19


  • Georgia: Situation of LGBTQI persons (CIS2019-07) - ENG
  • Tchétchénie: Désertion et recrutement forcé en Ukraine (CIS2019-08) - FR

Statelessness in Iran en Irak

The Institute for Statelessness and Inclusion published two Country Position Papers on Iraq and Iran, which provide information on the profiles of stateless individuals and those at risk of statelessness in those countries due to nationality or civil documentation problems. The papers include relevant population data, information about nationality laws, access to civil documentation, the treatment of stateless people, and the most common profiles of people affected by statelessness or risk of statelessness living in Iran and Iraq.


Cruz Santoyo, Maria Elena, Ed.D: Undocumented Students at the Higher Education Door: Investigating the Perspectives of Student Service Staff

While in the US 94% of undocumented children and youth between the ages of 13 – 17 are enrolled in school, only 5-10% will go on to enroll in institutions of higher education upon high school completion, and few (1%) will reach college degree completion. In trying to understand the reasons undocumented students enroll in and complete college in low numbers, there has been a wealth of research on undocumented students and the barriers they face in college attainment. The intent of this study was to explore the views of the student service staff serving this student population in the primary doorways of college access.

Findings reveal that Student service staff are not being provided with adequate training and support so as to effectively serve undocumented students, and there are shortcomings in policy implementation and messaging that further deter the success of this student population.

https://search.proquest.com/openview/8ba427c1e142d1532319d105a0031164/1.pdf?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y, nov19

Ainhoa Ruiz Benedicto: Guarding the Fortress - The role of Frontex in the militarisation and securitisation of migration flows in the European Union

The budget for Frontex increased from €6.2 million in 2005 to €288 million in 2018, making a total of €1.65 billions for the 2005–2018 period, and its approved budget for 2019 is €333 million. This reflects the political determination to reinforce Frontex as a border-control system. Most of the budget is allocated to its operational activities. The budget shows the growing importance of migrant-return operations, from €80,000 in 2005 to €47.8 million in 2018, with an approved budget of €63 million for 2019.

None of the 19 main joint operations conducted by Frontex has a specific mandate to rescue people or to include civilian shipping fleets in its actions. They all concentrate more or less exclusively on combating and intercepting different cross-border crimes, most of which are related to flows of migrants.

Frontex collaborates with NATO on joint operations carried out in the Mediterranean by the UE (Operation Sophia), thus consolidating a securitised and militarised practice in the management of migration. Frontex also plays a crucial role in expanding Fortress Europe by conducting and coordinating operations in third countries by various means. In this way, the EU’s migration policies are externalised, imposing its approach to managing migration flows on other countries.

Operations conducted in the Mediterranean such as Poseidon and Triton had budgets of €18 million and €19 million respectively for their six months of activity. The Italian government operation they replaced, Mare Nostrum, had a six-monthly budget of €54 million in October 2013 and 2014. One of the main objectives of joint operations like Hermes and Attica is to identify ‘illegal’ migrants and help to organise operations to return them to their countries of origin.

http://www.centredelas.org/images/INFORMES_i_altres_PDF/informe40_GuardingTheFortress_ENG_web_DEF.pdf, nov19

AHRDO: Abschiebungen nach Afghanistan: Eine Herausforderung für die Legitimität und Stabilität des Staates? 

Die Studie basiert auf halb-strukturierten Interviews mit 50 Betroffenen in den vier Provinzen Balkh, Kabul, Herat und Nangahar sowie mit Vertreter*innen aus Zivilgesellschaft und Regierung. 78% der Befragten geben an, aus Angst vor Tötung, Verletzung oder Verfolgung geflohen zu sein.

Die Abgeschobenen sind durch ihre lange, gefährliche und kostspielige Flucht zu einer hochgradig traumatisierten sozialen Gruppe geworden. Über die Hälfte der Befragten sah sich nicht in der Lage oder fühlte sich nicht sicher genug, in ihre Heimatorte zurückzukehren. Über 80% gaben an, aufgrund der versuchten Migration und der Rückführung nach Afghanistan stark verschuldet zu sein, ebenso viele sind arbeitslos. Die überwiegende Mehrheit würde das Land am liebsten wieder verlassen.

Jeder Zehnte der Befragten will an der afghanischen Regierung Rache nehmen und überlegt deshalb, einer bewaffneten Gruppe oder einem kriminellen Netzwerk beizutreten. Der Grund für diese Wut: Nicht zu Unrecht wird die Regierung in Kabul seit der Unterzeichnung des zynischerweise „Joint Way Forward“ (Gemeinsamer Weg Voran) genannten Rücknahmeabkommens mit der EU mitverantwortlich für das eigene unerträgliche Elend gemacht. Für den Präsidenten Ghani sind sie nichts als „Wirtschaftsasylanten“ und „Vaterlandsverräter“.

https://www.medico.de/afghanistan-studie-17582/, nov19

Periodiek Beeld Terugkeer 2018

De Inspectie concludeert dat de uitvoering van het terugkeerbeleid als regel op een zorgvuldige, veilige en humane wijze plaatsvindt. De binnen het terugkeerproces geldende normen worden in het merendeel van de gevallen gevolgd. Wanneer nodig wordt maatwerk toegepast om het terugkeerproces zo goed mogelijk te laten verlopen

https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/binaries/rijksoverheid/documenten/rapporten/2019/11/25/tk-bijlage-2-periodiek-beeld-terugkeer-2018/tk-bijlage-2-periodiek-beeld-terugkeer-2018.pdf, 25.11.19

Nieuwsbrief 24, 2019

Pew Research:  Europe’s Unauthorized Immigrant Population Peaks in 2016, Then Levels Off

New Pew Research Center analysis based on European data sources estimates that at least 3.9 million unauthorized immigrants – and possibly as many as 4.8 million – lived in Europe in 2017. The total is up from 2014, when 3.0 million to 3.7 million unauthorized migrants lived in Europe, but is little changed from a recent peak of 4.1 million to 5.3 million in 2016.1

Overall, unauthorized immigrants accounted for less than 1% of Europe’s total population of more than 500 million people. And among the roughly 24 million noncitizens of EU-EFTA countries living in Europe, fewer than one-fifth were unauthorized immigrants in 2017.

Asylum seekers who are awaiting a decision on their pending application are part of our estimates, they accounted for nearly a quarter (20% to 24%) of Europe’s unauthorized immigrant population in 2017. Estimates of the unauthorized immigrant population without asylumseekers are lower – 2.9 million to 3.8 million in 2017 – yet still show an apparent increase from 2014 before the asylum seeker surge, when the unauthorized immigrant population without asylum seekers waiting for a decision was an estimated 2.4 million to 3.2 million. Unauthorized immigrants made up roughly one-fifth (16% to 20%) of Europe’s total non-EU-EFTA population in 2017, according to estimates, with 4% being unauthorized immigrants with a pending asylum claim that year. This means authorized non-EU-EFTA citizens living in Europe outnumbered unauthorized immigrants by about four to one.

https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/11/15/qa-how-pew-research-center-estimated-the-number-of-unauthorized-immigrants-in-europe/, 15.11.19

Statewatch and PICUM: Data Protection, Immigration Enforcement and Fundamental Rights: What the EU's Regulations on Interoperability Mean for People with Irregular Status

This paper examines the EU’s justice and home affairs databases and information systems, the changes that have been introduced by recent legislation seeking to make those systems ‘interoperable’ and the potential implications of those changes for fundamental rights, in particular in relation to undocumented migrants. Notwithstanding concerns over the necessity and proportionality of the interoperability initiative as a whole, the new rules lack the necessary safeguards to protect people from the arbitrary, unjustified or excessive exercise of state power. With key details left to national government decisions, closely monitoring the implementation of these rules will be crucial to uphold the rights of undocumented migrants and other parts of the population

https://picum.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Data-Protection-Immigration-Enforcement-and-Fundamental-Rights-Exec-Summary-EN.pdf, 14.11.19
Executive summary: in English (pdf) and French (pdf)

Guide on the case law of the European Convention on Human Rights: Immigration

This document functions as a reference tool to inform and update legal practitioners about fundamental decisions relating to a wide range of provisions on immigration in an effort to raise standards of human rights protection and share jurisprudential developments with Convention States.
The guide is divided into six chapters relating to immigration: access to territory and procedures; entry into territory of the respondent state; substantive and procedural aspects of cases concerning expulsion, extradition and related scenarios; procedures prior to removal and removal itself; other case scenarios, including economic and social rights and trafficking in human beings; and procedural aspects of applications before the Court, such as applications made in poor mental health.

https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Guide_Immigration_ENG.pdf, 31.8.19

IND: Impactanalyse: Aanpassing vergoeding rechtsbijstand in de asielprocedure

Het afschaffen van gesubsidieerde rechtsbijstand tot aan een voornemen tot afwijzing en de daaraan gekoppelde verschuiving van werkzaamheden naar de Immigratie- en Naturalisatiedienst (IND) heeft consequenties voor de IND. De afdeling Onderzoek en Analyse (O&A) heeft naar aanleiding van de motie Strik van december 2018 een impactanalyse uitgevoerd naar de gevolgen van deze maatregel. Omdat de precieze invulling en uitwerking van de maatregel nog niet bekend zijn, is binnen de IND een EAUT niet mogelijk in dit stadium. In deze impactanalyse is echter zoveel als mogelijk de systematiek van een EAUT aangehouden. Als op grond van deze impactanalyse de beleidskeuzes zijn gemaakt, zal in Q3 een EAUT plaatsvinden om de precieze impact van de gekozen beleidsopties in kaart te brengen.

ttps://www.rijksoverheid.nl/binaries/rijksoverheid/documenten/kamerstukken/2019/11/21/tk-bijlage-x-ex-ante-uitvoeringstoets-ind-zonder-p3/tk-bijlage-x-ex-ante-uitvoeringstoets-ind-zonder-p3.pdf, mrt19


  • Iraq: Christian converts (MEN2019-12) - ENG
  • Iraq: Legal and customary practices around forced marriage and divorce in Iraqi Kurdistan (MEN2019-15) - ENG

Europese Rekenkamer:  Asiel, herplaatsing en terugkeer van migranten - tijd om de inspanningen op te voeren en de kloof tussen doelstellingen en resultaten te dichten

In deze controle hebben we beoordeeld of de doelstellingen van de door de EU gefinancierde steunmaatregelen voor Griekenland en Italië werden behaald en of de asiel- en terugkeerprocedures doeltreffend en snel waren. Bovendien beoordeelden we of de streefdoelen en doelstelling van de tijdelijke noodregelingen voor herplaatsing werden behaald.

We concluderen dat de streefdoelen van de noodregelingen voor herplaatsing niet werden behaald. Hoewel de capaciteiten van de Griekse en Italiaanse autoriteiten zijn toegenomen, is de uitvoering van de asielprocedures nog steeds onderhevig aan lange verwerkingstijden en knelpunten. Net als in de rest van de EU keren vanuit Griekenland en Italië weinig migranten terug.

https://www.eca.europa.eu/Lists/ECADocuments/SR19_24/SR_Migration_management_NL.pdf, 13.11.19

ECRE Policy Note: Time to Commit: Using the Global Refugee Forum

The Policy Note focus on the aspects of the Global Refugee Forum (GCR) which, based on ECRE’s analysis, require specific action by either EU institutions or Member States to fulfil the objectives of the Global Compact on Refugees. It also sets out concrete recommendations regarding related pledges that could be made at the Global Refugee Forum.

This includes supporting access to asylum and ensuring adequate and dignified reception in Europe, expanding resettlement and complementary pathways to Europe and facilitate family reunification.

In the Policy Note ECRE argues that the creation of inclusive European societies with the systematic inclusion of refugees should be at the center of policies. EU institutions and MS should champion inclusive approaches to policy making in the field of asylum and migration by committing to the systematic consultation and ongoing involvement with representatives of refugee communities in all policy debates that have an impact on them. The EU’s external action should advance refugee rights and self-reliance, rather than pursue a migration related control agendahttps://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Policy-Note-23.pdf, nov19

EUI: Search and Rescue (SAR) is not a Pull Factor

Combining data from UNHCR, IOM and the Italian Coast Guard, the report finds that there is no significant relationship between NGO’s SAR activity and the departures from the Libyan coast between 2014 and 2018. A closer analysis on presence of NGO ships in the first ten months of 2019, where NGOs remained the only actor conducting SAR, similarly concludes that there is no evidence to suggest that departures increased when NGO ships were at sea during the period considered. Instead, the research finds that the agreement between Italy and the Libyan militias from July 2017, weather conditions and violent conflict in Libya in April 2019 had an impact on departures from Libya.

The authors recommend reconsidering government policies disincentivising SAR operations and restoring EU-led missions combining SAR and border enforcement, like Mare Nostrum. They call for effective, lawful and ethically defensible migration governance across the Central Mediterranean.

https://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/65024/PB_2019_22_MPC.pdf?sequence=5, nov19

UN:   Global Study on Children Deprived of Liberty.

The study is the result of years of work by the UN Independent Expert on Children Deprived of Liberty, Manfred Nowak to evaluate all forms of deprivation of liberty of children, including children in migration-related situations. Among the study's recommendations concerning migration detention:

  • States should adopt all necessary measures to end immigration detention of children and families.
  • States should collect and make publicly available disaggregated, anonymised data, to clarify the numbers of, and circumstances faced by, child detainees.
  • States should design and implement child-sensitive screening processes to ensure prompt identification of children who come into contact with migration authorities. 
  • Unaccompanied and separated children should be referred to the regular child protection system for appropriate attention, protection, and care.
  • Assessments of a child's best interests should be undertaken independent of migration authorities.
  • States should develop credible and effective protection programmes that provide appropriate protection and care to migrant children.
  • Children with family members should be allowed to remain with their families in non-custodial, community-based contexts. 
  • Under no circumstances should children be returned or transferred to a country where there are grounds to believe the child would face risks. 

https://omnibook.com/view/e0623280-5656-42f8-9edf-5872f8f08562, 20.11.19

Friederike Stahlmann : Verbleib und zu den Erfahrungen abgeschobener Afghanen

Diese Studie beschäftigt sich mit der Situation von aus Deutschland zwischen Dezember 2016 und April 2019 abgeschobenen Afghanen. Der Wissenschaftlerin sprach mit 55 Personen, also etwa 10 Prozent der in diesem Zeitraum Abgeschobenen. Die Studie ergab, dass Gewalt gegen Abgeschobene und ihre Familien aufgrund ihrer Rückkehr nicht nur mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit eintritt, sondern auch bereits innerhalb kürzester Zeit nach Ankunft.  Von den 31, die Afghanistan nicht bereits wieder binnen zwei Monaten verlassen haben und erneut auf die Flucht gingen, gaben 90 Prozent an, Gewalterfahrungen gemacht zu haben. Über 50 Prozent berichteten von Gewalterfahrungen, die auch sonst den afghanischen Alltag prägen. Ebenfalls über 50 Prozent berichteten von Gewalterfahrungen aufgrund ihres Aufenthalts in Europa. Von Seiten der Taliban wird die Flucht nach Europa mit Misstrauen beäugt oder gar als ein »Überlaufen zum Feind« betrachtet. Betroffene berichteten aber auch, dass sie von Nachbar*innen, Familienangehörigen und sogar Fremden auf der Straße als »Verräter« oder »Ungläubige« angesehen, bedroht, gejagt oder angegriffen wurden. Auch wer Kontakt hält zu Europäer*innen, gar Journalist*innen, begibt sich in Gefahr.

Mehr als 85 Prozent der Abgeschobenen gaben an, sich hauptsächlich durch private Unterstützung aus dem Ausland über Wasser zu halten, soweit das überhaupt gelingt. Keinem einzigen der Befragten ist eine Existenzgründung durch Arbeit oder auf andere nachhaltige Weise gelungen. Mit familiärer Solidarität in Afghanistan können Abgeschobene schon deshalb selten rechnen, weil sich die Familien dadurch selbst in Gefahr von Verfolgung und krimineller Übergriffe bringen würden.


Helon Habila:  Travellers

Na een lang gesprek in de trein verwisselt de hoofdpersoon per ongeluk zijn tas met die van een vluchteling, Daar staat hij op het perron van Frankfurt, zonder papieren, pasjes en geld. Opeens denkt hij het gezicht van de vluchteling te zien in een andere trein en springt naar binnen. Het is iemand anders, en deze speciale trein brengt migranten terug naar Italië. Deze fantastische wending in de stijl van Kafka brengt de ik-persoon uit zijn comfortabele wereldje van academische ‘reiziger’ uit Nigeria in het Westen naar die van de bootvluchtelingen. Het is even wennen voor de lezer van de verder realistische  roman vol aangrijpende levensverhalen van uiteenlopende migranten; van een transgender uit Malawi tot een Libische arts die naar Checkpoint Charlie blijft gaan in de hoop zijn vrouw terug te zien.


Behrouz Boochani: Alleen de bergen zijn mijn vrienden

In 2013 trachtte de Koerdische dichter en journalist Behrouz Boochani te vluchten naar Australië. In plaats van daar onderdak te vinden, werd hij op zee opgepakt en naar het eiland Manus gevlogen, waar hij illegaal gevangen werd gezet in wat wel de 'Australische goelag' en het 'Australische Guantanamo' is genoemd. Daar verbleef hij tot september 2019.
Boochani schreef 'Alleen de bergen zijn mijn vrienden' tijdens zijn gevangenschap in het geheim op een telefoon die hij voor de bewakers verborgen moest houden. Hij smokkelde zijn verhaal via tekstberichten van het eiland.

https://www.libris.nl/boek/?authortitle=behrouz-boochani%2Falleen-de-bergen-zijn-mijn-vrienden--9789491921698%2F, nov19

Nieuwsbrief 23, 2019

Eck, Emil van, The Dynamic Relationship between Immigrant Politics and Urban Policymaking - Protecting the rights of undocumented immigrants in Boston and Amsterdam.

On the basis of a transatlantic comparative case study design, thia article identifies tactics of legal change for undocumented immigrants. In Boston and Amsterdam, immigrant organizations collaborate with other civic organizations, advocacy groups, and strategically selected politicians within city councils on local policy issues affecting undocumented immigrant communities. Yet, there are different divisions of labor and means of reasoning within these networks, depending on the historically developed relations between governmental officials and immigrant organizations, as well as the discretionary power that local governments have in formulating and implementing own policies. The study therefore draws attention to the dynamic nature of the interaction between immigrant politics and the local policymaking process.

http://www.scriptiesonline.uba.uva.nl/document/676243, juni19

Caritas: Common Home: migration and development in Europe and beyond

Overall, the lesson for policy makers and communities is to create a virtuous circle on migration and development based upon the following logic:

1) on the one hand, migration, as with many other life choices made by human beings, is a potential opportunity for sustainable development of all countries and communities, and needs to be facilitated with measures ensuring the dignity and rights of migrants, refugees and asylum seekers;

2) on the other hand, the development agenda should be primarily concerned with fostering sustainable development in Europe and beyond for the benefit of everyone, ensuring that migration largely remains a choice and not a desperate necessity.

The findings of this publication confirm that given the right structures and legal opportunities, states should build on the potential of migration to contribute not only to the integral human development of migrants and their families, but also to communities, as well as to the sustainable development of their countries of origin, transit and destination

https://www.caritas.eu/common-home-eu/, 5.11.19

Algemeen ambtsbericht Turkije, 31.10.19

Op 31 oktober 2019 is een nieuw algemeen ambtsbericht over Turkije verschenen. De verslagperiode loopt van de mislukte staatsgreep in juli 2016 tot en met september 2019.



ACVZ: Secundaire migratie van asielzoekers in de EU

De ACVZ stelt vast dat secundaire migratie van asielzoekers in de EU de laatste jaren substantieel is toegenomen, ondanks het feit dat het aantal asielaanvragen sinds eind 2016 weer op het niveau van 2014 ligt. De precieze omvang van het aantal doorreizende asielzoekers kan echter niet worden bepaald.

Lidstaten proberen secundaire migratie van asielzoekers tegen te gaan door het nemen van restrictieve maatregelen. Dergelijke maatregelen kunnen asielzoekers inderdaad afschrikken om naar een bepaalde lidstaat te reizen of stimuleren om er te vertrekken, maar leiden tegelijkertijd tot secundaire migratie naar andere lidstaten. Voor de EU als geheel hebben ze beperkt effect.

De ACVZ adviseert om:

  • De grondoorzaken van asielgerelateerde migratie in algemene zin en secundaire migratie van asielzoekers verder aan te pakken
  • In te zetten op een eerlijker, evenwichtiger en efficiënter Dublin-systeem
  • Te blijven inzetten op een verbetering van het terugkeerbeleid in EU-verband
  • In te zetten op uitgebreidere analysemogelijkheden.

Lees het Advies en het Onderzoeksrapport (nov19).

Regioplan: Evaluatie pilot multidisciplinaire advisering slachtofferschap mensenhandel

Het doel van deze procesevaluatie was om te onderzoeken in hoeverre het mogelijk is om met een multidisciplinaire aanpak slachtofferschap van mensenhandel aannemelijk te maken. Van de 44 uitgebrachte adviezen oordeelde de commissie in 32 gevallen dat slachtofferschap aannemelijk was. Met de inzet van een multidisciplinair team van experts is met een open blik gekeken naar de aanvragen en heeft men op basis van verschillende informatiebronnen voldoende aanknopingspunten gevonden om slachtofferschap aannemelijk te achten.

https://www.wodc.nl/binaries/2795_Volledige_Tekst_tcm28-408823.pdf, sept19

Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel: Slachtoffermonitor mensenhandel 2014-2018

De slachtoffermonitor vormt samen met de dadermonitor de monitor mensenhandel. De slachtoffermonitor belicht de belangrijkste de ontwikkelingen op het gebied van beleid, onderzoek en wetgeving. Voorts geeft het inzage in het aantal slachtoffers dat in Nederland in beeld komt bij CoMensha en de IND, in welke sector zij zijn uitgebuit en welke vorm van mensenhandel het betreft. Daarnaast bevat het rapport een overzicht van slachtoffers die gebruik maken van de verblijfsregeling mensenhandel.

https://www.nationaalrapporteur.nl/Publicaties/slachtoffermonitor-mensenhandel-2014-2018.aspx, 18.10.19

Mark Akkerman, TNI: The Business of Building Walls

It is important to look both beyond and behind Europe's walls and fencing, because the real barriers to contemporary migration are not so much the fencing, but the vast array of technology that underpins it, from the radar systems to the drones to the surveillance cameras to the biometric fingerprinting systems. Similarly, some of Europe's most dangerous walls are not even physical or on land. The ships, aircrafts and drones used to patrol the Mediterranean have created a maritime wall and a graveyard for the thousands of migrants and refugees who have no legal passage to safety or to exercise their right to seek asylum.

This report explores the business of building walls, which has both fuelled and benefited from a massive expansion of public spending on border security by the European Union (EU) and its member states. Some of the corporate beneficiaries are also global players, tapping into a global market for border security estimated to be worth approximately €17.5 billion in 2018, with annual growth of at least 8% expected in coming years.

This report t focuses on the businesses that have profited from three different kinds of wall in Europe: the construction companies together with the security and technology companies that built the land walls ; the shipping and arms companies that provide the ships, aircraft, helicopters, drones ; and the IT and security companies contracted to develop, run, expand and maintain Europe's virtual walls.

Read the full report, 5.11.19

Conte, Carmine & Valentina Savazzi: Addressing the systematic use of immigration detention in the EU

This policy brief discusses the main policy options proposed by academics and stakeholders to fill the key gaps at EU and national level and improve the quality of the responses to the evolving policy agenda. They revolve around the idea of the risk of absconding, the length of detention, the new ground for detention, the limitation of the suspensive effect of legal remedies, the impact of detention on migrants’ health and their social sphere, child detention and alternative measures to detention.

https://www.migpolgroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/POB-Detention.pdf, sept19

IDC Briefing Paper: Alternatives to Detention: Learning What Works & Why

Migration authorities need evidence about what interventions work – and why – in order to implement or expand alternatives to detention. Monitoring and evaluation is key.

https://idcoalition.org/publication/alternatives-learning-what-works-why/, sept19

UNICEF: Child-Sensitive Return - Upholding the best interests of migrant and refugee children in return and reintegration decisions and processes in selected European countries (Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom)

Het rapport focust op de terugkeer van kinderen vanuit deze vier landen naar de landen van herkomst, of naar andere landen in Europa. In hoeverre het belang van het kind daarin werd meegenomen was nauwelijks bekend. Het onderzoek beantwoordt de vraag: Wat gaat er op goed en wat zijn de uitdagingen? Wat betreft Nederland zien we dat ons land het op sommige vlakken goed doet maar dat er ook nog heel veel beter kan.

Soms scoort Nederland slecht in vergelijking met andere landen. Zoals het opsluiten (detineren) van kinderen vanwege hun migratiestatus: NL is hierin koploper. Detentie is onnodig leed dat deze kinderen wordt aangedaan. UNICEF vindt dit zorgelijk, omdat detentie schadelijke effecten heeft op kinderen, terwijl er geen bewezen impact is op terugkeercijfers.

NLs rapport; vergelijkend rapporten samenvatting, nov19

Giuseppe Atozzella : Ook jij zult stralen

In deze roman treft de elfjarige Pietro een groepje vluchtelingen aan in de kerk van het bergdorpje Arigliana in Zuid-Italië waar hij bij zijn opa en oma logeert. De ontdekking slaat in als een bom en alle tweehonderd dorpsbewoners hebben er een mening over. In de realistische roman worden de vreemdelingen mensonterend behandeld op het land, ontroert de jongste vluchteling Josh het dorp tot tranen me zijn pianospel, maar waar het verhaal werkelijk om draait is de oude familievete tussen despoot Rocco en de opa van Pietro.


Nieuwsbrief 22, 2019

NVVB: ID-Protocol voor medewerkers Burgerzaken

De vaststelling en vastlegging van de identiteit van burgers moet zodanig zijn dat overheidsinstanties niet hoeven te twijfelen aan de juistheid van de registratie en de op basis daarvan afgegeven identiteitsdocumenten en toegekende elektronische identiteiten. De NVVB wil met dit ID-protocol een overzicht bieden van de mogelijke bronnen en hulpmiddelen.

https://nvvb.nl/media/cms_page_media/258/ID_protocol_Medewerkers_O21cBfQ.pdf, okt19

UNDP: Scaling Fences: Voices of Irregular African Migrants to Europe

The 1,970 interviewed migrants from 39 African countries in 13 European nations, all declared that they had arrived in Europe through irregular means and not for asylum or protection-related reasons. The report finds that getting a job was not the only motivation to move; that not all irregular migrants were 'poor' in Africa, nor had lower education levels. Around 58 per cent were either employed or in school at the time of their departure, with the majority of those working, earning competitive wages.

But around half of those working said they were not earning enough. In fact, for two-thirds of those interviewed, earning, or the prospect of earning in their home countries, did not hold them back from travelling. The respondents also spent at least three years more in education than their peers.

The apparent shame of failing in their "mission" to send sufficient funds back home, emerged as a major factor keeping migrants working in Europe, according to UNDP. Around 53 per cent had received support from family and friends, in order to make the journey, and once in Europe, around 78 per cent, were sending money back.

The report also found key differences between men and women in terms of the migrant experience.  

https://www.africa.undp.org/content/rba/en/home/library/reports/ScalingFences.html, 21.10.19

Sabet, Navid (2019): Political representation and redistribution: the economics of enfranchisement and undocumented migration. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Economics

The overarching goal of this dissertation is to highlight the economic and political impact of political participation. The cental question is : what happens to the distribution of political power and economic resources when ordinary citizens participate more fully in the affairs of society?

In Chapter 2, we ask what happens to the distribution of public resources when undocumented migrants obtain legal status, and eventually citizenship and the right to vote, through a nation-wide amnesty. Our analysis is motivated by a model of distributive politics in which incumbent politicians respond to changes in the electorate by adjusting their budget allocations to target the preferences of the newly enfranchised group so as to optimise (a) the welfare of the population and (b) their own re-election chances. ... On the whole, the results of the paper suggest that the relationship between legal status and the distribution of public resources is one of discretionary political choice rather than one of economic necessity or mechanical welfare increases.

https://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/24571/1/Sabet_Navid.pdf, juli19

CEPS: Rethinking EU Migration and Asylum Policies - Managing immigration jointly with countries of origin and transit

It is clear that asylum and migration policy will continue to be high up on the EU policy agenda and will remain an important topic for the next European Commission. Though current positions in the European Council regarding how to make progress on the Common European Asylum System seem deadlocked, there is considerable scope for dialogue and debate on the future of EU asylum policy as well as the wider issue of improving overall management of migration.

https://www.ceps.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/MEDAM-assessment-report_2019.pdf, okt19

Algemeen ambtsbericht Eritrea oktober 2019

UNHCR : Desperate Journeys (about child refugees)

European States must step up their efforts to protect child refugees and migrants who have endured not only difficult and dangerous journeys but continue to face risks and hardship once in Europe, including unsafe accommodation, being incorrectly registered as adults, and a lack of appropriate care, UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, has urged

UNHCR’s latest report notes that from January to September 2019, some 80,800 people arrived in Europe via Mediterranean routes. Of those, more than a quarter were children, many travelling without their parents.

UNHCR - Desperate Journeys - January/September 2019 , 15.10.19

Birgit Glorius and Jeroen Doomernik : Geographies of Asylum in Europe and the Role of European Localities

This book describes how the numerous arrivals of asylum seekers since 2015 shaped reception and integration processes in Europe. It addresses the structuration of asylum and reception systems, and spaces and places of reception on European, national, regional and local level. It also analyses perceptions and discourses on asylum and refugees, their evolvement and the consequences for policy development. Furthermore, it examines practices and policy developments in the field of refugee reception and integration. The volume shows and explains a variety of refugee reception and integration strategies and practices as specific outcome of multilevel governance processes in Europe. By addressing and contextualizing those multiple experiences of asylum seeker reception, the book is a valuable contribution to the literature on migration and integration, societal development and political culture in Europe.


EMN and Odysseus Network: Background notes Conference "From Tampere 20 to Tampere 2.0".

These notes critically assess the current EU legal and policy framework and propose suggestions for future reforms focusing on a number of areas such as Schengen and Borders, Dublin and solidarity, Legal Migration, and Migration and Development. Each note is the result of a dedicated preparatory workshop where experts and representatives from EU institutions, national governments, international organizations, academia and civil society had the chance to express their critiques and suggestions which are reflected in the notes.

All the background notes are now available here (22.10.19)

CSDM: The Protection of Family Unity in Dublin Procedures

The report outlines that the Dublin III Regulation has the potential to afford effective protection to families if properly interpreted, particularly in light of the fact that respect for family life must be a "primary consideration" in Dublin procedures.

As well as providing an overview of the different institutional and interpretative elements of the Dublin Regulation, the report focuses on two key areas. Firstly, the report details the existing protection to family rights under the Dublin Regulation as well as the specific challenges that families face in such procedures, such as the unreasonable burden to prove the existence of family ties. Secondly, the report outlines the need for the increased use of discretion to avoid situations where families are increasingly separated as a result of a strict reading of the law.

https://centre-csdm.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/MAIANI-Dublin-Study-CSDM-14.10.2019.pdf, 14.10.19

The Palgrave International Handbook of Human Trafficking

This handbook is an international, comprehensive, reference tool in the field of trafficking in people and slavery. It covers everything from historical perspectives to cutting-edge topics to provide a high-level and systematic examination of the field which is at the forefront of both research and practice. It has an impressive breadth of entries from leading experts and international organisations to NGOs on the ground. This handbook is truly global with contributions from scholars and practitioners on virtually every continent (e.g. Europe, North America, Australia, Africa, Asia, and South America). This book also covers problematic areas that cannot be found in other reference works.

The Palgrave International Handbook of Human Trafficking, 1nov19

Laura Salvadego: The Respect for Fundamental Human Rights in the Fight against Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling across the Central Mediterranean Sea

This study analyzes counter-smuggling and counter-trafficking operations carried out in the Mediterranean, mainly focusing on the EU operations Sophia and Themis. The purpose is to assess a number of issues linked with naval operations from a human rights perspective. These issues include the applicable law, the exercise of criminal jurisdiction over smugglers and traffickers, national strategies of coastal States as regards migration control policy and, finally, international responsibility for human rights violations perpetrated in connection with these operations. Although the study is primarily aimed at both Ph.D. students and legal scholars specialized in the field, it also seeks to provide insights that may be of guidance to NGOs, legal practitioners and legislators within the EU and its Member States.

https://brill.com/view/title/55683, sept19

A. Busser, R. Oosterhuis en T. Strik: Vreemdelingendetentie (II) - Gronden getoetst aan wetsvoorstel en aan Europees en internationaal recht

In dit artikel worden de procedurele waarborgen en de rechterlijke toetsing van detentie bij (gedwongen) terugkeer besproken in het licht van het wetsvoorstel Terugkeer en Vreemdelingenbewaring en het Europees en internationaal recht. De auteurs concluderen dat 'de criteria voor detentie zo ruim zijn en de alternatieven zo summier ontwikkeld, dat de toets aan noodzakelijkheid en proportionaliteit in de praktijk te weinig waarborgen biedt.'

http://www.stichtinglos.nl/sites/default/files/los/vreemdelingendetentie_ii__brusser__oosterhuis__strik.pdf in A&MR 9, okt19

Madeleine Schwartz: Inside the Deportation Courts

Volgens president Trumpis asiel een ‘maas’ in het immigratiesysteem, daarom zijn de immigratie-rechtbanken erop gericht om zoveel mogelijk zaken te behandelen en zoveel mogelijk immigranten weer de grens over te zetten. De helft van de immigratierechters die door Trump zijn aangesteld werkte voorheen voor de immigratiedienst. De rechters zijn onderdeel van de uitvoerende macht: als ze niet genoeg zaken behandelen, worden ze bestraft of ontslagen. Een goede verdediging is allesbehalve vanzelfsrpekend voor asielzoekers. Omdat ze geen Amerikaans staatsburger zijn, hebben ze geen recht op een advocaat.

https://www.nybooks.com/articles/2019/10/10/inside-the-deportation-courts/, 10.10.19

Michela Masera (Masterscriptie): Longing to belong: how immigration detention applies to stateless persons

The concept of immigration detention refers to a restriction of the right to liberty and security of the person, a basic entitlement guaranteed by Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), adopted in 1948 by the United Nations (UN). Since then, the respect of the right to life and the prohibition of arbitrary detention have been included in the many international and regional treaties. Within this framework, stateless persons, defined in international law as individuals “who are not considered as nationals by any state under the operation of its law” , experience the situation differently than other 5 migrants: unlike other individuals in detention, in fact, they face a more problematic situation since there is no State to address them to. Due to a lack of regularization of their status, they are found to be illegally staying in a country and, thus, vulnerable to detention.

http://arno.uvt.nl/show.cgi?fid=148761, aug19

Natascha Elena Uhlmann: Abolish ICE (Immigration and Customs Enforcement)

Under the Presidency of Donald Trump, the existence of ICE has become a highly controversial issue. With widespread separation of families and legion abuses in privately owned detention centers, all fueled by openly racist pronouncements from the White House, increasing numbers are now demanding the abolition of the agency. They include both activists and mainstream politicians such as Senators Elizabeth Warren and Kirsten Gillibrand.

Many of the immigrants caught up in ICE’s dragnet are only attempting to cross the border because of abuses by the United States in their home countries. And harassment of those fleeing is not restricted to the present administration. Barack Obama’s presidency was responsible for nearly 3 million deportations, a record number.

https://www.orbooks.com/catalog/abolish-ice/, okt19

FMR 62: 'Return: voluntary, safe, dignified and durable?'

Voluntary return in safety and with dignity has long been a core tenet of the international refugee regime. In the 23 articles, authors explore various obstacles to achieving sustainable return, discuss the need to guard against premature or forced return, and debate the assumptions and perceptions that influence policy and practice. This issue also includes a collection of articles on 'Towards understanding and addressing the root causes of displacement', prepared as resource material for the December 2019 Global Refugee Forum.

Download: www.fmreview.org/return.

Nieuwsbrief 21, 2019

Barbara Oomen: Illegalen, ofwel rechtenmensen

In this Dutch article Barbara Oomen argues against the use of the term "illegal".
https://citiesofrefuge.eu/sites/default/files/2019-09/Illegalen%2C%20ofwel%20rechtenmensen.pdf, 17.9.19

Sarah Spencer,  Anna Triandafyllidou: Migrants with Irregular Status in Europe : Evolving Conceptual and Policy Challenges

This open access book explores the conceptual challenges posed by the presence of migrants with irregular immigration status in Europe and the evolving policy responses at European, national and municipal level. It addresses the conceptual and policy issues raised, post-entry, by this particular section of the migrant population. Drawing on evidence from different parts of Europe, the book takes the reader through philosophical and ethical dilemmas, legal and sociological analysis to questions of public policy and governance before addressing the concrete ways in which those questions are posed in current policy agendas from the international to the local level. As such this book is a valuable read to researchers, practitioners and policy makers as well as to students working on irregular migration in Europe in a comparative and/or country based perspective.

https://www.imiscoe.org/publications/library/2-imiscoe-research-series/132-migrants-with-irregular-status-in-europe, 14.10.19

Oxford University: “Safe reporting” of crime for victims and witnesses with irregular migration status in the USA and Europe

This research and knowledge-exchange project explores law, policy and practices surrounding the reporting of crime by irregular migrants in the USA and four European countries (Belgium, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands); and assesses the legal and political “replicability” of relevant experiences from the USA in European contexts.

The project focuses on national and local “firewall” measures allowing “safe reporting” for victims or witnesses with irregular migration status (i.e. measures enabling irregular migrants to report crime without exposing themselves to immigration enforcement).

The ‘safe reporting project’ produced five “country reports” outlining the legal and policy frameworks surrounding “safe reporting” in Belgium, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the USA. The report for the USA also explores the legal and political conditions that allowed the adoption of “sanctuary policies” in the cities of New York and San Francisco.

C.H.J. Willemsen: Identiteitsvaststelling van verdachten en illegale vreemdelingen door opsporingsdiensten (promotie)

Het doel van de identiteitsvaststelling is zowel voor het strafrecht als het vreemdelingenrecht om vast te stellen of iemand is of aantoont wie hij zegt te zijn oftewel de door de overheid vastgelegde identiteit te achterhalen en vervolgens te gebruiken. Het belangrijkste resultaat van het onderzoek is een toetsingskader dat zowel grafisch als in woorden de indicatoren weergeeft waarmee een opsporingsdienst een bepaald kwaliteits-, volwassenheids- of deskundigheidsniveau kan bereiken.

https://pure.uvt.nl/ws/portalfiles/portal/31180486/Willemsen_identiteitsvaststelling_01_10_2019.pdf, 1.10.19

Ambtsbericht Soedan, 4.10.19

EASO: Eritrea country of origin information report

The report aims to provide updated information on international protection determination in Europe. The report makes a number of observations relevant to determining international protection status. These observations include the fact that Eritrea does not accept forced returns of asylum seekers, and the requirement of exit visas make lawful exit difficult. Moreover, punishments for military draft evasion are inconsistent, ranging from military deployment to prison sentences, and even torture

https://www.easo.europa.eu/news-events/easo-publishes-country-origin-information-coi-report-eritrea, 30.9.19


  • The Gambia: Situation for LGBTI Individuals (AFR2019-22) – ENG
  • Uzbekistan: Discrimination against Ethnic Minorities and Human Rights Situation in the Country Post-2016 (2019 Update) (CIS2019-06) – ENG


R.W.J. Severijns: Zoeken naar zekerheid. Een onderzoek naar de vaststelling van feiten door hoor- en beslismedewerkers van de immigratie- en naturalisatiedienst in de Nederlandse asielprocedure (Promotie)

Feiten zijn in asielprocedures meestal niet met zekerheid vast te stellen, omdat bewijs vaak ontbreekt of lastig is te verkrijgen. Toch moet iedere asielprocedure eindigen met een besluit. De besluitvorming in het asielrecht staat permanent ter discussie en er is vaak kritiek op genomen beslissingen en het gevoerde beleid. Hoor- en beslismedewerkers van de Immigratie- en Naturalisatiedienst moeten proberen voldoende zekerheid te verkrijgen over de feiten om een besluit te kunnen nemen. Dit boek geeft antwoord op de vraag hoe de hoor- en beslismedewerkers van de Immigratie- en Naturalisatiedienst in asielprocedures omgaan met onzekerheden bij het vaststellen van feiten.

https://www.wolterskluwer.nl/shop/boek/zoeken-naar-zekerheid/NPZOEZEKE, 9.10.19

ECRE Policy Note: Making the CEAS Work, Starting Today

The stalemate in the negotiations on the reform of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) over the past three years has demonstrated the inability of European Union (EU) Member States to find common ground on asylum policies. Against that backdrop, withdrawal of the proposals is an increasingly likely move from the new European Commission.

ECRE maintains that the 2016 proposals tabled by the Commission constituted a worrying lowering of The focus needs to be compliance not reform, with two exceptions: First, while Dublin IV should be withdrawn, ultimately legislative reform of the Dublin system is needed. Second, a new legal base for EASO and its transformation into the EU Asylum Agency (EUAA) remains necessary.

https://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/PN_22.pdf, okt19

Gil Richard Musolf: Conflict and Forced Migration: Escape from Oppression and Stories of Survival, Resilience, and Hope

This volume brings together a wide variety of contributors, from scholars and a psychiatric social worker, to former refugees who were resettled in the United States and a mural artist, to explore the current face of migration conflict. Including personal narratives, academic papers, and artistic research, this volume is split into four sections, looking at the social structure of conflict, voices of resilience, humanitarian advocacy, and art and hope.

https://books.emeraldinsight.com/page/detail/Conflict-and-Forced-Migration/?K=9781838673949, 21.10.19

Ake Ericson: Beyond Afghanistan : The Struggle of the Refugees

This book is a photojournalistic essay about the unaccompanied young refugees who came from Afghanistan and their struggle to create a life for themselves in Sweden. For two-months in the late summer and autumn of 2017 there was a sit-down protest in Stockholm against the deportations from Sweden. Photojournalist Ãke Ericson followed the young Afghans in their everyday lives after receiving their deportation orders, on the train while fleeing to France and in the tent-camps under the bridges of Paris. He also met many who are locked-up in the Swedish Migration Agency’s detention centre, where they sit, often for many months, waiting to be deported to Afghanistan.

https://shop.dokument.org/other-stuff/the-rest/9789188369345/, 17.10.19

Leerkes, A., Hoon, M. de, Damen, R.: Blijven vergunninghouders in Nederland? Patronen en determinanten van vervolgmigratie en remigratie onder asielmigranten, cohort 1995-1999

Onder degenen die zich in de tweede helft van de jaren negentig van de vorige eeuw in Nederland vestigden, stond 31,6% op 31 december 2015 niet meer in de GBA ingeschreven; 4,3% was volgens de registraties teruggekeerd naar het land van herkomst (remigratie), 12,4% was geëmigreerd naar een ander land (vervolgmigratie) en 14,9% was administratief verwijderd zonder dat er een opvolgend woonland bekend was. We veronderstelden dat personen uit de laatstgenoemde groep eind 2015 in meerderheid niet meer in Nederland woonden. We stelden tevens vast dat ongeveer 1 op de 10 migranten die eind 2015 in Nederland woonden een periode uitgeschreven was geweest uit het bevolkingsregister: zij hadden Nederland tijdelijk verlaten en/of verbleven een periode in Nederland zonder rechtmatig verblijf.


Werkinstructie 2019/15: 8EVRM

In hoofdstuk 11 (Procedure aspecten) zijn vier paragrafen geschrapt. In die paragrafen werd kort ingegaan op de wettelijke basis, aard en duur van de verblijfsvergunning voor het uitoefenen van gezinsleven o.g.v. art. 8 EVRM, alsmede op het recht op voortgezet verblijf.


Masterthesis Martens, Manon Willemijn Jeanne: Legal empowerment through legal aid: An examination of the Support to Victims of Human Trafficking programme. 

Although legal provisions are presumed to serve all members of society, vulnerable individuals and communities often lack the resources and capabilities to effectively exercise and claim rights. As a response to this problem, legal empowerment gained increasing recognition in the international development agenda. Legal empowerment shifts the focus from the supply side of the law to the needs and priorities of the end users of the law through a process that enables the poor to use the law, the legal system, and legal services to protect and advance their rights and interests.

This dissertation presents an empirical study that links theoretical insights of legal empowerment with a current practice of legal aid – the dominant approach to promote legal empowerment – to examine if and how this legal aid practice adheres to the legal empowerment paradigm. By doing so, this study also sheds light on the effect of legal aid on broader development processes. This dissertation shows that legal aid does not only adhere to the legal empowerment paradigm, but could also increase capabilities in other spheres. There is an important interconnectedness between legal empowerment and non-legal features of the broader process of empowerment. http://arts.studenttheses.ub.rug.nl/id/eprint/24627, 30.8.19

Achilli, L. and Sanchez, G.: Critical insights on irregular migration facilitation: Global Perspectives 

In this short collection of essays, a group of scholars and practitioners sheds light on the experiences of the men, women and children who around the world work in the facilitation of migrant’s journeys –a practice that has been legally and often narrowly termed migrant smuggling. Authors challenge the monolithic perceptions of smuggling as merely exploitative, inherently criminal, violent and male, by documenting the experiences of the people whose actions facilitate migration into Europe and the United States, across Africa, the Americas and the Pacific, and shedding light on everyday practices and interactions of mobility and their criminalization by the state.

https://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/62384, 2019

Statewatch: the Revised Returns Directive

The revised Returns Directive is supposed to “speed up return procedures, prevent absconding and secondary movements, and increase the overall EU return rate, in full respect of fundamental rights.” This final point, however, is extremely doubtful. As this analysis makes clear, the key aim of the changes is to restrict individual rights in the name of improving the functioning of the EU’s deportation system. EU lawmakers should focus on alternative measures that would be less harmful to individuals.

http://www.statewatch.org/analyses/no-346-returns-directive.pdf, sept19

Hadj-Abdou, L. and Rosenberger, S.: Contesting the deportation state? Political change aspirations in protests against forced returns

Deportation of immigrants is a high-ranking issue on political agendas across Europe. Political authorities, however, face a challenge regarding forced returns: affected migrants, organized activists and concerned citizens are standing up for deportees. Do these protests contest the nation state’s sovereignty, expressed in the right to carry out deportations of foreign citizens? How far-reaching are protesters’ ambitions for political changes?

This article explores this topic by studying anti-deportation protests in Austria. It combines qualitative data from interviews with protesters with longitudinal data covering protest events from 1993 to 2013. Expanding previous research, the study finds that protests often refrain from demanding fundamental political change, instead they demonstrate overt conformism for tactical purposes. At the same time, protesters develop grievances about deportation policies and practices in the course of protest developments – they have covert reformist ambitions.

https://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/63867, 2019

Nieuwsbrief 20, 2019

EU-Magazine: ‘They are already citizens’: What will it take to bring Europe’s undocumented out of the shadows?

Innovative ways of supporting undocumented migrants so that they can access vital health, social and emergency services are required so that European countries can properly assist these vulnerable people.

https://horizon-magazine.eu/article/they-are-already-citizens-what-will-it-take-bring-europe-s-undocumented-out-shadows.html, 9.9.19

Ashley Terlouw, Anita Böcker: Mayors discretion in decisions about rejected asylum seekers

Many mayors are confronted with rejected asylum seekerrs living in their municipality, and with requests to support them. Dutch aliens law gives mayors little or no formal discretion, but the can derive room for manoeuvre from other national laws, in particular the Muicipalities Act and the Social Support Act, and international human rights law. The vague nature of what mayors’discretion exactly entails explains partly why we see differences between mayors in their apporaches to problems involving unlawfully present migrants and in their perceived disretion in this regard.

In: Liber Amicorum Elspeth Guild: Caught Between Borders, sept19

Dzananovic, D., Church Assistance to Unauthorized Stayers  The U.S. and Netherlands Compared.

There are normative and practical considerations that contribute to the fluidity of church-state relations. The normative dimension answers the should question and includes consideration of scripture, likelihood of the unauthorized stayer securing authorized residence status, and the unauthorized stayer’s religious conviction. The practical dimension answers the questions of can and how, and boils down to a consideration of resources. While anyone is free to address and decide on the normative question, effectuating a practical effect based on that normative decision depends heavily on the availability of, and conditions attached to, resources. As shown above, the type of help, and the type of person who can be helped, are both influenced by the amount and source of funding. So while a church can decide to offer the full array of assistance to anyone it deems worthy after its consideration of the normative question, its ability to do so is limited by conditions attached to the funding it receives.

https://repository.ubn.ru.nl/bitstream/handle/2066/206761/206761.pdf, 27.9.19

Emiel Woutersen: Uitgebuit - Het verhaal van de Nederlandse werkvloer

Verslaggevers van het Platform voor onderzoeksjournalistiek Investico onderzochten de onderkant van de arbeidsmarkt en stuitten op schokkende situaties. Er loopt een rechte lijn van flexwerk naar moderne slavernij. En niet alleen bij Uber of Amazon – arbeidsuitbuiting heerst overal, blijkt uit hun reportages over onder meer het distributiecentrum van Albert Heijn, de tabak- en vleesfabriek en de verborgen wereld van schoonmakers en au pairs.

https://www.atlascontact.nl/boek/uitgebuit/, sept19

PICUM : Safeguarding the human rights and dignity of undocumented migrant sex workers.

In this paper, PICUM outlines the harmful impact of the criminalisation of sex work and concludes that legal frameworks criminalising the purchase and facilitation of sex work impact negatively on undocumented sex workers. Criminalisation places power in the hands of exploitative managers, dangerous clients, and abusive police officers.

These harms are exacerbated if a sex worker has an irregular immigration status. Migrants and people of colour – cis and transgender migrant women of colour in particular – are disproportionately subject to police harassment and targeted for immigration enforcement, including as a result of anti-trafficking initiatives.

https://picum.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Safeguarding-the-human-rights-and-dignity-of-undocumented-migrant-sex-workers.pdf, sept19

M.A. Hertoghs (Maja) : Intensities of the State : An ethnography of intimacy and suspicion in Dutch asylum procedures

This anthropological dissertation investigates how state power mobilizes different bodies, those of immigration officials and asylum lawyers, in order to transform other bodies, those of asylum applicants, into official documents that get to ground ‘objective’ decisions over suffering, ‘deservingness’ and in- or exclusion. Based on an extensive ethnography, which was conducted between 2014 and 2017, the dissertation takes a reader along into a routinized and contingent time-pressured asylum application process. Within this process, conceptualized as an itinerary, different professionals engage with applicants in order to gather and compose ‘intelligible’ and thus evaluable accounts of refugeeness. This research reveals the ways in which a shape-shifting and caring suspicion pervades the itinerary’s face-to-face encounters and its decision-making practices.

 https://repub.eur.nl/pub/118658, 20.9.19

Swiss Refugee Council: Report on Dublin Returns to Bulgaria

The Swiss Refugee Council (Schweizerische Fluechtlingshlife) has published a new report on Dublin transfers to Bulgaria. The report presents an overview of the latest case law from across domestic courts in Europe, as well as information on the current situation in Bulgaria for international protection applicants and beneficiaries.

According to the report, the current situation in Bulgaria is not suitable for the transfer of individuals under Dublin. It describes the inadequacy of reception conditions, including with regard to accommodation facilities and a lack of basic provisions such as food, as well as a high risk of destitution. The report also details difficulties in accessing the asylum procedures for Dublin returnees. Moreover, medical and psychiatric care is reported to be insufficient due to lack of staff and/or translation services. The report details the systematic detention of irregular migrants, the lack of state-run integration service and widespread racism and xenophobia.

https://www.fluechtlingshilfe.ch/assets/asylrecht/stellungnahmen/190829-bulgarien-auskunft.pdf, 30.8.19

Exilés, Dublinés, Maltraités - Le règlement Dublin et les conséquences de son application en France

Ce rapport est le résultat du travail d'un groupe d'une dizaine de personnes exilées en procédure Dublin ou ayant connu cette procédure et accompagnées par le CEDRE – Secours Catholique, qui s'est réuni à plusieurs reprises en présence de la dessinatrice Camille Ulrich dans ce lieu d'accueil au Nord de Paris. Il se donne pour objectif de témoigner des conséquences de l'application du règlement Dublin sur la vie des personnes exilées et présente des recommandations pour une réforme de l'application de ce règlement en France.

https://www.secours-catholique.org/actualites/dublin-lurgence-de-mettre-fin-a-un-reglement-kafkaien, sept19

Joint Report: LESSONS NOT LEARNED The failures of asylum decision-making in the UK

A wide range of credible organisations have researched and analysed the problems with Home Office decision-making in the asylum context. They have made practical recommendations that have not been accepted, have been accepted in principle but not implemented, or which in isolation have not solved the problem. This report examines 50 reports from 17 different organisations, including parliamentary committees, the United Nations, nongovernmental organisations, academics, and independent inspectorates. It charts a 15-year history of longstanding criticisms levelled against the Home Office. The analysis shows a convergence of views on the fundamental causes of poor decision-making, including the unrealistic and unlawful evidential burden placed on applicants and a starting point of disbelief, with a devastating impact on the individuals involved.

https://www.refugeecouncil.org.uk/information/resources/lessons-not-learned/, sept19

Promotie L. Esser: De strafbaarstelling van mensenhandel ontrafeld

Wat is er aan de hand met de strafbaarstelling van mensenhandel? Wat is haar strekking en welke invloed heeft de Hoge Raad daarop in de afgelopen jaren uitgeoefend? In dit onderzoek worden de achtergronden van de strafbaarstelling van mensenhandel uitgeplozen. Niet alleen door het uitvoeren van verdiepend juridisch-historisch onderzoek, ook door de verschillende mensenhandelgedragingen stuk voor stuk theoretisch te belichten en de rechtspraak te analyseren. Met behulp van het rechtstheoretische concept van de rechtsbelangen wordt blootgelegd dat met de strafbaarstelling van mensenhandel zeer uiteenlopende doelen worden gediend. Dat geeft te denken over de wijze waarop de bepaling momenteel is ingericht en functioneert. Dit onderzoek leidt tot de conclusie dat de huidige stand van zaken schuurt met belangrijke beginselen van de democratische rechtsstaat, zoals de notie van rechtszekerheid en de leer van de machtenscheiding (trias politica). De onwenselijkheid daar van geeft aanleiding om de strafbaarstelling opnieuw te overdenken. Voor de strafwetgever is er werk aan de winkel.

https://www.bju.nl/juridisch/catalogus/de-strafbaarstelling-van-mensenhandel-ontrafeld-1-2019, 25sept

A&MR: Detentie-omstandigheden onder huidig regime en onder wetsvoorstel getoetst aan internationale normen

Honderden vreemdelingen worden in Nederland tijdens detentie onderworpen aan hetzelfde strenge regime als verdachten en veroordeelden van misdrijven. Ze verblijven er gemiddeld ruim 40 dagen.¹Vele nationale, maar ook internationale organisaties protesteren al geruime tijd tegen deze gang van zaken. Een wetsvoorstel dat het bestuursrechtelijk karakter van vreemdelingendetentie zou moeten benadrukken ligt nu bij de Eerste Kamer. In dit artikel bespreken Annemarie Busser, Revijara Oosterhuis en Tineke Strik de Nederlandse praktijk, het wetsvoorstel en het internationaal toetsingskader. Ze concluderen dat de vreemdelingendetentie ook in het voorstel sterk punitief blijft.


UN Network on Migration: Child Immigration Detention is Not Only Wrong, It Is Ineffective

Detention of children for immigration purposes - whether they are traveling alone or with their families – has been recognized as a child rights violation and can be highly damaging to their physical and psychological health and wellbeing. Detention of children based on their migratory status is thus never in their best interests. Community-based programmes, case management and other human rights-based alternatives have proven highly effective and all governments should work to replace immigration detention for children and families with appropriate reception and care arrangements.

https://www.iom.int/news/child-immigration-detention-not-only-wrong-it-ineffective, 16.9.19

PICUM ea: Guidance to respect children’s rights in return policies and practices Focus on the EU legal framework

This document provides guidance for state authorities on the design and implementation of return procedures that are child rights compliant. In particular, it sets out concrete measures necessary to ensure respect for the rights of every child, including children in families, when implementing return legislation and policy in Europe. It provides guidance to bring policy and legislation in line with international law obligations, in particular the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, and the EU Return Directive where applicable. Accordingly, the guidance is targeting those designing and implementing return procedures.

The best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration in all actions concerning them. The precondition to any return of a child – whether unaccompanied, separated or within a family - is that their best interests have been examined and return is found to be in their best interests. This requires specific procedures to be implemented in every decision making process that could lead to the return of a child. Consequently, this guidance addresses how to design these procedures, what factors should be considered, possible outcomes and how to implement a decision when return is found to be in the best interests of the child. It does not address how to implement the decision when an alternative durable solution is found to be in the best interests of the child as a result of the procedure.

https://picum.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/2019_Guidance_childrens_rights_in_return_policies.pdf, sept19

FRA: Focus paper providing guidance on rights compliance in cases involving the return of unaccompanied children

The Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) recently published a focus paper outlining the necessary rights considerations in cases of unaccompanied child returns. The paper aims to provide guidance to national authorities involved in return-related cases to better comply with fundamental rights protection and ensure the best interests of the child are comprehensively considered in any action affecting children. This follows, and adds to, a 2017 FRA report on immigration detention of children.

In its guidance, the FRA comment on, inter alia: Member State practice concerning unaccompanied child returns; the applicability of the best interests the child in return decisions; how the interests of the child should be assessed in such decisions; potential outcomes of a comprehensive best interest decision; and how to better guarantee child protection. The FRA reiterate the priority to find an appropriate and "durable solution" by striving to promote the overall well-being of the child, rather than one-off or convenient decisions.

The FRA highlights that child protection services must work in close cooperation with immigration authorities in order to encourage a more comprehensive and effective assessment in such cases; in cases where returns have been deemed appropriate, children must have access to counselling and support; all removal operations are a last resort, and must be carried out in the most child friendly manner possible; and children granted the right to remain must be guaranteed continued support by the Member State.

https://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2019/returning-unaccompanied-children. sept19

Nieuwsbrief 19, 2019

Moderbacher, Christine : Crafting lives in Brussels - making and mobility on the margins, jan19

This thesis is an anthropological inquiry into what it means to continuously shape a life on the margins of a European city. The thesis starts from the life trajectories of two participants, Hamuda and Cise. Through this aproach, this study not only gives voice to often neglected artisans but also breaks with standardizing discursive tendencies of anonymously portrayed migrants. The stories of Hamuda and Cise both underpin that shaping one's life needs to be seen against the backdrop of political, economic and social inequalities that are at times hard to overcome. Their stories relate a harsh reality whose borders are at times insurmountable, but also the constant efforts to counter the lives we are 'thrown into' (Jackson 2005: x), and thereby shed light on what training programmes and apprenticeships in craft really entail for somebody who has been on the move.

Link to institutional repository

Wendy Hunter : Undocumented Nationals, Between Statelessness and Citizenship

Understood simply, people are either citizens of a country or stateless. Yet reality belies this dichotomy. Between absolute statelessness and full citizenship exist millions of people who are nationals of a country in principle but lack the identity documents to prove it, beginning with a birth certificate. Languishing in a gray zone, undocumented nationals have difficulty accessing the full services and rights that their documented counterparts enjoy. The existing literature has not adequately conceptualized and examined this in-between status, which results sometimes from state neglect and other times from intentional state discrimination.

By highlighting its causes and consequences, and exploring ways to address the problem, this document addresses an important gap in the literature.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/elements/undocumented-nationals/D2214D68B41FA0FF3C420DB18EC147D4, juli19

René Schoonhoven: Ongedocumenteerd en toch naar school (sept19)

Zo normaal als het voor veruit de meeste kinderen en volwassenen in ons land is om naar school te gaan en onderwijs te volgen, zo problematisch is dat voor een klein deel van de mensen die binnen onze landsgrenzen leeft. Het gaat dan om ongedocumenteerden: mensen die zonder een geldige verblijfsvergunning in Nederland verblijven. Wat als deze kinderen of volwassenen zich bij een school melden om een vorm van onderwijs te volgen? Wat zijn de kaders waar de school of instelling dan in ieder geval op moet letten?

Lees het artikel hier.

Kinderombudsman: waar geen wil is, is ook geen weg

De Kinderombudsman heeft onderzoek gedaan naar de plicht van de staat om een gehoor-implantaat te plaatsen bij een uitgeprocedeerd doof vluchtelingenkind. Naar aanleiding van dit onderzoek beveelt de kinderombudsman aan dat door medische professionals in samenspraak met professionals uit de vreemdelingrechtelijke keten een richtlijn wordt opgesteld over de medische behandeling van minderjarigen.

De Kinderombudsman benadrukt dat op grond van het IVRK alle kinderen gelijke rechten hebben op ontwikkeling, en de hoogst haalbare gezondheid en gezondheidszorg. In het licht hiervan hoort de medische zorg voor kinderen, onafhankelijk van hun status, gelijk te zijn aan de zorg die Nederlandse kinderen krijgen qua toegang en mag de vergoeding in beginsel geen belemmering zijn. Het uitgangspunt moet zijn dat er geen onderscheid gemaakt wordt tussen kinderen.

https://www.dekinderombudsman.nl/publicaties/rapport-waar-geen-wil-is-is-geen-weg, 12.9.19

Marie Moncada: L’homéostasie idéelle. Comprendre la stabilité de l’accès aux soins des étrangers irréguliers en France et aux États-Unis (1970-2016), juli19

Comment comprendre la stabilité de l’accès aux soins des étrangers irréguliers en France et aux États-Unis, de 1970 à 2016, au vu des controverses et des réformes dont fait l’objet cet accès ? Cette thèse dégage deux hypothèses : d’une part, l’action publique française serait soumise à des rétroactions négatives, d’autre part, sa consoeur étasunienne serait verrouillée par un noyau dur des croyances. L’analyse mixte, qualitative et quantitative, est effectuée à l’aide du logiciel NVivo sur un matériau provenant des groupes d’intérêt (680 fichiers en France, 881 aux États-Unis), de la presse (15 625 et 16 970), du législatif (1 366 et 1 110) et de l’administration (190 et 105). Une centaine d’entretiens affine les résultats. Cette analyse aboutit à la création d’un pendule d’homéostasie idéelle dévoilant trois activités du noyau dur des croyances : le verrouillage idéel (autocensure) et les rétroactions positive (autorenforcement) et négative (autocorrection). Ainsi, si les États-Unis font l’objet d’un verrouillage idéel, c’est bien les rétroactions négatives, voire positives, qui caractérisent le cas français. En revanche, ces pays ont tous deux un noyau dur qui leur est propre. Le noyau français, d’origine catholique, est ainsi tolérant envers l’infraction et privilégie l’égalité. À l’inverse, le noyau étasunien, d’origine protestante, est peu indulgent envers la transgression des normes et favorise la liberté.

Voir Télécharger

EMN: Factsheets per EU-lidstaat over migratiebeleid 2018

Snel inzicht krijgen in het migratiebeleid van een EU-lidstaat? Sla de Country Factsheets van het EMN over 2018 erop na. Met de belangrijkste beleidsontwikkelingen, migratiecijfers en statistieken van de EU-lidstaten en Noorwegen. Lees de Country Factsheets 2018, 11.7.19

Sandra Ponzanesi: Migration and Mobility in a Digital Age

This issue explores the role of new media technologies in rethinking the dynamics of migration and globalization by focusing in particular on the role of migrant users as “connected” and active participants, as well as “screened” and subject to biometric datafication, visualization, and surveillance.

Migration and Mobility in a Digital Age: (Re)Mapping Connectivity and Belonging, 6.9.19

AIDA: Asylum Decisions in the First Half of 2019: Unlocking Statistic

AIDA illustrate key trends in admission and rejection of asylum requests for this year. In the first six months of 2019, Germany issued more than 50,000 negative decisions, France issued 43,398 and Italy 36,573. Most inadmissibility decisions during the first six months of the year were issued by Switzerland (1,829), Belgium (1,793), Austria (1,383) and Sweden (1,356).

Comparing inadmissibility to in-merit rejections in the different countries, it appears that Malta, Poland and Slovenia delivered more inadmissibility decisions than rejections on the merits in the first half of 2019. In contrast, France and Greece made limited use of inadmissibility concepts and Cyprus did not use them at all during that period.

As regards positive decisions on asylum applications, Germany continues to lead in absolute numbers with 39,682 decisions granting a protection status. France issued 17,447 positive decisions, Greece granted 11,223 and Italy 9,200. The dominant forms of international or national protection granted in positive decisions continue to vary from one country to another. Malta, Cyprus, Portugal and Romania continue to grant subsidiary protection over refugee status in most positive decisions. Greece, Austria, the United Kingdom and Slovenia, on the other hand, have mainly issued refugee status.


Bernd Parusel: Neither fair nor realistic? How the EU deals with Afghan asylum seekers

Over the past ten years, almost 580,000 Afghan nationals have applied for asylum in the European Union. Afghanistan was the second most important country of origin among asylum seekers in the EU, after Syria. The way the EU Member States deal with them is subject to much controversy. Despite a worsening security situation in their country of origin, on average more than half of all asylum claims by Afghans are rejected. They are also confronted with severe injustices as their recognition rates vary greatly, depending on where in the EU their claims are examined. Among the many who are rejected, a majority risk ending up in protracted legal and social limbo situations as they are required to leave the EU, but are in reality rarely returned to their country of origin.

https://www.oxforcedmigration.com/post/neither-fair-nor-realistic-how-the-eu-deals-with-afghan-asylum-seekers, 21.8.19


  • Afghanistan: Afghans brought up in Iran and returned to Afghanistan from Europe (AFG2019-05) - ENG
  • Afghanistan: Access to treatment for HIV-positive person (AFG2019-04) – ENG
  • Russia: Situation of atheists in Chechnya (CIS2019-04) - ENG


ISI: Country Position Paper on statelessness in Syria

This Paper provides information on the profiles of stateless individuals and those at risk of statelessness due to nationality or civil documentation problems in Syria. The paper includes relevant population data, information about Syria's nationality law, access to civil documentation, the treatment of stateless people, and the two biggest stateless groups from the country: Syrian Kurds and Palestinian refugees from Syria.

https://statelessjourneys.org/wp-content/uploads/StatelessJourneys-Syria..., 10.9.19

EMN: onderzoeken naar Internationale studenten in de EU en NL

Faith Gakanje: A Life Robbed: Reflections On My Asylum Experience in The UK (juni19)

As a signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention, the UK has a proud tradition in granting a safe haven to asylum seekers. Faith's experience draws attention to many of the areas where policy makers need to do more to improve the asylum system and make it more welcoming. These include policy issues such as how asylum applications are handled, integration, housing, financial support, legal support, reporting, detention, and how to prevent destitution and homelessness. Faith's own experience is reflected in the title of her book. She felt as though the asylum system had robbed her of the best years of her life. After several appeals, it took the Home Office almost 9 years to finally accept her asylum application in 2010. She found herself destitute and homeless for much of this period.


Statewatch: New EU Return Directive breaches fundamental rights standards

The proposed recast EU Return Directive would breach fundamental rights standards, massively expand the use of detention, limit appeal rights and undermine 'voluntary' return initiatives.

The proposal aims to increase the number of deportations from the EU by reducing or eliminating existing safeguards for those facing deportation proceedings. But there is no evidence to suggest that the proposed measures will have the intended effect. For example, the proposal introduces numerous new grounds for placing migrants in detention and would introduce a new 'minimum maximum' period of detention of at least three months. However, in 2017, Spain (with a maximum detention period of 60 days) had a 'return rate' of 37%, while the return rate from countries with a detention limit of 18 months (the maximum period permitted under the current Returns Directive) differed significantly: 11% in the Czech Republic, 18% in Belgium, 40% in Greece and 46% in Germany.

This Statewatch report includes an article-by-article analysis of the proposal and the positions of the European Parliament and the Council, as they were prior to the EU’s summer break.
http://www.statewatch.org/analyses/no-346-returns-directive.pdf, 11sept19

Nieuwsbrief 18, 2019

F. Visser: Gezondheidszorg voor ongedocumenteerde vreemdelingen : Wie betaalt de rekening?

Op grond van (internationale)verdragen en wet- en regelgeving waaraan de Nederlandse Staat zich heeft gecommitteerd kan geconcludeerd worden dat hierin een recht op gezondheid is vastgelegd, waarmee voor overheden een verplichting om te voorzien in toegang tot gezondheidszorg in het leven is geroepen. Deze verplichting strekt tot het voorzien in (financieel) toegankelijke zorg van goede kwaliteit, ook voor ongedocumenteerde vreemdelingen. In gezondheidsrechtelijke context zijn artikel 12 van het IVESCR, artikel 3 en artikel 8 van het EVRM en artikel 11 van het ESH en gewezen jurisprudentie van belang.

De Nederlandse wetgever heeft de aanspraak op sociale voorzieningen, waaronder de mogelijkheid tot het afsluiten van een zorgverzekering, gekoppeld aan rechtmatig verblijf. Ondanks dat in artikel 10 van de VW een uitzondering is gemaakt voor medisch noodzakelijke zorg, levert dit geen directe aanspraak op zorg op voor ongedocumenteerde vreemdelingen. Er is voorzien in een vergoedingsregeling voor gederfde inkomsten voor de zorgaanbieder indien de ongedocumenteerde vreemdeling niet zelf in staat is zijn kosten te dragen. Het begrip ‘medisch noodzakelijke zorg’, de omvang van zorg die voor vergoeding in aanmerking komt, de hoogte van de vergoeding en de bereidheid van zorgverleners om deze zorg te verlenen beperken in de praktijk de toegankelijkheid tot zorg. De wijze waarop thans het recht op zorg voor ongedocumenteerde vreemdelingen is verankerd en in de praktijk wordt uitgevoerd, leidt tot onvoldoende waarborging van het recht op toegankelijke zorg.

http://www.scriptiesonline.uba.uva.nl/document/673430, juni19

Werkinstructie 2019/13: Palestijnen

In deze werkinstructie komen de volgende deelonderwerpen ten aanzien van Palestijnen, toegespitst op 11 verschillende landen, aan bod: Nationaliteit (staatloosheid), land van herkomst en land van gebruikelijke verblijfplaats, documenten, de United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (hierna: UNRWA), de United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (hierna: UNHCR) en art. 1D Vluchtelingenverdrag.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI%202019-13.pdf, 15.8.19

UNICEF Afghanistan Report jan-juni 2019

Ongoing conflict and natural disasters continue to affect the people of Afghanistan, with children and women bearing the largest brunt of the challenging situation. Amid a sharp hike of attacks in June and July of 2019, Afghanistan sees some opportunities with the current peace process.


ASKV Refugee Support and TrustLaw : manuals for retrieving documents from Uganda

Manuals for Sierra Leone, Ethiopia, Irak and Afghanistan are currently being developed. The manuals are intended to assist caseworkers, lawyers and field workers in their attempts to obtain documents for the (repeated) residence application of their clients.

The Uganda manual and more information about the project can be found here and here 

Refugee Rights Europe: New report on mistreatment of asylum applicants in Greece

Thirteen civil society organisations have published a new report on the current situation in Greece for asylum applicants. This report relates to a submission from a number of organisations to the United Nations Committee Against Torture (UNCAT) during the recent review of Greece. 
The report details immigration detention, the lack of legal safeguards in detention, access to asylum procedures, reception conditions, access to healthcare, police violence, violence against women, as well as the situation for unaccompanied children and asylum applicants who identify as LGBTI+. Summary returns in the Evros region are also addressed. 

http://refugeerights.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/RRE_NoEndInSight.pdf, 21.8.19

Saferworld: The impacts of Europe's outsourced migration controls on peace, stability and rights

While leaders in Europe and elsewhere claim that clamping down on migration saves lives by deterring people from undertaking dangerous journeys, the reality is that European governments' outsourced migration policies are feeding into conflict and abuse – and reinforcing the drivers of migration.
Drawing on extensive research, this report analyses the European Union's and European governments' outsourcing of migration controls in 'partner' countries such as Turkey, Libya and Niger. It explores who benefits from this system, exposes its risks and explains who bears the costs. It also provides recommendations for European leaders on how to move toward a humane model for migration that refocuses on EU commitments to human rights, conflict prevention and sustainable development."

https://www.saferworld.org.uk/downloads/partners-in-crime.-the-impacts-of-europes-outsourced-migration-controls-on-peace-stability-and-rights.pdf, juli19

Giudici, Silvia : Immigration detention in the European Union. Analysing the Europeanization of national laws

This thesis aims at understanding how domestic laws concerning immigration detention in EU Member States have been modified following the entering into force of EU standards and legislation. This Europeanization process has been analysed in three case studies, namely Italy, France and Sweden. In this thesis, it will be demonstrated that Member Stated modified their laws to different extents, with a mixture of substantial, moderate and no modification depending on the specific legislative provision at stake. Also, some measures became more restrictive for third country nationals, whereas others were softened.

http://hdl.handle.net/1887/76349, aug19

Eurobserver: What happens when trafficking survivors get home

"For years, international media have been full of horrifying stories of Nigerian women and girls trafficked to Libya and Europe for sexual and labor exploitation. The world now also knows very well that many refugees and migrants seeking to reach Europe instead find themselves trapped in Libya in slavery-like conditions, and that for women and girls those conditions often involve sexual violence or exploitation."

https://euobserver.com/opinion/145716, 23.8.19

Francoise Kist: Ik doe krant

Na een carrière in het bedrijfsleven besluit Françoise Kist op een dag het roer om te gooien. Zij begint een non-profit kantoortje om jongeren te ondersteunen die richting zoeken in hun leven. Aanvankelijk helpt ze vooral studenten, maar al gauw kloppen ook jonge asielzoekers bij haar aan. "Kunt u mij helpen?' vragen ze. "Ik weet het niet, maar ik wil wel met je meedenken,' antwoordt zij. Zo begint met vallen en opstaan een bijzondere reis, waarop Françoise behoedzaam probeert de jongens, en een enkel meisje, mee te nemen uit hun illegale bestaan, een nieuw pad op. Ze probeert samen met hen een weg te vinden tegenover onwillige ambtenaren en door de ingewikkelde wet- en regelgeving, geeft onderwijskansen en biedt bed, bad, brood en bemoediging. Langzaam ontstaan vertrouwen en nieuwe levenslust. En ook tal van nieuwe initiatieven: "de jongens' leren Nederlands, ze leren rekenen, ze halen hun rijbewijs. Sommigen besluiten, diploma op zak, terug te keren naar hun moederland om daar een bedrijfje te beginnen.

https://www.uitgeverijbalans.nl/boeken/ik-doe-krant/, aug19

Nieuwsbief 17, 2019

WODC Rapport: Selectief naast restrictief. Evaluatie van de Wet modern migratiebeleid

In dit onderzoek wordt de Wet modern migratiebeleid (wet MoMi) geëvalueerd, over de periode 1 juni 2013 tot en met 2017. De belangrijkste resultaten:

- De samenvoeging van de mvv-procedure en de verblijfsvergunningsaanvraag wordt door alle respondenten als overwegend positief tot zeer positief gewaardeerd.
- De referentensystematiek werkt goed voor grote bedrijven, maar voor kleine en startende bedrijven kan de procedure om erkend te worden lastig zijn. I.h.k.v. studie werkt de referentensystematiek goed, maar het monitoren van de studievoortgang wordt als pijnpunt genoemd. Voor au pairs functioneert de huidige constructie op bepaalde punten niet goed. Een verblijfsdoel-overstijgend aandachtspunt is de verantwoordelijkheid die de wet bij de erkend referent heeft gelegd, met name de consequenties voor referent en vreemdeling als er door de referent een fout wordt gemaakt.
- De ervaring met het opleggen van sancties is nog zeer beperkt - daardoor is onvoldoende uitgekristalliseerd welke sanctie in welk geval redelijk en effectief is. De wijze waarop de IND invulling geeft aan zijn rol van handhaver wordt als onnodig formeel, onredelijk of zelfs als intimiderend omschreven.

https://wodc.nl/onderzoeksdatabase/2878-evaluatie-wet-modern-migratiebeleid.aspx, 1.6.19

WODC: Vervolgevaluatie van de Wet biometrie vreemdelingenketen

Met inwerkingtreding van de Wet biometrie vreemdelingenketen (Wbvk) is per 1 maart 2014 de Vw 2000 gewijzigd. De Wbvk voorziet in een uitbreiding van het gebruik van biometrie in de vreemdelingenketen. De afname en verwerking van een gezichtsopname en tien vingerafdrukken van in beginsel alle vreemdelingen in alle vreemdeling-rechtelijke processen is mogelijk gemaakt. Daarnaast kunnen deze biometrische gegevens centraal in de vreemdelingenadministratie (de Basisvoorziening Vreemdelingen, afgekort BVV) worden opgeslagen en kunnen zij worden geraadpleegd. Dit onderzoek is een vervolg op de eerste  evaluatie van deze wet.

https://wodc.nl/onderzoeksdatabase/3003-evaluatie-wet-biometrie.aspx, 25.6.19

Nieuwsbrief 16, 2019

VW: Vluchtelingen in Getallen

VluchtelingenWerk Nederland brengt jaarlijks de publicatie ‘Vluchtelingen in getallen’ uit. De publicatie geeft een uitgebreid overzicht van de meest actuele cijfers uit openbare bronnen over vluchtelingen en asielzoekers in Nederland, Europa en wereldwijd. Zo is informatie van de IND, het COA, het CBS, Eurostat en UNHCR in één document terug te vinden.

https://www.vluchtelingenwerk.nl/sites/default/files/u32918/vig_2019_interactive.pdf, 22.7.19

IND-werkinstructie 2019/12 - Palestijnen

De gecompliceerdheid van de kwestie van de staatloze Palestijnen en de diversiteit aan onderwerpen die betrokken dienen te worden en/of een rol spelen bij de beoordeling van asielaanvragen van vreemdelingen van Palestijnse herkomst, heeft de behoefte met zich meegebracht om een (verzamel)werkinstructie te schrijven waarin verschillende deelonderwerpen nader worden toegelicht. Deze werkinstructie biedt handvatten voor de hoor- en beslispraktijk. In deze werkinstructie komen de volgende deelonderwerpen ten aanzien van Palestijnen, toegespitst op 11 verschillende landen, aan bod: Nationaliteit (staatloosheid), land van herkomst en land van gebruikelijke verblijfplaats, documenten, de United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (hierna: UNRWA), de United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (hierna: UNHCR) en art. 1D Vluchtelingenverdrag.
Geldigheid: 29 juli 2019 t/m met 29 juli 2020

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2019-12.pdf, 29.7.19

UN Human Rights Committee : calls for Netherlands to improve its statelessness policy

The UN Human Rights Committee is the latest body to call on the Netherlands to take action to ensure that stateless persons in the country are adequately identified and protected, as well as to fulfil the right to a nationality for stateless children born in the country. Previously, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of EuropeUNHCR and numerous domestic institutions (including the National Human Rights Institute) expressed criticism of the failure of the Netherlands to implement its international obligations in relation to statelessness. The Committee has specifically called upon the Netherlands "to review and amend the draft legislation with a view to ensuring that a person recognized as stateless is granted a residence permit so as to fully enjoy the rights enshrined in the Covenant and that the stateless determination procedure is fully in line with international standards, is aimed at reducing statelessness and considers in cases involving children the best interests of the child".

Nieuwsbrief 15, 2019

CEPS: Constitutionalising the External Dimensions of EU Migration Policies in Times of Crisis

This book examines EU migration and asylum polices in times of crisis by assessing old and new patterns of cooperation in EU migration management policies in the scope of third-country cooperation. The case studies explored reveal that there has been a clear tendency and strategy to move away from or go outside the decision making rules and institutional principles enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty to advance third country cooperation on migration management. It explores the implications of and effects of the adoption of extra-Treaty instruments and patterns of cooperation in the light of EU rule of law and fundamental rights principles and standards. The book examines the ways in which 'the politics of migration crisis' and their patterns of cooperation and legal/policy outcomes evidenced since 2015 affect and might even undermine EU's legitimacy in these policy areas. READ MORE, 5.7.19


Ambtsbericht Dienstplicht Turkije, 11.7.19
Ambtsbericht Jemen, 11.7.19

EASO :  country guidance notes on Iraq and Afghanistan

The ‘Country Guidance: Iraq’ offers a country-specific analysis regarding the main actors of persecution or serious harm in Iraq, refugee status and subsidiary protection needs of some of the relevant profiles of applicants from Iraq, actors of protection, and the possibility of internal protection alternative in particular parts of the country. Exclusion from international protection is also addressed.

The ‘Country Guidance: Afghanistan’ Update focuses on the sections concerning indiscriminate violence in a situation of an armed conflict (Article 15(c) QD), and internal protection alternative. Some additional changes have been made with reference to the available up-to-date country of origin information, in particular with regard to the profiles of applicants of Hazara ethnicity. Minor changes have also been introduced in parts of the horizontal framework of the common analysis. These changes do not generally impact the assessment of the situation in Afghanistan as per the previous version of the guidance from June 2018.

‘Country Guidance: Iraq’ ;  ‘Country Guidance: Afghanistan’ (juni19)

COC: nieuw asielbeleid voor LHBTI's gebrekkig uitgevoerd

Met voorbeelden uit 17 dossiers constateert het COC dat “processen van bewustwording en zelfacceptatie” nog steeds een grote rol spelen in de beoordeling door de IND. Ook wordt in de praktijk nog steeds onvoldoende aandacht besteed aan verklaringen van derden, zoals partners of belangenorganisaties. Ten derde stelt het COC dat stereotypes en vooroordelen nog steeds een rol spelen bij het besluitvormingsproces van de IND. Zo wordt bijvoorbeeld verondersteld dat een ‘coming-out’ zich op één moment afspeelt en dat LHBTI’s in hun land van herkomst geen risico zouden nemen om elkaar te ontmoeten.

Het COC dringt er in de brief op aan dat zaken die zijn afgewezen in strijd met de nieuwe werkinstructie, door de IND opnieuw beoordeeld moeten worden. Ook de scholing van IND-medewerkers moet worden aangepast.

Lees brief van COC Nederland, 9.6.19

Caritas Europa : Position paper on the criminalisation of solidarity towards migrants

The Caritas Europa network has increasingly witnessed a trend to stigmatise and criminalise humanitarian assistance that organisations and volunteers have provided to migrants in distress.

Examples include cases of police harassing volunteers providing food and offering shower facilities to destitute migrants in Calais, citizens put on trial for providing shelter to asylum seekers in Belgium, and the prosecution of NGO staff members for operating search and rescue missions along the coast of Italy and Malta. Caritas report similar experiences in other countries, such as Hungary, Greece, Switzerland, Serbia and Spain, just to name a few.

https://www.caritas.eu/criminalisation-solidarity/, 17.6.19

CPT: New report on immigration detention in Bulgaria 

In Border Police establishments, material conditions were considered to be acceptable for the maximum period of 24 hours and a number of recommendations were made for improvements to named facilities. In immigration detention facilities, the report calls for urgent measures to improve material conditions, including, inter alia, access to food, water and a bathroom at nighttime.  There also remain issues with the lack of activities and minimal access to healthcare, with particular concerns on the poor access to psychiatric care.

https://rm.coe.int/1680966286, 11.7.19

EASO: New chapter on detention of applicants for international protection in the context of the Common European Asylum System

Following recommendations from the Network, a new PDS chapter on detention of applicants for international protection in the context of the Common European Asylum System has been developed by a group of judicial experts from different countries. The new PDS chapter analyses the legal framework pertaining to detention and addresses relating key issues, such as the definition of detention and the definition of an applicant for international protection, the legal grounds for detention and relating evidential issues, the duration and conditions of this measure as well as alternative measures to detention and specific safeguards for applicants.

The newly published judicial analysis on detention is available on https://www.easo.europa.eu/sites/default/files/Detention-JA-EN-PDF.pdf and the relating compilation of jurisprudence on https://www.easo.europa.eu/sites/default/files/Detention-CJ-EN-PDF.pdf. (jan19)

Nieuwsbrief 14, 2019

Growing up undocumented in Ireland

We surveyed 108 undocumented parents raising together 185 children in Ireland.

https://www.mrci.ie/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/YPP-Web-version-FINAL.pdf (jan-mrt2019)

Aangenomen: ILO Conventie to combat violence and harassment in the field of work

The Convention will enter into force 12 months after two member States have ratified it. The Recommendation, which is not legally binding, provides guidelines on how the Convention could be applied. The next steps will be to campaign for ratification.

Content for instance II. SCOPE - Article 2

1. This Convention protects workers and other persons in the world of work, including employees as defined by national law and practice, as well as persons working irrespective of their contractual status, persons in training, including interns and apprentices, workers whose employment has been terminated, volunteers, jobseekers and job applicants, and individuals exercising the authority, duties or responsibilities of an employer.

2. This Convention applies to all sectors, whether private or public, both in the formal and informal economy, and whether in urban or rural areas.

Convention and accompanying Recommendation to combat violence and harassment in the world of work 

Pharos: vrouwenbesnijdenis in NL

Onze bevindingen wijzen erop dat ongeveer 41.000 van de 95.000 vrouwen afkomstig uit vgv-prevalentielanden naar schatting vgv hebben ondergaan. Ongeveer 37% van deze vrouwen heeft naar schatting Type III besnijdenis ondergaan. Ongeveer 4.200 van 38.000 meisjes lopen naar schatting het risico om besneden te worden in de komende 20 jaar. Vrouwen die al besneden zijn hebben mogelijk zorg nodig en meisjes die risico lopen op vgv in de nabije toekomst dienen benaderd te worden met preventieve en beschermende maatregelen. De bevindingen uit deze studie tonen aan dat aandacht voor preventie van vgv en zorg voor vrouwen die besneden zijn, blijft onverminderd belangrijk in Nederland.

https://www.pharos.nl/nieuws/actuele-cijfers-meisjesbesnijdenis-in-nederland/, 24.6.19

CEPS: Can regular replace irregular migration across the Mediterranean?

We review the evidence bearing on to what extent increasing legal access via labour migration is effective in reducing irregular migration. While our focus is on irregular crossings of the Mediterranean, we draw on evidence from different world regions. We conclude that increasing legal pathways for migration from Africa to Europe, in itself, will have only a limited effect on the number of people trying to cross irregularly. Substitution can take place only if expansion of legal pathways – tailored to labour market needs and migrant profiles – is envisaged in a comprehensive policy mix including strong enforcement of migration legislation (i.e. control of employers at destination together with border control) and streamlining of recruitment procedures. READ MORE

UNHCR Comments on EASO Country Guidance: Nigeria

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (the UNHCR) has published its Comments on the publication "Country Guidance: Nigeria Guidance Note and Common Analysis" issued by the European Asylum Support Office (EASO) in February 2019.

UNHCR expresses concern that EASO's Country Guidance does not provide explicit guidance for claims for international protection by women and girls who are at risk of gender-specific forms of persecution in Nigeria. In particular, UNHCR states that EASO should provide guidance regarding women who may have not been victims of trafficking in the past, but may be trafficked upon return to Nigeria, as well as women from Boko-Haram areas who face gender-specific persecution. 

https://www.refworld.org/docid/5d11de274.html, mei19

Ambtsbericht Syrie juli 2019

Helsinki Committee: Hongaarse asielzoekers de facto in detentie, geen rechten

As a result of amendments of 1 July 2018 to the Fundamental Law and the Asylum Act, which introduced, inter alia, inadmissibility grounds and the safe third country concept, the update details how these amendments significantly hindered access to the asylum procedure. Other amendments were also made to the Criminal Code and the Police Act, through which those providing assistance to asylum applicants could be punished with up to one-year imprisonment.

The HHC details how it is only aware of 3 positive decisions on asylum applications since 1 July 2018, with all other applications lodged deemed to be inadmissible. The update describes de facto detention in centre where there is a lack of access to food and healthcare, as well as  "streamlined" refoulement to countries of origin. The latest reform, as detailed by the update, is that the Immigration and Asylum Office has been closed as of 1 July 2019, and all asylum applications are now to be lodged with the National General Directorate for Alien Policing.

https://www.helsinki.hu/wp-content/uploads/One-year-after-2019.pdf, 1.7.19

PRO ASYL and Refugee Support Aegean: Failure of Greek Reception System

On June 6th 2019, there were 16,108 refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants stranded on the Greek islands of Samos, Chios, Lesvos, Leros and Kos. Out of those, 12,628 lived in the hot-spots while the capacity of these centres was for 6,438. The number of refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants staying in the Evros RIC was 366 while its capacity is for 318 people. Meanwhile, an estimated 16,457 refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants were living in 25 refugee camps in Greece's mainland.(...)
Refugee Support Aegean (RSA) and PRO ASYL have studied and analyzed three key elements of the reception system in order to produce a narrative on why state interventions, co-planned and subsidized by the EU, have not managed to produce long term sustainable solutions.

STRUCTURAL FAILURE: Why Greece's reception system failed to provide sustainable solutions

Boek Stil Leven

De portretten van Stil Leven (Dublinclaimanten in de wachtstand) uit de website waytostay.nu van STIL worden in boekvorm gebundeld. Je kunt alvast 15 euro (of meer) vooruit betalen en straks een exemplaar ontvangen. Doneer op NL44 INGB 000 740 7021, o.v.v. boek Stil Leven.

Thesis Assunção Lima Henriques, C. de, Vulnerable asylum seekers in the Common European Asylum System The jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union.

This thesis presents an in-depth analysis of the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) concerning vulnerable asylum seekers. In order to provide a full picture of the issues at stake, first, the thesis identifies the legal definition of vulnerable persons in EU secondary legislation and the special procedural tools that shall be implemented throughout the asylum application process of these individuals. Then, this thesis explores the EU system of protection of human rights and how the CJEU guides the interpretation of secondary legislation norms by Member States as they implement the asylum acquis norms regarding vulnerable persons. Further on, there is an analysis of several rulings by the CJEU on vulnerable asylum seekers. The thesis is concluded by remarks stressing the main findings and a reflection on other individuals that could be added to the legal definition of vulnerable persons. This research hopes to present a rather new approach by focusing on vulnerable asylum seekers and on the impact that the jurisprudence of the CJEU has had in the practical implementation of the Common European Asylum System.

http://arno.uvt.nl/show.cgi?fid=148166 juni19

iMMO: The relationship between levels of consistency and judicial outcomes in asylum seekers in the Netherlands

Aan de hand van 97 forensisch medische rapportages in asielprocedures in Nederland, analyseerden de onderzoekers het effect van traumagerelateerde en andere variabelen op het oordeel van de medische deskundige over de mate van consistentie tussen klachten en relaas.
De resultaten suggereren dat een gestandaardiseerde procedure voor het documenteren van medisch onderzoek de kwaliteit van justitiële besluitvorming kan verbeteren.

Klik hier voor het rapport.

ACVZ : advies over ‘afschaffing’ discretionaire bevoegdheid

De wetstekst beperkt de discretionaire bevoegdheid tot de besluitvorming in eerste aanleg. Dat zou een definitieve oplossing bieden als iedereen wiens verzoek wordt geweigerd ook daadwerkelijk vertrekt. Maar als mensen hier lang blijven hangen, kunnen de omstandigheden in hun land van herkomst of ten aanzien van hun persoon zich zo wijzigen dat een tweede – of zelfs volgende – aanvraag wordt ingediend. Dit zal toch weer integraal moeten worden beoordeeld, met inachtneming van internationale verdragen en jurisprudentie. Dat brengt de schrijnende omstandigheden toch weer binnen.

Advies over afschaffing discretionaire bevoegdheid, 24.6.19

ReSOMA Report: Crackdown on NGOs and volunteers helping refugees and other migrants

This report synthesises previous ReSOMA briefs concerning the crackdown on NGOs and volunteers helping refugees and other migrants. ReSOMA research brings up three key areas where the EU should resume responsibility and adopt measures to keep civil society space free from interference during anti-migrant smuggling operations: 

First, legal certainty on what is (not) a crime of migrant smuggling should be enshrined in the EU citizens’ right to good administration; 

Second, the EU should step up responsibility to protect human rights defenders acting within the Member States, in particular when they are challenging EU or Member State policies and operations on the grounds of fundamental rights non-compliance;

Third, the EU should recognise that humanitarian gaps emerge when it or its Member States are “overwhelmed, unable or unwilling to act” in meeting the basic needs of refugees and other migrants. Therefore, despite political priorities, humanitarian actors should be free from interference or risk of prosecution in filling in such gaps, until the EU and national authorities build the capability and/or find the political will to save lives and uphold human dignity.

Crackdown on NGOs and volunteers helping refugees and other migrants, juni19

And see: Open Democracy: Hundreds of Europeans 'criminalised' for helping migrants – as far right aims to win big in European elections (link)

Sarah Hammerl INHUMANITY. Asylum Criminalisation in Europe and Its Humanitarian Implications Commissioned by United Against Inhumanity (2019)

While the criminalisation of asylum seekers to signal state control has characterised EU’s and Member States’ policies for decades, the enforcement of laws targeting third parties who assist asylum-seekers has reached a new level in recent years. Several reports have concluded that the current situation amounts to a systematic and Europe-wide campaign to effectively compromise assistance to asylum seekers. While the two trends – the criminalisation of asylum seekers in Europe and the criminalisation of those assisting them – differ in regards to who is being criminalised and on what basis, they both reflect the perception that immigration is harmful to our societies. Thus, this paper highlights the widespread and systematic use of criminal law and public defamation against NGOs and citizens as an expansion and intensification of the wider criminalisation process against migration in the EU.


Nieuwsbrief 13, 2019

EC: Annual Report on Migration & Asylum

The European Commission has published the 2018 annual report of the European Migration Network (EMN) on migration and asylum and the accompanying National Reports for all participating Member States and Norway.

https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/docs/pages/00_arm2018_synthesis_report_final_en.pdf, mei19

OECD - Global trends in migration towards OECD countries between 2000/01 and 2015/16

The OECD, with the support of the French Development Agency (AFD), has in recent years developed a database on immigrants in OECD countries (DIOC) which compiles statistics on migrant stocks based on country of birth. This Migration Data Brief presents the findings drawn from the most recent update of these data for 2015/16. Key Findings:

  • In 2015/16, the number of migrants aged 15 and older in OECD countries stood at 120 million, compared to 78 million in 2000/01
  • 54% of worldwide migrants reside in OECD and this share been increasing in the past 15yrs
  • Migrants share in OECD population (15+) reached 12% in 2015/16
  • Mexico remains the top origin country for migrant communities in the OECD area, with slightly less than 12 million people, but India and China have became the second and third main origin countries of immigrants in the OECD area with almost 5 million persons each
  • Migration from Eastern Europe increased significantly. The number of Polish migrants to the OECD increased by 79% in the past 15yrs and that of Romanian migrants more than tripled

The new immigrants Global trends in migration towards OECD countries between 2000 and 2015 (917.56 ko), 13.6.19

UNHCR - Worldwide displacement tops 70 million

Data from UNHCR’s annual Global Trends report, shows that almost 70.8 million people are now forcibly displaced. This is double the level of 20 years ago, 2.3 million more than a year ago, and corresponds to a population between that of Thailand and Turkey.

Within the 70.8 million figure in the Global Trends report are three main groups. The first is refugees, meaning people forced to flee their country because of conflict, war or persecution. In 2018, the number of refugees reached 25.9 million worldwide, 500,000 more than in 2017. Included in this total are 5.5 million Palestine refugees who are under the care of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency.

The second group is asylum seekers – people outside their country of origin and receiving international protection, but awaiting the outcome of their claim to refugee status. At the end of 2018 there were 3.5 million asylum seekers globally.

The third and biggest group, at 41.3 million, is people displaced to other areas within their own country, a category commonly referred to as Internally Displaced People or IDPs.

Source: UNHCR - Worldwide displacement tops 70 million, UN Refugee Chief urges greater solidarity in response, 19.6.19

EASO: Annual Report on the Situation of Asylum in EU 2018

The EASO Annual Report on the Situation of Asylum in EU 2018 is a reference document, which aims at providing a comprehensive overview of asylum-related developments in the areas of legislation, policy and practice both at an EU level and at the level of national asylum systems. Drawing from a variety of sources, the report looks into main asylum-related statistical trends and analyses changes in regards to the functioning of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) during the reference year.

https://www.easo.europa.eu/easo-annual-report-2018, 24.6.19

Politico: Asylum seekers in EU on the rise again

From January to April, around 206,500 people applied for asylum for the first time in the EU — a 15 percent increase from the same period last year. The increase is attributed to a dramatic rise in people applying from Venezuela, Colombia and the western Balkans, who don’t need a visa to travel to the EU.

Since more than 1 million migrants came to Europe in 2015, many seeking refuge from violence in the Middle East and Africa, the number of people applying for asylum in the EU had been dropping. This was due in part to Europe’s efforts to reduce migration, including a controversial 2016 deal for Turkey to take back migrants who came via its shores to reach the EU.

The second largest number of asylum seekers now come from Venezuela, behind only Syria and ahead of Afghanistan. While the number of people seeking asylum from Syria decreased by 8 percent, the number of people from Afghanistan increased by 36 percent. The number of Colombians seeking asylum rose to 8,097 — a 156 percent increase.

https://www.politico.eu/article/asylum-seekers-in-eu-on-the-rise-again-report/, 11.6.19

EASO rapport Afghanistan


UNHCR: Guidance note on International Protection Considerations for Venezuelans - Update

https://www.refworld.org/country,,UNHCR,,VEN,,5cd1950f4,0.html, mei 2019

Commissie Raad van Europa over omstandigheden asielzoekers in Griekenland

With regard to asylum procedures, the Committee recognized the improvements made by Greek Authorities and the notable increase in the overall rate of granting asylum. However, the Committee expressed concern with the delays in asylum procedures, especially with the increase in arrivals, as well as the deficiencies of the appeals procedure.

H46-9 M.S.S. and Rahimi groups v. Greece (Application No. 30696/09) , 6.6.19


CEPS: An EU-Africa partnership scheme for human capital formation and skill mobility

Proper management of migration across the Mediterranean Sea requires close cooperation between the EU and African countries. Cooperation is difficult because core interests diverge. EU countries are focused on curbing irregular migration; African countries are primarily interested in economic development, with migration as one of the opportunities. At the moment, the EU lacks a credible long-term programme to engage African countries on migration issues.

We propose an ambitious EU-Africa partnership scheme for human capital formation and skill mobility that can be embedded into the current framework for EU-Africa dialogue. The scheme comprises three elements: First, extensive vocational training programmes would be set up in African countries, funded by the EU or individual member states, to train participants according to labour market needs in both the EU and African countries. Second, EU member states would issue a substantial number of work permits, offering programme graduates a good chance of employment in the EU while allowing member states to manage the inflow of workers according to their needs. Third, the private sector would be actively involved in planning and implementing vocational training programmes to ensure that graduates are employable in the EU and to facilitate job search and hiring across the Mediterranean.

https://www.ceps.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Barslund-et-al-Scheme_training_migration.pdf, 20.6.19

ACVZ: Legale Kanalen voor Arbeidsmigranten

Dit verkennend onderzoek van de ACVZ laat o.a. zien dat er indicaties zijn dat het ontwikkelen van een legaal arbeidsmigratiekanaal kan bijdragen aan het verminderen van ongecontroleerde migratie. Verder concludeert de ACVZ dat het middensegment van de arbeidsmarkt, in tegenstelling tot het topsegment, niet wordt ondersteund door een daarop afgestemd arbeidsmigratiebeleid.

Het onderzoek schetst niet alleen de bestaande regels en vormen van legale arbeidsmigratie, maar ook worden verschillende knelpunten, dilemma’s, kansen en oplossingsrichtingen op dit terrein beschreven.

Legale kanalen voor arbeidsmigranten, 13.6.19

Significant: Monitor inburgering buitenland

United: 36,570 Documented Refugee Deaths since 1993

UNITED for Intercultural Action is releasing its yearly update of the List of Refugee Deaths. We don't know most of their names. Serious attempts at identification of the dead are made only by isolated scientists' initiatives, and not by governments. The list continues to get longer every day, and Europe's extreme neglect towards these deaths by policy becomes clear in denying its victims even the most basic human dignity: a grave with a name.


Raad van Europa: Lives saved. Rights protected. Bridging the protection gap for refugees and migrants in the Mediterranean

In dit rapport herinnert de Raad van Europa EU-landen aan hun 'wettelijke verplichting' mensen in nood te helpen. De mensenrechtencommissie van de Raad van Europa hekelt het steeds strengere antimigratiebeleid waarin reddingsorganisaties worden 'gecriminaliseerd en tegengewerkt'. 'Er zijn wetten gemaakt en regels opgesteld 'die haaks staan op de legale en humanitaire verplichting om reddingsoperaties mogelijk te maken, mensenlevens te redden en te voorkomen dat mensen bloot worden gesteld aan marteling, mishandeling en uitbuiting', aldus de Raad.

De Raad van Europa vindt ook dat Libië geen veilig land is om migranten naar toe terug te laten keren en adviseert de hulp aan de Libische kustwacht 'op te schorten' totdat Libië heeft bewezen mensenrechten te kunnen garanderen.

https://rm.coe.int/lives-saved-rights-protected-bridging-the-protection-gap-for-refugees-/168094eb87, juni19

David Herd and Anna Pincus : Refugee Tales, Vol III

Still the UK detains people indefinitely under immigration rules. Bail hearings go unrecorded, people are picked up without notice, individuals feel abandoned in detention centres with no way of knowing when they will be released. In Refugee Tales III we read the stories of people who have been through this process, many of whom have yet to see their cases resolved and who live in fear that at any moment they might be detained again. Poets, novelists and writers have once again collaborated with people who have experienced detention, their tales appearing alongside first-hand accounts by people who themselves have been detained. What we hear in these stories are the realities of the hostile environment, the human costs of a system that disregards rights, that denies freedoms and suspends lives.

https://commapress.co.uk/books/refugee-tales-volume-iii/, juni19

Jon Bloomfied : Our City: Migrants and the Making of Modern Birmingham

Over the last half century the UK has sought to resolve the challenges arising from large-scale migration within a multi-cultural framework and shown the fallacy of the doomsday scenarios painted by Enoch Powell. Today, voices similar to Powell’s, are using the dangers of Islamist extremism and the UK vote to leave the EU as reasons to reassert a closed British identity. Instead, this book argues, the response should be a firm defence of the principles of racial equality with a confident assertion of why mixed, open societies are the way forward for 21st century cities and why migrants are central to their future dynamism and prosperity.

Based on original interviews, this book tells the story of fifty migrants to Birmingham from all walks of life: first and second generation; men and women; from thirteen different countries from Ireland to India, Pakistan to Poland, the Caribbean to Somalia. This book shows the variety of migrant experience, from their working lives, to education, religion and relationships, and in particular challenges the monolithic views of communitarian authors.

https://unbound.com/books/our-city/, mrt19

Jonathan Portes : What Do We Know and What Should We Do About Immigration

In this book, Professor Jonathan Portes examines the subject of immigration, providing readers with a short history of immigration in the UK, followed by a detailed discussion of ‘What We Know’ about the economic and social impact of immigration.

Portes addresses commonly asked questions such as:

  • Does immigration reduce job opportunities for those born in the UK, or push down wages? 
  • What is the impact of immigration on the public finances and public services? 
  • What has the impact of free movement of people been, both in the UK and the rest of the EU?

The author concludes by investigating what a post-Brexit immigration system should look like, and what – if anything – do we need to promote integration?

https://www.amazon.co.uk/What-Know-Should-About-Immigration/dp/152646442X, juli19

Nieuwsbrief 12, 2019

Rapport Onderzoekscommissie Langdurig verblijvende vreemdelingen zonder bestendig verblijfsrecht.

Met in de bijlagen oa:

Cohortanalyses, Gezinslocaties en Asielprocedures

  • Cohortanalyse van gezinnen die op 1 januari 2015 op een gezinslocatie zaten
  • Analyse van terugkeer en proceduregedrag van gezinnen op een gezinslocatie
  • Analyse van de afwikkeling van de in 2017 en 2018 ingediende eerste asielverzoeken, en aanvullende informatie over volgende asielprocedures

Rechtsvergelijkend onderzoek van beleid tav gedwongen terugkeer in enkele West-Europese landen

Rapport Cie van Zwol, mei19

AIDA Comparative Report: The Reception of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Europe

Reception practice in 2018 confirms that fluctuations in the numbers of arrivals continue to create important challenges for administrations such as inability to offer accommodation to new asylum seekers, and resort to improvised emergency accommodation. This includes cases where countries have prematurely reduced their reception capacity.For other countries, shortages in reception capacity are a chronic problem, regardless of fluctuations in arrivals of people seeking protection. These countries have embedded emergency accommodation as a permanent component of their system. Those asylum seekers who obtain a protection status sometimes face severe barriers to moving out of reception centres and securing accommodation, a right guaranteed by EU law. As a result, status holders often continue to reside in reception facilities for asylum seekers for prolonged periods.

http://www.asylumineurope.org/sites/default/files/shadow-reports/aida_housing_out_of_reach.pdf, 29.5.19

Pharos: toegang tot zorg voor ongedocumenteerde migranten

Ongedocumenteerde migranten met medische problemen hebben recht op zorg, ondanks het feit dat zij zich niet kunnen verzekeren tegen zorgkosten. Er is een regeling voor zorgverleners om de misgelopen kosten te declareren. Toch zijn er signalen dat het niet alle ongedocumenteerden makkelijk lukt om de juiste medische zorg te verkrijgen. In deze infosheet beschrijft Pharos welke handelwijzen van begeleiders en organisaties bijdragen aan het wel verkrijgen van zorg.

https://www.pharos.nl/kennisbank/toegang-tot-zorg-voor-ongedocumenteerde-migranten-wat-helpt-om-zorg-te-krijgen/, mei19

COFACE: Building inclusive societies

This paper opens describing the role of the COFACE network in bringing a holistic family perspective to the migration debate, followed by a reflection on the role of education in building inclusive societies. Then, educational challenges for migrant children and families are highlighted with our recommendations on actions to address these challenges. The document closes with final conclusions on how to bridge existing gaps between family, education, and migration policy, with a view to building a more inclusive, sustainable and welcoming Europe.

http://www.coface-eu.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/COFACE-paper_Building-Inclusive-Societies_FINAL.pdf, mei 19

La Cimade: Dublin regulation: Into the infernal machine of the European asylum system

For many people in exile who seek asylum when they come to Europe, the word "Dublin" brings to mind thoughts of a constant threat which might knock them down at any moment. "Dublin" puts them back into endless procedures, continual suspicion and fear of being sent back to a country where they don't want to live.

La Cimade publishes an Observation Report about the impact of the Dublin Regulation.

https://www.lacimade.org/publication/dublin-regulation-into-the-infernal-machine-of-the-european-asylum-system/, 29.5.19

Asylos: COI Albania: trafficked boys and young men

Albanian children regularly form one of the top five largest groups of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children in the UK, yet not one was granted asylum or humanitarian protection in 2018 despite Albania being the third-most prominent foreign country of origin for trafficked children identified in the UK in 2018.

The report covers nine key research areas relating to the trafficking of Albanian boys and young men and includes interviews with ten different individuals and organisations. We hope to help fill the gap in the COI literature about the situation of Albanian boys and young men who are victims of trafficking and to contribute to a more transparent and informed debate about their situation.

https://www.asylos.eu/albania-report, mei19

EASO Ivory Coast, juni19


UNHCR's : Returns to South Sudan - Update II, April 2019


WODC: De geloofwaardigheidsbeoordeling van asielaanvragen met een LHBTI- of bekeringsmotief - Een inventarisatie van (on)mogelijkheden tot verbetering

Het onderhavige rapport gaat in op de totstandkoming van de geloofwaardigheids-beoordeling van asielzaken met een LHBTI- of bekeringsmotief en de knelpunten. Ook wordt er gekeken naar aanknopingspunten voor verbetering van de geloofwaardigheids-beoordeling, en voorbeelden van pilots en projecten in andere landen of domeinen.

https://wodc.nl/binaries/Mem%202019-2_Volledige%20tekst_tcm28-391710.pdf, 29.5.19

GRETA: annual anti-trafficking report 2018

The report stresses the importance of the human-rights based approach, with a particular focus on gender and child-protection, that has been followed by the working group in 2018. This approach ensures effective protection of the rights of all survivors to assistance, residence, international protection, compensation and redress.

The report identifies areas for improvement with regard to compliance and implementation of the Convention in Member States. In particular, access to information and legal assistance remains a challenge for many victims, and especially for those who are in an irregular migration situation. The working group remarked on the importance of ensuring that unconditional assistance is provided to them, recognising that fear of punishment and reprisal, as well as the impact of trauma may hamper a victim's ability to engage with criminal justice proceedings. It also stressed the importance of ensuring that survivors are not criminalised, and that they have access to compensation and effective legal redress. The provision of specialised assistance to victims of trafficking who may also be seeking asylum or complementary forms of protection is another issue that GRETA identified in many country evaluation reports.

https://rm.coe.int/8th-/168094b073, mei19

Ruben Andersson: No Go World: How fear is redrawing our maps and infecting politics

War-torn deserts, jihadist killings, trucks weighted down with contraband and migrants—from the Afghan-Pakistan borderlands to the Sahara, images of danger depict a new world disorder on the global margins. Andersson takes aim at how Western states and international organizations conduct military, aid, and border interventions in a dangerously myopic fashion, further disconnecting the world’s rich and poor. Using drones, proxy forces, border reinforcement, and outsourced aid, risk-obsessed powers are helping to remap the world into zones of insecurity and danger. The result is a vision of chaos crashing into fortified borders, with national and global politics riven by fear. Andersson contends that we must reconnect and snap out of this dangerous spiral, which affects us whether we live in Texas or Timbuktu. Only by developing a new cartography of hope can we move beyond the political geography of fear that haunts us.

https://www.ucpress.edu/book/9780520294608/no-go-world, apr19

Sylvie Mazzella et Delphine Perrin (dir.): Frontières, sociétés et droit en mouvement; Dynamiques et politiques migratoires de l'Europe au Sahel

Cet ouvrage explore des aspects méconnus des dynamiques et des politiques migratoires dans un grand espace, de l'Europe au Sahel, considéré en crise. Les différentes contributions permettent de replacer la Méditerranée dans un contexte géographique et géopolitique plus vaste, l'inscrivant dans des dynamiques régionales et internationales qui la traversent et l'affectent, et l'étirant dans ses ramifications nationales peu explorées (Sénégal, Maroc, Tunisie, Algérie, Libye). 

L'ouvrage apporte une analyse de dynamiques nouvelles mais structurantes qui accompagnent la question des migrations, telles que l'évolution du marché de la consultance, des réseaux religieux ou de transport, la diffusion des normes, des politiques et des pratiques. Les études de cas permettent de décentrer le regard pour le porter sur des mouvements en cours au sud de la Méditerranée, marqués par le poids des politiques européennes tout en s'émancipant dans des parcours propres.

http://www.lames.cnrs.fr/spip.php?article1229, 28.5.19

Jan Hunin: Dit land is mijn land, Een reis naar Europa

In de zomer van 2015 trekt een Bijbelse stroom vluchtelingen Europa binnen en belooft bondskanselier Merkel: ‘Wir schaffen das.’ Voor de ingang van een Hongaars vluchtelingenkamp beseft Jan Hunin al gauw dat er geen weg terug meer is: hij moet en zal de hele tocht maken. Zo trekt hij in het spoor van drie Syriërs richting Europa. Na wekenlange omzwervingen moet hij vaststellen dat Europa niet voor iedereen het Beloofde Land is. Wat volgt, zijn nog meer omzwervingen, tot hij uiteindelijk weer in het Midden-Oosten aanbelandt. En zo werd wat een succesverhaal had moeten worden een tragikomedie over het bestaan zelf: hoe het leven ons steeds weer te grazen neemt.

https://www.libris.nl/boek/?authortitle=jan-hunin/dit-land-is-mijn-land--9789463104081, 12.4.19

UK: inspection of the Home Office's approach to Illegal Working, August-December 2018

This report makes 6 recommendations. The majority focus on improving the mechanics of illegal working compliance and enforcement but these are not enough to answer the criticism that the efforts may have the unintended consequence of enabling exploitation and discrimination by some employers. Therefore, the Home Office needs to publish an updated strategy to ensure maximum buy-in cross-government, by employers and representative organisations, by the general public, and within the Home Office itself as soon as possible. It also needs to capture, analyse and report the quantitative and qualitative data and information that demonstrates the strategy and actions are not just effective in reducing illegal working and tackling non-compliant employers but are also sensitive to and deal appropriately with instances of exploitation and abuse."

https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/800641/An_inspection_of_the_Home_Office_s_approach_to_Illegal_Working_Published_May_2018.PDF, 9.5.19

Open Democracy: Hundreds of Europeans ‘criminalised’ for helping migrants – as far right aims to win big in European elections

A database collated by global news website openDemocracy reveals 250 people across Europe have been arrested or criminalised in other ways for providing food, shelter and transport and other "basic acts of human kindness" to migrants.
The number of cases increased dramatically in 2018, with more than 100 cases recorded last year – twice as many as in 2017. The majority of the cases in 2018 were arrests and charges for providing food, transport or other support to migrants without legal papers.

https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/5050/hundreds-of-europeans-criminalised-for-helping-migrants-new-data-shows-as-far-right-aims-to-win-big-in-european-elections/, 18.5.19

ECtHR: Updated guide on Article 5 on the Right to Liberty and Security

The guide first details the scope of application of Article 5, including, inter alia, the definition of deprivation of liberty as well as the criteria to be applied. This is followed by an examination of the lawfulness of detention under Article 5 § 1, including sections on, inter alia, compliance with national law, legal certainty, no arbitrariness and acceptable procedural flaws in detention.

The guide then examines detention that is authorised under Article 5 § 1, including for non-compliance with a court order or legal obligation, as well as detention for medical or social reasons, and of minors and third-country nationals. The last section of the guide examines guarantees for individuals deprived of their liberty.

https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Guide_Art_5_ENG.pdf, 30.4.19

La Cimade: Rapport Retention 2018

L’année 2018 a été marquée par une utilisation importante de l’enfermement des personnes étrangères en centres de rétention administrative, y compris les plus vulnérables. Le gouvernement a également décidé d’accroître très fortement la capacité de ces lieux de privation de liberté avec 480 places supplémentaires en métropole (de 1069 à 1549) par le moyen d’ouvertures de LRA, de réouvertures de CRA, d’extensions des centres déjà existants. Cette politique d’enfermement s’est encore renforcée à travers l’adoption de la loi du 10 septembre 2018 qui a instauré au 1er janvier 2019 le doublement de la durée maximale de rétention, passée de 45 à 90 jours.

https://www.lacimade.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/La_Cimade_Rapport_Retention_2018.pdf, 4.6.19

Nieuwsbrief 11, 2019

Walsh, Courtney: Can teachers pass the test: An exploratory study of secondary school teachers' knowledge of, attitudes toward, and professional development interest in undocumented students

This study provides empirical evidence of secondary school teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and preparation as they relate to immigration policy and undocumented youth. Two hundred seventy-five teachers from 38 states participated in an online survey. Grounded in the Positive Youth Developmental Model and completed during a time when the social climate was less than ideal for immigrants residing in the US, this study illustrated that although the teachers reported receiving little training on undocumented youth, they were generally knowledgeable about immigration policy relevant to these students and had positive attitudes towards them. They also expressed a willingness to be a supportive ally, which has been found to be a developmental asset to vulnerable youth.

https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=kent1554272006152953&d..., mei 19

Paul Mutsaers: Police Unlimited

This book addresses the curious position of police organizations in the 21st century through the lens of a police anthropology concerned with deep-seated police discrimination across the world. In an age in which bureaucracy is considered to be the social evil of our time, Police Unlimited offers a controversial message: it is exactly the dehumanized and impersonal nature of bureaucracy that transforms policing into a neutral and fair practice.


Police des Migrants : filtrer, disperser, harceler 

Dans la gestion des migrations, les forces de police sont toujours en première ligne ; elles sont les premières représentantes de l'État auxquelles les populations migrantes sont confrontées. Partout en Europe et à sa périphérie, ces dernières sont filtrées, dispersées, harcelées. Un tel déploiement de l'arsenal policier pour affronter des problématiques qui le dépassent ne peut qu'entraîner l'irruption de la violence contre les personnes migrantes.Comme le rappelle ce livre, le répertoire d'actions de la police des migrants s'inscrit dans une histoire longue du contrôle des mobilités; il est structuré par des impératifs propres à la profession, mais il obéit aussi à des impératifs économiques et politiques. De Ceuta à Lesbos, de Calais à Menton, de Paris à Rabat, les techniques et les pratiques policières d'entrave à la migration se ressemblent: contrôles «au faciès», expulsions illégales, répression racialisée et genrée, etc., elles obligent les populations migrantes à vivre indéfiniment dans une frontière qui se matérialise partout où la police est susceptible d'intervenir.

L'introduction de l'ouvrage est disponible en suivant ce lien. 24.5.19

EU: bevolkingsontwikkeling als gevolg van lage geboortecijfers en interne EU-migratie

Population growth is slowing down, along with an increasing old-age dependency ratio. Free movement within the EU, in particular east-west movement of EU citizens, has increased, reducing the population of some Member States, while increasing that of others. These changes have serious implications across a range of areas, including the economy, labour market, healthcare and pensions. Hence, they deserve in-depth analysis.

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/ATAG/2019/635566/EPRS_ATA(2019)635566_EN.pdf, 15.5.19

Jaarverslag Ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid

In 2018 heeft het kabinet zich ingezet om Nederland aantrekkelijker te maken voor kennis en talent. Daarbij is extra aandacht uitgegaan naar het aantrekken van innovatieve ondernemers. Dit is zichtbaar in het groeiend aantal verblijfsvergunningen aan kennismigranten, waaronder ook steeds meer innovatieve ondernemers. Zo is het aantal kennismigranten toegenomen van 13.880 in 2017 naar 16.640 in 2018. Het aantal verleende startup visa steeg van 70 in 2017 naar 123 in 2018.

In het kader van het programma zijn in 2018 verschillende aanpassingen van wet- en regelgeving in consultatie gebracht, die tot doel hebben dat de asielprocedure sneller kan worden doorlopen en dat Nederlands beleid meer in de pas loopt met Europese wet- en regelgeving. Een voorstel tot wijziging van de Vreemdelingenwet 2000 dat betrekking heeft op het terugbrengen van de geldigheidsduur van de asielvergunning van vijf naar drie jaar is uitgewerkt en in consultatie gebracht. Een wijziging van het Vreemdelingenbesluit om af te zien van een gehoor als blijkt dat een herhaalde aanvraag geen kans van slagen heeft, is uitgewerkt en in consultatie gebracht. Daarnaast is gewerkt aan maatregelen om de afhandeling van herhaalde asielaanvragen te versnellen. Ook is een aanpassing voorbereid van het Besluit vergoedingen rechtsbijstand, zodat rechtsbijstand alleen zal worden verstrekt na een voornemen tot afwijzing van een asielaanvraag.

Verder zijn testen uitgevoerd met een versneld identificatie- en registratieproces (I&R-proces) en met het werken met een multidisciplinaire regietafel, zodat de verschillende ketenpartners in gezamenlijkheid eerder en beter kunnen sturen op het I&R-proces en de vervolgstappen in het asielproces. Dit draagt bij aan een efficiënte asielprocedure en een effectief terugkeerproces.


Danish Refugee Council: Rights at Risk - The Implications of a Closer Asylum-Return Nexus

Whereas hotspots in Italy and Greece were set up with a view to ensuring greater effectiveness and efficiency in migration management, experience from practice has demonstrated critical gaps in registration, access to procedures and identification of vulnerabilities, as well as violations of the right to liberty through systematic detention.

The brief places particular emphasis on the implications of the channelling of people into different procedures and the automatic detention of certain groups upon arrival, for example through the nationality-based “low profile” scheme on Greek islands. Persons subject to that scheme are automatically placed in pre-removal detention centres and can only seek asylum whilst in detention.

The Danish Refugee Council recommends access to proper and immediate legal assistance for all persons in such procedures, systematic identification of visible and non-visible vulnerabilities, and compliance with the duty to resort to detention only as a measure of last resort.

https://drc.ngo/media/5251031/rights-at-risk_drc-policy-brief2019.pdf, apr19

Asylos and ARC: Albania: Trafficked Boys and Young Men

This report combines relevant and timely publicly available material with new information generated by interviewing ten individuals with authoritative knowledge on the topic.

Download, 23.5.19

Caught in the Middle – Unaccompanied Children in Greece in the Dublin Family Reunification Process

The EU Dublin III Regulation sets out the family reunification rules by which asylum seekers arriving in the EU can apply to be transferred to another member state where they have family. 17,199 unaccompanied minors were recorded as having arrived in Greece between January 2016 and November 2018 and made up 37% of all arrivals in the first quarter of 2018.  The report's findings indicate that unaccompanied children arriving in Greece and applying for family reunion are waiting an average of 16 months from arrival until transfer, far exceeding the maximum of 11 months provided for in the Dublin Regulation. In some cases, children have been made to wait for over a year and a half.

The report concludes that delays, unjustified evidentiary requirements and a consistent failure to prioritise the best interests of the child have resulted in severe harm to many of the children's physical and mental health. It highlights in particular the ten percent of cases where children lose faith in the process and abscond, often following a rejection despite submitting substantial and sufficient evidence.

http://safepassage.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Caught-in-the-Middl..., 6.3.19

Mensenrechtencommissaris over Hongarije

In the report, the Commissioner criticizes the Hungarian legislative framework for undermining the reception of asylum applicants and the integration of refugees. She calls on the government to end the "crisis situation" they decreed in 2015, stating it was unjustified, and to refrain from using anti-migrant rhetoric.

The Commissioner expressed particular concern with the difficulties in accessing asylum procedures given that applications can only be submitted in two transit zones along the Hungarian-Serbian border. Foreign nationals in an irregular situation, including asylum seekers, apprehended anywhere on Hungarian territory are forcibly removed towards the Serbian border and risk refoulement as they are unable to access asylum procedures or challenge their expulsion. The Commissioner is concerned that the new inadmissibility ground for asylum has resulted in practically systematic rejection of asylum applications and that the applicants cannot access an effective remedy to challenge the decisions. She also called for an end to the systematic detention of asylum applicants. Regarding alleged police violence in pushbacks at the border, she asks authorities to undertake investigations of police conduct.

She further highlighted that the recent legislative measures imposing restrictions on civil society have stigmatised and criminalised NGO activities. She also commented on the situation of the independence of the judiciary and urged the country to ratify the Istanbul Convention on preventing and combating violence against women.

https://rm.coe.int/report-on-the-visit-to-hungary-from-4-to-8-february-2019-by-dunja-mija/1680942f0d, 21.5.19

European Network on Statelessness: StatelessJourneys website 

This new website is developped to help protect the rights of stateless refugees and migrants and prevent new cases of statelessness arising in the context of people arriving in Europe.


Cordaid: Development and Migration: policies and outcomes in the Netherlands

This research paper is part of a series of one European and eleven national publications. It provides an understanding of the conditions and issues that migrants and refugees face, and how these relate to migration and development policies in the Netherlands. It includes concrete recommendations on how to enable positive participation of migrants and their contribution to sustainable development, how to positively link migration to sustainable development, and on advocacy strategies particular to the Netherlands.

Het onderzoeksrapport kunt u hier downloaden, de brochure over vluchtelingen hier, (mei19)

Dina Nayeri : The Ungrateful Refugee. (mei19)

This book explores the realities of journeying across borders in the hope of a fresh start—and the emotions involved at each stage of these deeply personal journeys, from escape to asylum and resettlement. As the author summarizes herself: "I don't want to show how refugees contribute to their host countries; I want to show instead how they become enmeshed in a community, how they live, what they suffer, how they love and are loved by the native-born. I want to show how a single moment of displacement can shape everything that comes after, and how, in the West, the label 'refugee' can become a permanent siphon of identity and power. Most of all, I want to give the world a new, complete narrative of resettlement that doesn't assume (despite brushes with joy and community) that the story ends happily the moment asylum is won."

Nieuwsbrief 10, 2019

Migration Policy Centre: Impact of Public Attitudes to migration on the political environment in the Euro-Mediterranean Region

The key findings are:

  • The more immigration is important in the public debate, the more seats far-right parties tend to win.
  • Reporting tends to follow consumer preferences, rather than vice versa. However, media reporting is likely to affect what is on the political agenda.
  • Individuals are only likely to re-consider their political behaviour if their emotions are engaged by that issue. On the other hand, issues that individuals do not consider to be salient, or important, will not cause them to change their attitudes and behaviour because they do not become emotionally engaged with them.
  • Based on the models developed in this report, it is likely that radical right parties are likely to win in excess of 21% of European Parliament seats in 2019, slightly more than the 18% of seats they won in 2014.


ECtHR : Children's Rights' factsheet

The factsheet summarizes relevant case law on children's rights and has been updated to include cases that have recently been submitted to the Court or ruled on. The sub-topics of the factsheet include, inter alia, right of access to a court, right to respect for private and family life, family reunion rights and adoption.

https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/FS_Childrens_ENG.pdf, apr19

UNHCR: International Protection considerations for people fleeing the Republic of Iraq 

The report begins with background country of origin information, including political developments in Iraq since 2017, the security situation, internally displaced persons and returnees, human rights violations by state and non-state actors, the availability of state protection, and the current humanitarian situation. 

The remainder of the report presents considerations to be made in examining applications for international protection from Iraqi applicants. It addresses particular profiles of applicants including, inter alia, persons wrongly suspected of supporting the Islamic State of Iraq and Al-Sham (ISIS), persons associated with the government or opposed to the government, persons associated with being opposed to the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG), and members of minorities. 
The report also presents the broader UNHCR mandate criteria, regional instruments and complementary forms of protection, the Internal Flight or Relocation Alternative (IFA/IRA), and exclusion considerations. The final section of the report lays out the UNHCR position on forced returns to Iraq.

https://www.refworld.org/docid/5cc9b20c4.html, mei19

UNHCR: COI Note on the Situation of Yazidi IDPs in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

The note addresses access to the Kurdistan Region of Iraq and the humanitarian and socio-economic situation of the area – including shelter, employment, education, healthcare and humanitarian assistance. The note also covers returns of Yazidi IDPs to Sinjar province.

https://www.refworld.org/docid/5cd156657.html, mei19

EC: Report on implementation of Family Reunification Directive

The report examines the compliance of transposition measures with the Directive through examining key articles from the Directive. The Commission notes that key issues in transposition that arose in 2008 and 2014, such as integration measures, defining stable and regular resources, consideration of the best interests of the child and provisions for the family reunification of refugees, continue to be areas of concern and discrepancy today.

http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regdoc/rep/1/2019/EN/COM-2019-162-F1-EN-MAIN-PART-1.PDF, 29.3.19

SEO: Dutch labour market shortages and potential labour supply from Africa and the Middle East: Is there a Match?

In the Netherlands and many other European countries, demographic developments and structural change are increasingly giving rise to labour market shortages. High tech companies, hospitals and schools are having a hard time filling their vacancies. Young graduates with the right technical, medical, or ICT skills are in high demand. At the same time, around one third of young people in countries near Europe are unemployed. Many countries in Africa and the Middle East are dealing with record high and still rising unemployment rates, especially for youth, women, and those with higher education. It is not surprising, therefore, that many of them increasingly aspire to migrate to Europe for job opportunities.

In order to have a more informed, evidence-based debate on international migration, the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs requested a report to investigate the extent to which there is a potential match between labour demand in Europe (with a focus on the Netherlands) and the supply of potential labour migrants from countries near Europe. The Ministry asked for a comprehensive overview of existing studies, evaluations and other information on (1) labour shortages in the Netherlands and the EU, (2) the extent to which labour migrants from countries near the EU possess the right skills to fill gaps, and (3) recent experiences with labour migrants from these countries in other EU member states. In addition to exploring general trends, the report analyses various case studies and has compiled a list of relevant databases and literature. Three separate reports describe the education systems, labour market characteristics, and migration experiences of Nigeria, Jordan and Tunisia (Annex A,B, and C). Another separate report discusses the existing legal and non-legal barriers and opportunities for labour migration and labour market integration (Annex D). Two final annexes explore lessons learned from recent migration policies in Germany and Sweden (Annex E and F). Finally, Annex G contains the list of compiled migration databases and an extensive bibliography on the determinants of labour migration, with a focus on countries near Europe.

http://www.seo.nl/uploads/media/SEO_Migration_Study_-_Executive_Summary_and_Main_Report_-_May_2019.pdf, mei19

EU Mobile Workers: A challenge to public finances?

This contribution analyses recent trends in labour mobility within the EU and considers the challenges it generates in sending countries. It finds that mobile workers abroad can make a significant contribution to the GDP of their host countries and that the incomes of mobile citizens abroad can be of considerable benefit to those who stayed at home. However, large-scale (net) emigration could have negative effects on the source country. Negative effects of outward mobility can arise through brain drain and when emigration erodes the tax base, making it more difficult for governments to finance current expenditure and to service (a large) public debt. Within the EU, the evidence of brain drain appears limited to southern euro area countries. The negative impact of the erosion of the tax base through emigration is mitigated by lower expenditure needs and additional VAT revenues on the expenditure financed by remittances. For high debt countries, population ageing exacerbated by mobility, rather than mobility alone, is the main issue for debt sustainability.

A key finding is that with ongoing reductions in wage gaps, in the future, differences in structural factors may be more important than (after-tax) income in the decision to emigrate. States which struggle the most to enhance the quality of the life of their citizens, through effective public spending and provision of high quality public goods, may experience the largest outflows of workers. Show PDF preview, 5.4.19

UNHCR: Statelessness Handbook 

UNHCR published the fourth reissue of its Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status and Guidelines on International Protection under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. This version features a new title and 13 guidelines that complement the content of the previous 2011 version.

https://www.refworld.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/rwmain?docid=5cb474b27&mc_cid=1a074e896b&mc_eid=8ef687d56a, apr19

Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel en Faiwork over Arbeidsuitbuiting 

Er worden jaarlijks maar zo’n 23 zaken van arbeidsuitbuiting en criminele uitbuiting voor de rechter gebracht. In slechts de helft van die zaken wordt ook echt iemand veroordeeld. Hiermee blijft de aanpak van deze vormen van mensenhandel ernstig achter op die van seksuele uitbuiting. Dat staat in de Dadermonitor mensenhandel 2013-2017 van de Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel en Seksueel Geweld tegen Kinderen. Nationaal Rapporteur Herman Bolhaar wil dat het Openbaar Ministerie, de politie en de Inspectie Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid meer van dit soort zaken voor de rechter gaan brengen, zodat een heldere juridische norm ontstaat.

https://www.nationaalrapporteur.nl/actueel/2019/arbeidsuitbuiting-en-criminele-uitbuiting-blijven-vaak-onbestraft.aspx, 2.5.19

Uit onderzoek van FairWork naar 27 vonnissen in zaken van arbeidsuitbuiting (tussen 2013 en april 2017) blijkt dat 59 van de 60 slachtoffers zich gevoegd hadden als benadeelde partij. Dit is een positieve stijging ten opzichte van de jaren daarvoor, toen minder dan de helft van de slachtoffers zich nog voegde als benadeelde partij. Het blijkt echter dat slachtoffers van arbeidsuitbuiting lang niet altijd hun geleden schade geheel dan wel gedeeltelijk vergoed krijgen. Van de 59 vorderingen werden er 41 niet ontvankelijk verklaard. Om ervoor te zorgen dat slachtoffers vaker financieel gecompenseerd kunnen worden heeft FairWork, in samenspraak met onderzoekers van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, een aantal  aanbevelingen geformuleerd.

Lees het volledige bericht, 2.5.19
Download: Overzicht knelpunten compensatie

CEPS  (Sergio Carrera, Valsamis Mitsilegas, Jennifer Allsopp, Lina Vosyliūtė): Policing Humanitarianism: EU Policies Against Human Smuggling and their Impact on Civil Society

This book examines the ways in which European Union policies aimed at countering the phenomenon of migrant smuggling affects civil society actors’ activities in the provision of humanitarian assistance, access to rights for irregular immigrants and asylum seekers. It explores the effects of EU policies, laws and agencies’ operations in anti-migrant smuggling actions and their implementation in the following EU Member States: Italy, Greece, Hungary and the UK. The book critically studies policies designed and implemented since 2015, during the so called ‘European refugee humanitarian crisis’.

The 4-page introduction is downloadable for free, and the book is available here from Hart Publishing, with a 20% discount using the code CV7. Show PDF preview

Louise Boon-Kuo:  Policing Undocumented Migrants: Law, Violence and Responsibility

Migration policing experiments such as boat turn-backs and offshore refugee processing have been criticised as unlawful and have been characterised as exceptional. This book explores the extraordinarily routine, powerful, and above all lawful practices engaged in policing status within state territory. It reveals how the everyday violence of migration law is activated by making people `illegal'. It explains how undocumented migrants are marginalised through the broad discretion underpinning existing frameworks of legal responsibility for migration policing.

Drawing on interviews with people with lived experience of undocumented status within Australia, perspectives from advocates, detailed analysis of legislation, case law and policy, this book provides an in-depth account of the experiences and legal regulation of undocumented migrants within Australia. Case studies of street policing, immigration raids, transitions in legal status such as release from immigration detention, and character based visa determination challenge conventional binaries in migration analysis between the citizen and non-citizen and between lawful and unlawful status. By showing the organised and central role of discretionary legal authority in policing status, this book proposes a new perspective through which responsibility for migration legal practices can be better understood and evaluated.

https://www.waterstones.com/book/policing-undocumented-migrants/louise-boon-kuo/9780367279363 (apr19)

EASO: twee rapporten over vreemdelingendetentie

The Judicial Analysis presents an overview of the applicable primary and secondary EU law on detention and relevant international law. The document first examines terminology for applicants for international protection, including at what point an individual can be considered an applicant and at what point this status ceases to apply. This is followed with an overview of permissible grounds for detention, length of detention, alternatives to detention, the rights and guarantees of those detained, and required detention conditions.

The Compilation of Jurisprudence complements the judicial analysis by providing summaries of relevant case law from the EU Court of Justice and the ECtHR: https://www.easo.europa.eu/sites/default/files/Detention-CJ-EN-PDF.pdf

“A Better Way: Community-Based Programming as an Alternative to Immigrant Incarceration,” National Immigrant Justice Center, April 2019

Human rights norms and international law demand that immigrants benefit from a presumption of liberty during case adjudication. The use of immigration detention has been repeatedly proven inefficient, ineffective, and at odds with human welfare and dignity. Throughout the world, governments and non-governmental organizations are operating a growing variety of alternatives to detention. Evidence-based studies consistently prove community-based programs to be safer than a detention-based approach, vastly less expensive, and far more effective at ensuring compliance with government-imposed requirements. Most importantly, community-based alternatives offer a framework for refugee and migrant processing that is welcoming and allows families and communities to remain together.

“Civic Mobilisation Around Immigration Detention: Exploring Motivations and Experiences,” A. Lindley, Geoforum, (102), June 2019

While there is a burgeoning literature critically mapping the spatial logics of immigration detention around the world, there is relatively little systematic research on geographies of resistance, particularly the role of ‘outsiders’ – members of the public with relatively secure status. This article considers how people mobilise around immigration detention in the UK to challenge the status quo. Drawing on qualitative interviews and survey research, it offers in a fine-grained analysis of what nourishes civic mobilization, considering the concerns and positionalities of volunteers. It examines their experiences of taking action, visiting detention centres or campaigning for change, highlighting rewards and challenges. Probing divergences as well as convergences in people’s approaches to the issue, a picture is built up of a vibrant detention movement working across multiple spaces and scales against government efforts to isolate, contain and exclude ‘unwanted’ migrants. How this civic mobilization challenges moral distance and political closure offers a fresh insight to the geography of detention and study of pro-migrant mobilisation.

Save the Children: "Achieving Durable Solutions for Returnee Children"

To address the data gap on returns and environmental conditions conducive to a child's successful reintegration, Save the Children has built on existing durable solutions frameworks focusing on core safety dimensions for return (material, legal, and physical and developed a refined analytical framework by adding a mental health and psychosocial safety dimension as well as child-specific indicators.  he report presents a comparative child-focused analysis of reintegration across four return contexts: Iraq, Afghanistan, Somalia, and Syria.


  • Gathering better data and evidence around children's return and reintegration environments to better understand both challenges and potential opportunities children face upon return to their countries of origins;
  • Establishing universal basic thresholds of physical, material and legal safety and psychological well-being, and guaranteeing the rights of children through the return journey, from preparation through to integration. In relation to the latter, the report stresses the importance of  post-return assistance to guarantee a prolonged support to facilitate the integration of returnees.

https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/library/achieving-durable-solutions-returnee-children-what-do-we-know, 2.5.19

Nieuwsbrief 9, 2019

Nicola Delvino and Sarah Spencer : Migrants with Irregular Status in Europe: Guidance for Municipalities

The purpose of this guidance is to assist municipal authorities in responding appropriately to the presence of migrants with irregular status, including through facilitating their access to some local services. It provides information on municipal policies and practices as an evidence base upon which cities and towns may develop their own approach. The guidance is primarily intended for municipal authorities but is also aimed at public bodies which work with them. Working arrangements between public bodies and non-governmental service providers is one of the topics covered.

https://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/CMISE-Guidance-for-Municipalities-1.pdf (mrt19)

Pharos: Eenvoudige voorlichting voor vluchtelingen over psychische klachten in vijf talen

De voorlichtingsfolder 'Als je stress hebt, veel denkt en slecht slaapt' is opnieuw uitgegeven. De folder is speciaal herzien en vertaald voor vluchtelingen, maar is ook geschikt voor anderen met vragen over stressklachten.

Folders downloaden

Jie Zong and Jeanne Batalova: How Many Unauthorized Immigrants Graduate from U.S. High Schools Annually?

Since 2001, Congress has debated legislation that would offer a pathway to legal status for eligible unauthorized immigrants who arrived in the United States as children. And in 2012, President Barack Obama launched the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program that offers work authorization and relief from deportation for some such immigrants. A core provision in these bills and the DACA program has been that unauthorized-immigrant youth must earn a high school diploma or its equivalent to qualify.

The Trump administration’s 2017 decision to rescind the DACA program—and subsequent court orders that have kept it alive only for DACA beneficiaries renewing their participation, not for new applicants—leave new unauthorized-immigrant graduates with an uncertain future.

MPI estimates approximately 98,000 unauthorized immigrants graduate from U.S. high schools every year. Forty-four percent of these graduates reside in just two states: California and Texas.


Forced Migration Review: Education: needs, rights and access in displacement (mrt19)

Education is one of the most important aspects of our lives – vital to our development, our understanding and our personal and professional fulfilment throughout life. In times of crisis, however, millions of displaced young people miss out on months or years of education, and this is damaging to them and their families, as well as to their societies, both in the short and long term. This issue of FMR includes 29 articles on Education, and two ‘general’ articles.

Read: Contents and links to all articles or FMR 60 Full issue pdf (2.38 MB / A5 format)

KIS: Nadere verkenning maatschappelijke participatie van uitgeprocedeerde asielzoekers in Dld

Uitgeprocedeerde asielzoekers hebben geen recht meer op verblijf, maar kunnen ook niet altijd uitgezet worden. Deze groep verkeert vaak in een uitzichtloze situatie. In Duitsland biedt het 'Duldung beleid' de mogelijkheid aan uitgeprocedeerde asielzoekers om tijdelijk legaal in Duitsland te verblijven. KIS onderzocht hoe dit beleid in de praktijk werkt. 

https://www.kis.nl/sites/default/files/duldung-nadere-verkenning-maatschappelijke-participatie-uitgeprocedeerde-asielzoekers_0.pdf (apr19)

IND Jaarcijfers 2018: meerderheid migranten geen asielzoeker

Driekwart van de migranten komt naar Nederland voor gezinshereniging, studie of werk.

aanvragen asiel + nietasiel 2018.pngaanvragen nietasiel 2018.png

https://ind.nl/nieuws/Paginas/IND-jaarcijfers-2018-Driekwart-aanvragen-bij-IND-vooral-voor-gezinshereniging,-studie-of-werk.aspx, 8.4.19

Eurostat: meer dan 300.000 vluchtelingen erkend in de EU in 2018 waarvan 100.000 Syriers

The 28 Member States of the European Union (EU) granted protection status to nearly 333 400 asylum seekers in 2018, down by almost 40% from 2017 (533 000). In addition to these, the EU Member States received over 24 800 resettled refugees.

The largest group of beneficiaries of protection status in the EU in 2018 remained citizens of Syria (96 100 persons, or 29% of the total number of persons granted protection status in the EU Member States), followed by citizens of Afghanistan (53 500 or 16%) and those of Iraq (24 600 or 7%), as compared with 2017 when 172 900 or 32% of asylum seekers granted protection were Syrians, 99 800 or 19% were Afghanis and 63 800 or 12% were Iraqis.

Syrians were the largest group granted protection status in sixteen Member States in 2018. Of the 96 100 Syrians granted protection status in the EU, almost 70% were recorded in Germany (67 000).

Eurostat - Asylum decisions in the EU - 2018 (432.31 ko), 25.4.19

AIDA 2018 Update: Italy

The updated Country Report on Italy provides a detailed analysis of legislative developments introduced by Decree Law 113/2018, implemented by L 132/2018, as well as practice relating to asylum procedures, reception conditions, detention and content of protection.

Among other elements, the 2018 reform has codified the concept of internal protection alternative for the first time in Italian law. In addition, the humanitarian protection status, frequently granted before the 2018 law reform, has been abolished. The Territorial Commissions may only refer the applicant to the Ministry of Interior for certain national statuses.


CIMADE: Règlement Dublin – La machine infernale de l'asile européen

À partir de constats de terrain, ce rapport illustre l'échec total, l'absurdité et le caractère répressif du règlement Dublin, notamment dans son application par la France. En suivant le parcours de personnes dublinées, il donne à voir les difficultés auxquelles elles sont confrontées de leur arrivée en Europe et en France jusqu'à leur expulsion ou leur l'accès à la procédure d'asile.

L'analyse de La Cimade met en lumière un triple paradoxe :

  • Le système Dublin mine la solidarité européenne ;
  • Il affaiblit les droits de personnes en besoin de protection ;
  • Il n'est pas efficace (au sens des autorités et des taux d'expulsion) puisque la balance des « transferts » de personnes entre États est sensiblement équilibrée.


EASO: COI Report on Afghanistan on Key Socio-Economic Indicators

The report covers population data, internal mobility, the current economic climate, poverty and food security, and access to education and healthcare, with a general overview of the situation in Afghanistan and a focus on Kabul City, Mazar-e Sharif and Herat City. The report examines the impact and experiences for vulnerable groups including IDPs, returnees, women and children in each of the topics covered, with an intention of assessing the possibility of an Internal Flight Alternative (IFA) in Afghanistan. The data for the report was collected up to 30 November 2018.

https://www.easo.europa.eu/news-events/afghanistan-focus, 1.4.19

Kinderombudsman: IND moet meer rekening houden met kwetsbaarheid amv’s

De zeventienjarige Soufian vlucht zonder ouders vanuit Afghanistan naar Nederland en vraagt hier asiel aan. Hij wordt gehoord door de Immigratie- en Naturalisatie Dienst (IND). Soufian en zijn advocaat vinden dat dit nadere gehoor niet goed is verlopen en nemen contact op met de Kinderombudsman. Die concludeert dat het afnemen van een gehoor door de IND op een aantal punten beter afgestemd moet worden op de kwetsbaarheid van minderjarige vreemdelingen.

https://www.dekinderombudsman.nl/92/ouders-professionals/publicaties/ind-moet-meer-rekening-houden-met-kwetsbaarheid-minderjarige-vreemdelingen/?id=849, 16.4.19

Toolkit 'Het bespreken van mensenhandel/uitbuiting met (voormalig) asielzoekers'

Deze toolkit is bedoeld als leidraad tijdens voorlichting over mensenhandel door medewerkers en vrijwilligers aan asielzoekers. Vorig jaar brachten het Rode Kruis, COA, VluchtelingenWerk en CoMensha al een e-learning uit die gericht is op het herkennen van signalen van mensenhandel en wat je als hulpverlener moet doen om het slachtoffer te helpen. De toolkit die nu is ontwikkeld, is gericht op preventie.

Zie de toolkit met voorlichtingsmateriaal en de e-learning voor hulpverleners.

SAFE: Training veilige toekomst slachtoffers mensenhandel

Doel van het SAFE Project is om een veilige toekomst voor slachtoffers van mensenhandel te realiseren en ervoor te zorgen dat in de context van de huidige migratiestromen binnen de EU, slachtoffers van mensenhandel vroegtijdig kunnen worden geïdentificeerd. We kijken terug op een mooi en leerzaam project, met als eindresultaten:

Annalisa LENDARO, Youri LOU VERTONGEN, Claire RODIER: La crise de l'accueil - Frontières, droits, résistances

Les événements survenus en Méditerranée au cours de l'année 2015, communément qualifiés de « crise des migrants », ont bien constitué le révélateur d'une crise profonde en Europe. Mais de quelle « crise » parlons-nous ? Pourquoi le fait migratoire est-il aujourd'hui le plus souvent réduit, en Europe, à cette notion ?

Pour les auteur·e·s de cet ouvrage, l'utilisation de ce terme reflète avant tout le refus des États européens d'intégrer les dimensions contemporaine et internationale d'un phénomène qu'il est illusoire de prétendre enrayer et qui ne peut au demeurant être qualifié ni de nouveau ni d'imprévisible. Cette attitude de déni se traduit par une gestion meurtrière des frontières et le renoncement au principe de solidarité entre États membres qui est supposé fonder l'Union européenne.

Elle met en évidence la véritable crise, celle de l'accueil. Grâce à un éclairage pluridisciplinaire, cet ouvrage se propose de faire le point sur ce que la « crise » nous apprend, en termes de nouvelles pratiques et de logiques latentes. 

https://editionsladecouverte.fr/catalogue/index-La_crise_de_l_accueil-9782348042843.html, apr19

IRR: When witnesses won’t be silenced: citizens' solidarity and criminalisation (apr19)

When witnesses won't be silenced: citizens' solidarity and criminalisation is a free downloadable briefing paper that looks at the dramatic increase in prosecutions from European states on humanitarian activists for their acts of solidarity with and assistance of displaced people.

Chronicling 17 cases involving 99 people in 2018 and the first months of 2019, this second report [1] on the criminalisation of humanitarian actors, shows the expansion and escalation of states’ prosecutions during the ‘migrant crisis’. For example, 2018 saw charges include:

  • Membership of a criminal network or gang as well as, in the Stansted 15 case, terrorism-related offences
  • In some cases, individuals and organisations have had phones tapped and bank accounts frozen
  • In the case of search and rescue NGOs investigation and/or prosecution has been accompanied by ‘smear campaigns’ which seem to be spearheaded by the Italian government to delegitimize, slander and obstruct aid associations


DT&V: antwoord op WOB-verzoek over meldplicht

met cijfers instroom / uitstroom meldplicht Rotterdam 2015 (blz 81 ev)

https://www.dienstterugkeerenvertrek.nl/binaries/Stukken%20horende%20bij%20Wob-verzoek%20meldplicht_tcm49-386099.pdf, 19.4.19

Wouter van der Spek & Anita Böcker : Detentie van Asielzoekers: Een Kwestie van Gevoel?

This paper analyses how street-level bureaucrats in the Netherlands decide on detaining asylum seekers. The paper is based on interviews with officers of the national police and the military police who take these decisions as part of their job. The relevent Dutch and European legal rules are not clear and unambiguous and the officers are given wide margins of discretion in making these decisions. Many interviewees said that they ultimately rely on their ‘feelings’. The paper therefore pays special attention to whether and how gut feelings and emotions of the officers influence their decision-making. In addition, the paper examines whether and how the increased use of ICTs and the Europeanisation of migration and asylum law have reduced the officers’ discretion and autonomy.


Steve Tasane : Child I

A group of undocumented children with letters for names, are stuck living in a refugee camp, with stories to tell but no papers to prove them. As they try to forge a new family amongst themselves, they also long to keep memories of their old identities alive. Will they be heard and believed? And what will happen to them if they aren't 

https://www.amazon.co.uk/Child-I-Steve-Tasane/dp/0571337821 (mei18)

Viet Nguyen, David Bezmozgis: The Displaced: Refugee Writers on Refugee Lives (apr19)

Viet Nguyen brings together writers originally from Mexico, Bosnia, Iran, Afghanistan, Soviet Ukraine, Hungary, Chile, Ethiopia, and others to make the stories of displacement heard. Their 17 contributions are as diverse as their own lives have been, and yet hold just as many themes in common. These essays reveal moments of uncertainty, resilience in the face of trauma, and a reimagining of identity, forming a compelling look at what it means to be forced to leave home and find a place of refuge.

The Displaced is also a commitment: ABRAMS will donate 10 percent of the cover price of this book, a minimum of $25,000 annually, to the International Rescue Committee, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to providing humanitarian aid, relief, and resettlement to refugees and other victims of oppression or violent conflict.


Nieuwsbrief 8, 2019

Sue ClaytonAnna Gupta and Katie Willis: Unaccompanied Young Migrants : Identity, Care and Justice

The book takes a multi-disciplinary perspective, grounded in human rights, to explore the journeys migrant youths take through legal and care systems. Section One frames the youth migrant debate through an examination of the migration regimes, legal frameworks and care systems which unaccompanied asylum-seeking children have to navigate. The chapters in this section consider the ways in which young migrants are categorised through externally-imposed identities as they are processed through legal and care systems. The focus in all three chapters is on the situation in the UK, particularly in England and Wales, but, where appropriate, there are links to other jurisdictions.

Section Two of the book explores migrant youth identities and draws more explicitly on the voices and experiences of individual unaccompanied asylum-seeking young people, so countering the official, institutional categorisations outlined in Section 1.

Section Three of the book moves beyond the focus on the UK, to explore how unaccompanied minors are classified and supported (or not) in other countries. 

https://policy.bristoluniversitypress.co.uk/unaccompanied-young-migrants, apr19

De toekomst van het vreemdelingenrecht

In 2018 bracht de Adviescommissie voor Vreemdelingenzaken (ACVZ) het rapport 'Op weg naar 2030. Migratie: een toekomstverkenning' uit. Voor de redactie van Journaal Vreemdelingenrecht aanleiding voor een themanummer over de toekomst van het vreemdelingenrecht.

Bridging the Gaps- Linking Research to Public Debates and Policy Making on Migration and Integration. Edited by Martin Ruhs, Kristof Tamas, and Joakim Palme

The authors argue that we must go beyond the prevailing focus on the research-policy nexus by considering how the media, public opinion, and other dimensions of public debates can interact with research and policy-processes. The chapters provide theoretical analyses and personal assessments of the successes and failures of past efforts to link research to public debates and policy-making on migration and integration in six different countries - Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States - as well as in European and global governance debates. Contrary to common public perceptions and political demands, Bridging the Gaps argues that all actors contributing to research, public debates, and policy-making should recognize that migration, integration, and related decision-making are highly complex issues, and that there are no quick fixes to what are often enduring policy dilemmas. When the different actors understand and appreciate each other's primary aims and constraints, such common understandings can pave the way for improved policy-making processes and better public policies that deal more effectively with the real challenges of migration and integration. 

http://fdslive.oup.com/www.oup.com/academic/pdf/openaccess/9780198834557.pdf, mrt19

CEPS: The Cost of Non-Europe in the Area of Legal Migration

This Research Paper is a contribution to a wider cost-of non-Europe assessment in the Area of Freedom Security and Justice requested by the European Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties that can be found here. The research takes stock of the state of play in European Union cooperation in the area of legal immigration. The Research Paper identifies gaps and barriers of current sectorial and fragmented EU legal immigration acquis. It assesses their economic impacts and impacts at individual level in terms of fundamental rights protection and non-discrimination laid down in international, regional and EU human rights and labour standards. The research highlights the need for ‘more EU’ in upholding equal treatment standards between third country workers with EU nationals in relation to working and living conditions. The Research Paper elaborates on the potential benefits, cost drivers and feasibility of different policy options for the EU ranging from: better enforcement, to the gradual extension of EU legislation towards other labour market sectors or bringing back to the idea of a Binding Immigration Code. The research concludes that EU internal market, national administrations as well as EU and Third Country Citizens would benefit from more homogenous policy approach in the area of legal migration.

The opinions expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position of the European Parliament. Reproduction and translation for non-commercial purposes are authorized, provided the source is acknowledged and the publisher is given prior notice and sent a copy. Manuscript completed in August 2018.

Show PDF preview


Ambtsbericht Libie, 12.4.19

ECRE Report: The Implementation of the Dublin III Regulation in 2018

ECRE has published a report providing an overview of developments in legislation, policy and practice relating to the application of the Dublin III Regulation, based on current practice, case law and up-to-date statistics from 21 European countries.

Germany and France continued to spearhead the Dublin system. The figures indicate that nearly one in three asylum seekers in Germany and France were subject to a Dublin procedure. However, more than four out of five Dublin procedures in these countries failed to meet their aim, as they did not result in a transfer. Italy and Spain were the main net recipients of Dublin procedures in 2018, while Sweden and Greece also had significantly higher incoming requests than outgoing requests.

The report also analyses the Dublin system’s compliance with human rights. The right to family life continues to be a marginal component of Dublin procedures: family and humanitarian clause requests sent by Dublin Units remain small in number and are consistently met with restrictive positions from the receiving countries’ side. In addition, the protection of asylum seekers from refoulement to countries unable to guarantee basic reception, fair refugee status determination or protection from chain refoulement, is too readily pushed to the courts by policy choices to shy away from suspension of transfers and to turn a blind eye to violations of asylum standards, however severe or deliberate. Official positions against transfers have been taken by a few countries in respect of Greece and Hungary, but not Italy or Bulgaria.

http://www.asylumineurope.org/sites/default/files/aida_2018update_dublin.pdf, mrt19

The EU's Role in Implementing the UN Global Compact on Refugees - Contained Mobility vs. International Protection

The Global Compact on Refugees (GCR), adopted in December 2018 by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly, expresses the political will of UN member states and relevant stakeholders to foster responsibility sharing for refugees and their host countries. Among GCR key objectives is that of expanding mobility and admission channels for people in search of international protection through resettlement and 'complementary' pathways of admission. The GCR provides a reference framework to critically assess European Union (EU) policies in relation to two main issues: first, the role and contribution of the EU and its Member States towards the implementation of the GCR in ways that are loyal to the Compact and EU Treaties guiding principles; second, and more specifically, the main gaps and contested issues of existing resettlement and complementary admission instruments for refugees and would-be refugees implemented at the EU and Member State levels.
This paper argues that EU policies in the field of asylum and migration have been driven by a 'contained mobility' approach, which has been recently operationalised in the scope of EU third country arrangements like the 2016 EU-Turkey Statement. Under this approach, restrictive and selective mobility/admission arrangements for refugees have been progressively consolidated and used in exchange of, or as incentives for, third country commitments to EU readmission and expulsions policy. The paper concludes by recommending that the EU moves from an approach focused on 'contained mobility' towards one that places refugee's rights and agency at the centre through facilitated resettlement and other complementary pathways driven by a fundamental rights and international protection rationale.

https://www.ceps.eu/system/files/LSE-04_ReSOMA_ImplementingGCR_0.pdf, apr19

Werkinstructie 2019/5: Arbeidsmarktaantekeningen

Met deze werkinstructie wordt duidelijkheid verschaft in welke gevallen een bepaalde arbeidsmarktaantekening aangetekend moet worden op de sticker ‘Verblijfsaantekening Algemeen’. Deze sticker houdt verband met de aanvraag om verlening of verlenging van de verblijfsvergunning dan wel met de aanvraag om wijziging van de beperking waaronder de verblijfsvergunning eerder was verleend. Daarom zijn in deze instructie ook de arbeidsmarktaantekeningen opgenomen zoals die op de verblijfsdocumenten staan.
https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2019-5.pdf, 28.3.19

Amal de Chickera: Het Meisje dat Haar Land Verloor

Neha is een staatloos meisje uit Nepal. Ze spreekt Nepalees, ziet er Nepalees uit en voelt zich Nepalees. Waarom is ze dat dan niet? Op haar tocht trekt Neha door verschillende landen, van de Dominicaanse republiek tot Maleisië, waar andere kinderen vertellen hoe het met hun nationaliteit is gesteld.

In het hele boek zijn niet alleen kindvriendelijke teksten en toegankelijke afbeeldingen te vinden, maar ook opdrachten, vragen en informatieve foto’s. Dit maakt het boek niet alleen leuk, maar ook nog eens heel leerzaam. Op deze wijze hoopt ISI (Insitute on Statelessness and Inclusion) dan ook kinderen van over de hele wereld te leren wat hun rechten zijn, als het gaat over nationaliteit.

Lees meer over het verhaal van Neha

Nieuwsbrief 7, 2019

Report Joëlle Milquet: "Strengthening victims' rights: from compensation to reparation

This report shows that victims often have difficulty accessing justice and receiving compensation due to a lack of information, insufficient support, overly-restrictive eligibility criteria or procedural hurdles. For persons who become victims of crime when travelling to another EU country, it can be even more difficult to receive compensation. The report takes stock of best practices in terms of protection of victims' rights at national and EU level. It also proposes 41 recommendations on how to improve the protection of these rights, as well as victims' access to justice and compensation.

Recommendation n ̊35: Access to redress mechanisms for all victims of crime must be guaranteed in practice as it is in law. It is widely recognised that undocumented migrants, and those awaiting a decision regarding their residence status, are discouraged to report a crime due to beliefs that their information will be shared with immigration authorities, or due to negative experience with law enforcement agencies in the past.

The EU should recommend:

1° Acknowledging the particular vulnerabilities of migrants, it is essential that all EU Member States take immediate action to alleviate the obstacles for migrants to report crime and to seek protection. A clear firewall needs to be established between local police stations and immigration authorities. Member States must not create hierarchies of 'illegality' which place the individual's residence status as a 'more important crime' than the crime which they are reporting.

2° That Member States must also guarantee access to legal advice for undocumented migrants and access to victim support services.

3° Migrants who seek medical assistance following a crime should be offered protection and Member States should ensure that medical information and knowledge concerning the individual's presence in a medical service is not communicated to immigration authorities.

Press Releasehttp://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-19-1609_en.htm
Full Text: https://ec.europa.eu/info/policies/justice-and-fundamental-rights/criminal-justice/victims-rights_en

Women’s Refugee Commission (WRC): “’More Than One Million Pains”: Sexual Violence Against Men and Boys on the Central Mediterranean Route to Italy”,

The research reveals widespread sexual abuse and violence in Libya: “Sexual violence is used for extortion, subjugation, punishment, and entertainment, and frequently involves elements of profound cruelty and psychological torture. Sexual victimization is usually not a single event: findings suggest that refugees and migrants are repeatedly exposed to multiple forms of sexual violence by a variety of perpetrators in contexts of impunity”.

Further the study finds cases of and risk of sexual exploitation in Italy as well as lack of capacity and multiple barriers to treatment of physical and mental traumas including anti-migration legislation, sociocultural norms, limited awareness of the issue, capacity challenges, and poor referral systems.

https://www.womensrefugeecommission.org/gbv/resources/1689-more-than-one-million-pains-sexual-violence-against-men-and-boys-on-the-central-mediterranean-route-to-italy, 21.3.19

ASKV en ENS: Gidsen over Staatloosheid in NL

Het ASKV heeft i.s.m. het Institute on Statelessness en het European Network on Statelessness stap-voor-stap gidsen ontwikkeld voor staatlozen en hulpverleners in contact met staatlozen in Nederland. 

Zie: https://www.askv.nl/wat-doen-we/campagnes/staatloosheid/stap-voor-stap-gidsen/


EASO: COI report on the security situation in Iraq

The report is intended to cover the main security concerns in Iraq since the armed conflict with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in 2014, focusing on 2018.
The first chapter of the report provides an overview of the general security situation in the country, including information on the political situation, and details the activities of the main armed actors in the region. With a focus on 2018, the report also documents the general violence and its consequences on the civilian population. The second chapter analyses the security concerns at a regional level, providing detailed information on the conflict specifics of each governorate. The information includes security data and trends for each region, as well as information on reported incidents and their impact.

https://coi.easo.europa.eu/administration/easo/PLib/Iraq_security_situation.pdf, mrt19

Landenrapporten Griekenland en Hongarije

ACVZ Signalering: 'Het Koninkrijk en de internationale bescherming van (asiel)migranten. Verdeling van verantwoordelijkheden en mogelijkheden tot samenwerking'.

Uit het Statuut van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden volgt dat de landen van het Koninkrijk een grote mate van autonomie hebben in het voeren van een eigen migratiebeleid en hier dus ook in eerste instantie zelf verantwoordelijk voor zijn. De autonomie wordt begrensd door verplichtingen die voortvloeien uit internationale verdragen en door wetten van het Koninkrijk (het Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden en Rijkswetten). Het Koninkrijk kan als uiterste middel ingrijpen als één van de landen bij de uitvoering van het migratiebeleid internationale regels niet nakomt of de mensenrechten schendt.

U kunt de publicatie vinden op de website van de ACVZ via deze link: signalering

Arzu Güler, Marina Shevtsova & Denise Venturi (eds.) (2019): LGBTI Asylum Seekers and Refugees from a Legal and Political PerspectivePersecution, Asylum and Integration

This book addresses the 'three moments' in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) asylum seekers' and refugees' efforts to secure protection: The reasons for their flight, the Refugee Status Determination process, and their integration into the host community once they are recognized refugee status. The first part discusses one of the most under-researched areas within the literature devoted to asylum claims based on sexual orientation and gender identity, namely the reasons behind LGBTI persons' flight. It investigates the motives that drive LGBTI persons to leave their countries of origin and seek sanctuary elsewhere, the actors of persecution, and the status quo of LGBTI rights. In turn, the second part explores the challenges that LGBTI asylum seekers face during the RSD process in countries of asylum. It subsequently addresses the reasons for and potential solutions to these challenges. The last part of the book focuses on the integration of LGBTI refugees into the countries of asylum. Here, it first seeks to identify and describe the protection gaps that LGBTI refugees are currently experiencing, before turning to the reasons and potential remedies for them.

European Commission - Legal Migration - Fitness Check (29.3.19)

The main purpose of this fitness check is to assess whether the EU legal migration framework is still fit for purpose, to identify any inconsistencies and gaps, and to look for possible ways to streamline and simplify existing rules. The fitness check, which started in 2016, was supported by a thorough consultation process – including an open public consultation and targeted consultation of key stakeholders (Member States, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee, Non-Governmental Organisations, and economic and social partners) – as well as by an external study

European Commission - Family Reunification - Report on the implementation of Directive 2003/86/EC

This report gives an overview of the current situation on the implementation of the Directive 2003/86/EC on the right to family reunification by Member States, focusing on the key issues that have emerged from the Commission's own compliance analysis, complaints received and relevant judgements of the CJEU

Report on the implementation of Directive 2003/86/EC on the right to family reunification (592.68 ko) COM(2019)162, 29.3.19

REDRESS : The rights of victims of violence in pre-trial and immigration detention

The Netherlands have adopted a strong framework on victims’ rights within its domestic criminal system: victims have to be informed of their rights in criminal proceedings at an early stage, including their right to participate in proceedings and to obtain legal representation, and to seek compensation. Yet the way in which these rights are implemented for victim detainees is inadequate, our new report finds.

One of the findings of the report highlights concerns over the wide discretion of the directors of detention centres to restrict the rights of victim detainees an impose disciplinary measures, including solitary confinement. This is due to the lack  the lack of specific laws governing the rights of victim detainees.

The report also finds that the right to information is not sufficiently implemented in relation to victim detainees. Often, victim detainees only receive information about their rights from their defense or immigration lawyer, in the absence of a clear point of information across detention centres.

Moreover, the report finds that the remedies that are available do not adequately protect the rights of victims detainees. For example, the report finds that complaint mechanism specific to detention centres are insufficient to address allegations of ill-treatment by staff, and there is concern over the lack of transparency in disciplinary procedures. The report shows that there is a tendency to relocate detention staff against whom there exist serious complaints from detainees rather than initiate their investigation and eventual prosecution.

The full report and recommendations are available here.

Saman Amini : Samenloop van omstandigheden

Dit boek vertelt over een jongen die wakker ligt en wordt geteisterd door nachtmerries. De enige weg naar nachtrust is de confrontatie met de demonen uit zijn verleden. Hier begint de reis door zijn jeugd. Het is niet een verhaal over vluchten, dit is een verhaal over aarden. Want als je eenmaal die reis hebt gemaakt, en je bent ‘aan de goede kant van het hek’ beland, wat dan?

Het is een volledig geïllustreerd boek gebaseerd op de gelijknamige solovoorstelling waarmee Saman Amini de afgelopen twee jaar door Nederland toerde. Zijn teksten, worden ondersteund door paginagrote illustraties Tom Jager.


Nieuwsbrief 6, 2019

ECRE: Destitution as a tool for immigration control

In a study from last year, ECRE concluded that “the reduction or withdrawal of reception conditions is considered and used as a tool for immigration control”.

In a recent article, Ilker Ataç discusses the use of conditionality in provision of housing in Austria, the Netherlands and Sweden, referring to the wider trend of placing conditions on access to socio-economic rights and the link with the concept of deservingness.  Conditions might be reasonable but where they are not, then destitution results because people chose not to submit to the conditions and therefore cannot access their rights. For example, if accommodation is only provided in detention centres, people may chose not to take it up.

http://www.asylumineurope.org/sites/default/files/aida_brief_withdrawalconditions.pdf, juli18
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15562948.2018.1530401?src=recsys, 10.2.19

Report ‘FROM PILLAR TO POST - Destitution among people refused asylum in Scotland’

UK Home Office figures suggest there could be as many as 1000 people in Scotland who have been refused asylum and are at risk of destitution. Refused asylum seekers in the UK lose their entitlement to Home Office accommodation and financial support 21 days after their asylum claim is rejected. Some people will still be eligible for some level of support from the Home Office but others are left with nothing.

http://www.scottishrefugeecouncil.org.uk/assets/0001/8406/From_Pillar_to_Post.pdf, feb19

FRA: Risks of exploitation of foreign workers

These two sub-studies are focusing on the experiences and views of foreign workers in EU Member States, in a rather innovative approach giving the floor to victims, notably undocumented workers

Out of sight: migrant women exploited in domestic work (June 2018)
Protecting migrant workers from exploitation in the EU: boosting workplace inspections (September 2018).

EUROSTAT - Asylum in the EU Member States in 2018

In 2018, 580 800 first-time asylum seekers applied for international protection in the Member States of the European Union (EU), down by 11% compared with 2017 (654 600) and less than half of the number recorded in the peak year 2015 when 1 256 600 first-time asylum applicants were registered. The number of asylum applicants in 2018 is comparable to the level recorded in 2014, before the peaks of 2015 and 2016.

Syrian (80 900 first-time applicants), Afghan (41 000) and Iraqi (39 600) continued to be the main citizenships of people seeking international protection in the EU Member States in 2018, together accounting for almost 30% of all first-time applicants.

Asylum in the EU Member States in 2018 (695.40 ko), 14.3.19

IND Werkinstructie 2019/4: Herkomstonderzoek in asielzaken

Door de IND wordt onderzoek verricht naar de identiteit, herkomst en nationaliteit van asielzoekers. Dit onderzoek wordt gebruikt om te bepalen of een opgegeven nationaliteit, herkomst of etniciteit geloofwaardig is. Vooral bij ongedocumenteerde asielzoekers speelt herkomstonderzoek een belangrijke rol. Echter bij gedocumenteerde asielzoekers kan ook een volledig onderzoek naar identiteit, herkomst en nationaliteit plaatsvinden als hier aanleiding toe bestaat, bijvoorbeeld als uit algemene informatie blijkt dat originele paspoorten eenvoudig op frauduleuze wijze verstrekt kunnen worden.

Deze instructie beschrijft de instrumenten, de algemene uitgangspunten, de werkwijze bij herkomstonderzoek en de beoordeling hiervan. Benadrukt wordt dat dit een algemene instructie is over herkomstonderzoek en dat er ook nadere adviezen kunnen zijn die zien op specifieke landen en waar ook informatie over herkomstonderzoek in is opgenomen.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2019-4.pdf, 11.3.19

EASO : practical guide on the best interests of the child in asylum procedures

EASO has released the latest guidance on the best interests of the child in asylum procedures in a new practical guide. It seeks to support EU Member States, Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein in establishing child-friendly asylum processes that ensure the protection of the child in line with EU and international law. The document affirms the obligation for States to assess and give primary consideration to the best interests of the child (BIC) in all actions or decisions concerning children.
The guide is divided into four main sections: (1) background information and elements of the best interests of the child; (2) procedural safeguards and the relevant guarantees; (3) guidance on how to assess best interests of the child in practice; (4) vulnerability and risk indicators. The Annexes include (1) a checklist to assist authorities and actors in ensuring the best interests of the child are assessed at each necessary stage and all necessary safeguards are implemented; (2) a compilation of policy and guidance documents relevant to the topic; and (3) an overview of the legal framework including international, European and EU legal instruments.



UNICEF Nederland : Child Notice Afghanistan

In de afgelopen jaren zijn veel Afghaanse vluchtelingen vanuit Pakistan en Iran gedwongen teruggekeerd naar hun geboorteland. Families kunnen vaak niet terug naar hun oorspronkelijke woonplaats en zijn dus extra kwetsbaar voor armoede en uitbuiting. Een kwart van de teruggekeerde kinderen gaat niet naar school. Veel kinderen in Afghanistan moeten werken en jongens lopen het risico dat gewapende groepen hen rekruteren als kindsoldaten. Ze zijn ook kwetsbaar voor seksuele uitbuiting. Meisjes kunnen op jonge leeftijd worden uitgehuwelijkt. Weeshuizen zijn onveilige plekken voor kinderen. De Afghaanse jeugdzorg biedt kinderen onvoldoende bescherming tegen deze gevaren.

Kinderen lopen een groot risico om slachtoffer te worden van het gewapende conflict, huiselijk geweld, kindermisbruik of (seksuele) uitbuiting. In 2017 zijn 861 kinderen omgekomen bij het gewapende conflict. Vorig jaar zijn volgens een VN-rapport 927 kinderen gedood. 28 procent van het totale aantal burgerslachtoffers in 2018 waren kinderen. In 2018 heeft de Afghaanse regering extra budget vrijgemaakt voor kinderbeschermingsprogramma’s. Toch kan ze kinderen onvoldoende bescherming bieden tegen geweld en misbruik.

UNICEF dringt bij de Nederlandse autoriteiten erop aan dat zij bij de beoordeling van asielverzoeken van Afghaanse kinderen en hun families rekening houden met de moeilijke leefomstandigheden voor kinderen in Afghanistan. En dat zouden zij ook moeten doen bij eventuele terugkeerprocedures.

https://www.unicef.nl/files/UNC%20Rapport%20Child%20Notice_Afghanistan%20EN%20(2018)%20FINAL.pdf, 6.3.19

EASO : guidance note and common analysis on Nigeria

The Guidance, while not being binding, “aims to assist in the examination of applications for international protection by applicants from Nigeria, and to foster convergence in decision practices across Member States.”

With regards to the qualification for refugee status of persons with particular profiles, for example, the guidance note differentiates between three types of profiles. First, profiles which, in general, lead to a well-founded fear of persecution, including individuals targeted by Boko Haram and LGBT persons. Second, profiles that may lead to a well-founded fear of persecution in relation to certain risk-enhancing circumstances, e.g. human rights activists, Christian and Muslim minorities as well as women and girls. Third, profiles which solely belonging to does, in general, not lead to a well-founded fear of persecution, such as individuals threatened in relation to ritual killings or with severe medical issues.

https://www.easo.europa.eu/sites/default/files/Country_Guidance_Nigeria_2019.pdf, feb19

Amnesty: notitie over risico’s bij gedwongen terugkeer naar Sudan

Directe aanleiding voor het onderzoek waren serieuze signalen van ernstige misstanden, waaronder detentie en mishandeling, na de uitzetting van de heer X. eind 2017. Deze zaak staat niet op zichzelf.

Amnesty roept met deze publicatie de Nederlandse overheid op onnodige kwetsbaarheden in de Nederlandse uitzetpraktijk met betrekking tot Sudan te adresseren:

  • Mensen die verdacht worden van 'activiteiten voor de oppositie'; mensen aan wie dergelijke activiteiten worden toegedicht; en mensen afkomstig uit de conflictgebieden Darfur, Blue Nile, Nuba Mountains en Zuid-Kordofan, zouden in geen geval naar Sudan moeten worden teruggestuurd.    
  • Na de asielprocedure is een extra toets of (de wijze van) uitzetting art. 3 EVRM-risico's oplevert nodig.
  • Zorg dat bij de presentatie aan de Sudanese autoriteiten in Nederland een tolk aanwezig is, zodat gemonitord kan worden op de risico's waaraan mensen blootstaan tijdens de voorgeleiding - zoals het gevraagd worden naar dan wel delen van asiel-gerelateerde informatie.
  • Zet mensen 'low profile', dus liefst zonder (onnodig zware) escorte, uit.
  • Stuur mensen niet terug met documenten waaruit eerdere irreguliere migratie kan worden opgemaakt, dit om onnodige problemen met de Sudanese autoriteiten te voorkomen.
  • Maak met Sudan gemaakte afspraken over terugkeer openbaar .

Het is de verantwoordelijkheid van de Nederlandse overheid om bij gedwongen terugkeer alle risico's zorgvuldig te wegen teneinde bescherming tegen onmenselijke behandeling te kunnen waarborgen. 

Reports on asylum procedures in different countries:

IND: Analyse Chavez-Vilchez

Aantallen en achtergrond van Chavez-aanvragers:

  • In het jaar na het arrest zijn 2.710 aanvragen voor artikel 20 VwEU ingediend.
  • Het inwilligingspercentage is 94%
  • Het aandeel mannen dat een aanvraag heeft gedaan op basis van artikel 20 VwEU is 38%
  • De meeste aanvragen op basis van Chavez-Vilchez zijn van derdelanders met een Marokkaanse nationaliteit, waarna de Surinaamse, Turkse en Nigeriaanse nationaliteit volgen.
  • In 74% van de gevallen heeft de derdelander ouder eerder een andere eerdere aanvraag ingediend. De eerste aanvraag voorafgaand aan de aanvraag van artikel 20 VwEU is overwegend een reguliere aanvraag geweest (91%) in plaats van asielaanvraag (9%). Binnen de voorafgaande reguliere aanvragen maar bij 11% van de gevallen een eerdere afwijzing op het Zambrano arrest is geweest. Binnen de onderzochte voorafgaande asielaanvragen is dit zelfs 0%.

https://ind.nl/documents/analyse%20chavez-vilchez.pdf, nov18

Mixed Migration Centre Asia: Distant Dreams - Understanding the aspirations of Afghan returnees

This report is based on 56 in-depth interviews with former Afghan migrants and refugees who have returned from Iran, Pakistan and Europe. The research reveals returnees' aspirations and hopes for their future, including psychosocial challenges when reintegrating and how those suffering from more severe psychosocial conditions after return have also considered re-migration as a solution.

The report provides recommendations to humanitarian and development actors, such as prioritising psychosocial assistance in reintegration programming, allowing returnees to function in their environment by restoring a sense of agency, and rethinking categorical approaches to reintegration aid.

The report was commissioned and led by MMC Asia and carried out by Seefar.
http://www.mixedmigration.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/061_Distant_Dreams.pdf, 12.3.19

Nieuwsbrief 5, 2019

Artsen Zonder Grenzen: "VLUCHT ZONDER EINDE"

Artsen Zonder Grenzen biedt sinds oktober 2017, samen met andere organisaties, geestelijke gezondheidszorg aan migranten en vluchtelingen in het Maxiliaanpark in Brussel: de humanitaire hub. In juli 2018 bevraagden onderzoekers van Artsen Zonder Grenzen 47 bezoekers van het project aan de hand van semi-gestructureerde vragenlijsten en interviews om te weten wat hun noden zijn, hoe hun traject en hun toekomstplannen eruit zien, wat hun ervaring zijn met geweld en discriminatie en hoe ze de opvang in België en de diensten in de humanitaire hub percipiëren.

De voornaamste bevindingen zijn:

  • Slechts 4  op 47 ondervraagden waren van bij het begin van plan naar het Verenigd Koninkrijk te reizen. Hun slechte ervaringen eenmaal in Europa aangekomen, doet de ontgoocheling in Europa toenemen en doet hen de zoektocht naar een plaats waar ze veiligheid en rust vinden, gaandeweg bijstellen.
  • Samen met de ontgoocheling in Europa neemt ook hun psychisch lijden toe. 1 op 4 schrijft zijn/haar psychische problemen toe aan ervaringen in Europa (slechte leefomstandigheden, onzekerheid over de procedure, politiegedrag, ..).
  • Artsen Zonder Grenzen pleit samen met andere partners in de hub voor een soepelere toepassing van de Dublin-reguliering en de oprichting van centra voor opvang en oriëntatie voor deze groep van mensen.

Lees het rapport (feb19)

ACVZ: Veranderend ouderschap

In december 2016 heeft de Staatscommissie Herijking ouderschap (hierna: Staatscommissie) het rapport ‘Kind en ouders in de 21ste eeuw’ uitgebracht. Hierin stelt de Staatscommissie regelingen voor het meerouderschap en meerpersoonsgezag van maximaal vier personen voor. De reden hiervoor is dat er in de maatschappij verschillende vormen van sociaal ouderschap bestaan (zoals stiefoudergezinnen en ouderparen van gelijk geslacht), waarop de regelgeving onvoldoende aansluit. Daarnaast doet zij een voorstel voor een draagmoederschapsregeling. Deze regeling heeft als doel te voorkomen dat Nederlandse ouders een draagmoeder zoeken in een land waar de rechten van de draagmoeder en het kind onvoldoende geborgd zijn.

De Adviescommissie voor Vreemdelingenzaken (ACVZ) adviseert in het advies ‘Veranderend Ouderschap en Migratie’ over de vreemdelingrechtelijke gevolgen van de voorstellen van de Staatscommissie. De ACVZ constateert in haar rapport dat doorvoering van de voorstellen van de Staatscommissie vreemdelingrechtelijke gevolgen met zich zal meebrengen. De ACVZ acht het gewenst dat de wijziging van de definitie ‘gezin’ in het afstammingsrecht ook wordt doorgevoerd in het vreemdelingenrecht en dat de verblijfsrechtelijke positie van mensen in deze nieuwe gezinsvormen wordt opgenomen in regelgeving.

Lees het rapport: Veranderend ouderschap (feb19)

PACE Resolution 2263: Withdrawing nationality as a measure to combat terrorism: A human rights-compatible approach? 

Based on a report by Assembly member and Dutch politician Tineke Strik, the Assembly concluded that nationality deprivation "is a drastic measure which can be extremely socially divisive" and characterized it as a measure which "may be at odds with human rights". The parliamentarians expressed their concern over the fact that several Member States consider nationality a privilege rather than a right. Furthermore, deprivation of nationality laws that allow for deprivation even when it results in statelessness, fail to incorporate adequate procedural safeguards, and discriminate against dual nationals. For those reasons, PACE called on its Member States to repeal any laws that allow for arbitrary deprivation of nationality, and stressed that deprivation should never result in statelessness nor should it discriminate against dual citizens.

report: http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-DocDetails-EN.asp?FileID=25241&lang=EN, 25.1.19

EASO 2018 asylum trends overview

According to the findings, the number of applications for international protection was 10% lower than in 2017, while the number of repeated applications, which include applications lodged by the same person in different Member States, increased by 11% compared to the previous year. The number of first-instance decisions decreased by 40% compared to 2017, while a considerable proportion of the backlog was found to have also moved to higher instances with roughly the same number of applications pending in appeal or review as in first-instance. Syria remained top country of origin followed by Afghanistan and Iraq with Pakistan, Iran, Nigeria, Turkey, Venezuela, Albania and Georgia completing the top ten countries of origin.

According to the agency’s data, recognition rates for beneficiaries of international protection dropped from 40% in 2017 to 34% in 2018. Syrian, Yemeni and Eritrean nationals had the highest recognition rates, while Georgian, Gambian, Bangladeshi, Senegalese and Algerian nationals remained at the lower end. Moreover, the overview reveals considerable changes in recognition rates for some nationalities in 2018, including higher ones for nationals from China, Libya, Venezuela and Afghanistan and a sharp drop in recognitions for nationals from Iraq, Iran and Somalia. Finally, great variation of recognition rates among states was reported for Afghan (between 6% and 98%) and Iraqi nationals (between 8% and 98%).

https://www.easo.europa.eu/news-events/eu-asylum-figures-2018-applications-return-2014-levels-decreasing-10-over-previous-year, 13.2.19

ECRE Policy Note: No Reason for Returns to Afghanistan

Afghan nationals were the second highest group to seek international protection in Europe in 2018. They face the largest variation in recognition rates in Europe, with the rate varying from 6% to 98%, depending on the country, with no apparent reason for the divergence lying in the nature of the cases.  This persisting divergence and the risk of human rights violations that results has prompted an increasing number of courts to suspend Dublin transfers of asylum seekers to countries where they would be at risk of onward deportation. In 2018, for example, domestic courts – mainly in France – ruled against transfers of Afghan asylum seekers to Germany, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Finland and Norway.

The Policy Note has a particular focus is the internal protection alternative (IPA). In EASO’s first country guidance note: ‘Country Guidance: Afghanistan’, EASO concluded that Kabul, Herat and Mazar-e Sharif could be considered as a reasonable location for an IPA for single, able-bodied adult men and for married couples of working age with no children. The UNHCR Eligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Asylum Seekers from Afghanistan published in the same year, concluded that, after considering the negative trends in the security situation, the overall situation of conflict and human rights violations, and the adverse impact on the broader socio-economic context, an IPA is generally not available in Kabul.

https://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Policy-Note-17.pdf (feb19)

ECRE : compilation of recent case law on returns to Afghanistan from Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom in 2017-2018.

This compilation includes cases assessing the possibility of return for Afghan nationals in light of their personal circumstances and the security situation in the country. Many decisions refer to either the EASO or the UNHCR guidelines. On the IPA, case law from France and Switzerland includes decisions which place greater weight on protection. In France, a court ruled that subsidiary protection must be granted not only to those coming from a region with a generalised level of violence resulting in a serious threat to one’s life but also to those who would have to cross such an area in order to reach their region of origin.


AIDA 2018 Update: Bulgaria

The updated AIDA Country Report on Bulgaria provides the latest developments and persisting gaps in the asylum procedure, reception conditions, detention and content of protection in Bulgaria.


EASO: Richtlijnen voor beoordeling asielverzoeken van Nigerianen

De richtlijnen benoemen risicoprofielen van mensen die in aanmerking zouden kunnen komen voor een vluchtelingenstatus. Daarnaast wordt ingegaan op de toepassing van subsidiaire bescherming op grond van artikel 15 a t/m c van de Kwalificatierichtlijn.

https://www.easo.europa.eu/sites/default/files/Country_Guidance_Nigeria_2019.pdf, 27.2.19

Suzanna Jansen: Wael. Het verhaal van een jongen uit Syrië

Dit boek is een aangrijpende monoloog van een zelfbewuste, optimistische twintiger. In korte hoofdstukken vertelt de hoofdpersoon over zijn jeugd. Over hoe hij tijdens de oorlog zo lang mogelijk bleef werken, studeren, plezier maken en verliefd was. Over hoe hij, toen het kantoor van zijn baas was platgebombardeerd, ging helpen bij het Rode Kruis en zich inzette voor inwoners van de kapotgeschoten delen van de stad. Over hoe de fonteinen deden of er niets aan de hand was en gewoon bleven spuiten.


Nieuwsbrief 4, 2019

WHO: Report on the Health of Displaced People in Europe

Refugees and migrants appear to be less affected than their host populations by many noncommunicable diseases on arrival; however, if they are in conditions of poverty, the duration of their stay in host countries increases their risk for cardiovascular diseases, stroke or cancer. As migrants and refugees are likely to change their lifestyle to engage in less physical activity and consume less healthy food, they are also more prone to risk factors for chronic diseases.

The displacement processes itself can make refugees and migrants more vulnerable to infectious diseases. Yet the report underlines that, for instance, the proportion of refugees and migrants among a host country’s tuberculosis (TB) cases varies broadly depending on the TB prevalence in the host population; and that a significant proportion of migrants and refugees who are HIV positive acquired the infection after they arrived in Europe. Despite the widespread assumption to the contrary, there is only a very low risk of refugees and migrants transmitting communicable diseases to their host population.

A series of guidance documents was also developed.  They focus on the areas of maternal and newborn health, children’s health, health promotion, mental health and healthy ageing.

Report on the health of refugees and migrants in the WHO European Region (23.1.19)
Summary of the Report on the health of refugees and migrants in the WHO European Region

Scriptie Dounia LatracheDe ongelijke rechtspositie van kinderen. Een onderzoek naar de vaststelling van het Nederlanderschap van kinderen die zijn geboren uit polygame huwelijken

In deze scriptie wordt de rechtspositie van kinderen die zijn geboren uit een polygaam huwelijk vergeleken met de rechtspositie van kinderen die zijn geboren uit een buitenechtelijke relatie van een gehuwde man. Na de vergelijking wordt in dit onderzoek antwoord gegeven op de vraag of het onderscheid dat wordt gemaakt tussen kinderen die zijn geboren uit een polygaam huwelijk en kinderen die zijn geboren uit een buitenechtelijke relatie van een gehuwde man objectief kan worden gerechtvaardigd in het licht van het discriminatieverbod uit artikel 14 EVRM. Deze vraag wordt ontkennend beantwoord. Een reden hiervoor is dat voor de handhaving van het polygamieverbod het niet noodzakelijk is erkenning te onthouden aan de familierechtelijke betrekking tussen kinderen die zijn geboren uit een polygaam huwelijk en hun vader. Nog een reden voor dit antwoord is dat rechters geen belangenafweging lijken te maken tussen de openbare orde en de belangen van het kind, terwijl artikel 8 EVRM een dergelijke belangenafweging wel vereist.


CBS: aantal asielzoekers 2018 in NL

In 2018 kwamen 20,5 duizend asielzoekers naar ons land en 6,5 duizend nareizigers. Het aantal eerste asielverzoeken was een kwart hoger dan in 2017, het aantal nareizigers is met de helft afgenomen. 

Sinds 2016 zijn er enkele nieuwe herkomstlanden van asielzoekers: Jemen en Moldavië. In Jemen is al jaren een burgeroorlog aan de gang en is hongersnood. De toename van Moldaviërs heeft mogelijk te maken met de politieke situatie in de regio Transnistrië. Opvallend is de blijvende toename van asielzoekers uit Turkije. Sinds de mislukte staatsgreep in juli 2016 komen meer Turkse asielzoekers naar Nederland. Ook het aantal Nigeriaanse en Iraanse asielzoekers neemt toe. Na een piek in 2016 is het aantal Albanese asielzoekers in 2017 gedaald, maar in 2018 weer licht toegenomen. Vrij stabiel op een hoog niveau blijft het aantal asielzoekers met de Syrische nationaliteit. Afnemend zijn de aantallen asielzoekers uit Irak en Eritrea. 

https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2019/07/meer-asielzoekers-in-2018-minder-nareizigers, 11.2.19

EU asylum figures 2018

For a third consecutive year, 2018 saw a decrease in applications for international protection in the EU+ following the migration crisis of 2015.  The 634,700 applications lodged were 10% fewer than in 2017, and similar to the level of 2014. The decrease registered in 2018 follows a significant 44% decline in applications in 2017 over the previous year.

Syria remained the top country of origin for applicants, but with 25% fewer applications than in the previous year. Afghanistan and Iraq completed the top three countries of origin in 2018.

Georgian, Turkish and Venezuelan applicants increased for the second year in a row.  Large increases also took place in 2018 for applicants from Colombia, Palestine, and Iran. 

One-in-three decisions made in 2018 was positive, granting either refugee status or subsidiary protection. This compares to a recognition rate of 40% in 2017. Nationals of Syria, Yemen and Eritrea had the highest recognition rates, whereas the lowest shares of positive decisions were for Georgians and Gambians.

Then, the report notes the continued wild divergence in protection rates across the EU+, including for key nationalities. For Afghan nationals, the protection rate varies from 6% to 98% from one Member State to another; for Iraqis it varies from 8% to 98%. Even for Syrians, it ranges from 27% to 100%. There is no evidence that the reason for the divergence lies in differences in the profile of the applicants, such as could happen if people with a particular profile (geographic, political or identity factors, for example) were heading to particular EU+ countries. Instead, similar caseloads are being treated differently from country to country, with the same person having a 6% probability of their protection needs being recognised in one country compared to a 98% probability in another. Inadequate treatment of Afghan cases is leading to courts refusing to transfer Afghans to certain EU+ countries due to the risk of protection needs going unrecognised leading to refoulement.

Klik voor Overview: Link; Key findings: Link; Interactive visualisation: Link (13.2.19)

AIDA : asylum statistics 2018

While the overall recognition rates for international and humanitarian protection remained at steady levels with slight fluctuations in some countries asylum seekers continue to face an “asylum lottery” in Europe as the chances of obtaining a form of protection vary dramatically from one country to another, even for asylum seekers coming from the same country. Recognition rates for Iraqis ranged from 94.2% in Italy to 12% in Bulgaria. In between lies a spectrum covering Sweden (26%), Belgium (31.2%), Norway (43.3%), Germany (45.9%), Finland (53%), Slovenia (60%) and Greece (69.4%). For Afghans recognition rates varied from 98.4% in Italy to 24% in Bulgaria. Slovenia (77.7%), Finland (73.4%) and Greece (70.9%) had considerably high rates, contrasting with 33% in Sweden, 50.6% in Belgium and 52.2% in Germany.

The persisting disparity in national policies on refugee status determination has prompted an increasing number of courts to suspend Dublin transfers of asylum seekers to countries where they would be at risk of onward deportation. In 2018, for example, domestic courts ruled against transfers of Afghan asylum seekers to Germany, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, Finland and Norway, due to human rights risks stemming from their unduly strict policy on granting protection to Afghan claims.


WODC: Maatregelen gericht op asielzoekers uit veilige landen

Op basis van de analyse van de beleidslogica kunnen we stellen dat het aannemelijk is dat het maatregelenpakket beperkt heeft bijgedragen aan de vier doelen. Hoewel de asielaanvragen van asielzoekers uit veilige landen sneller worden afgehandeld, adresseren de maatregelen de instroom van deze groep asielzoekers in beperkte mate, dragen de maatregelen niet altijd bij aan het vertrek van vreemdelingen uit veilige landen uit Nederland, en is het niet bekend of het maatregelenpakket zorgt voor minder overlast in – en belasting van – de Nederlandse samenleving.

https://wodc.nl/binaries/2967_Volledige_Tekst_tcm28-371107.pdf (dec18)

EASO two Country of Origin Reports on Iraq (feb19)

The Report on key socio-economic indicators focuses on the cities of Basrah, Erbil, and Baghdad, and highlights aspects of the situation of internally displaced persons in those areas, including women and children. The indicators refer to issues relating to the general economic situation and living conditions of the population, such as food and water security, access to employment, housing, healthcare and education, as well as the role of support networks.

The Internal Mobility report aims to provide a general overview of the mobility situation in Iraq, including internal displacement and voluntary returns. Freedom of movement, travel and accessibility to and within the country is also covered.

European Commission : Investor Citizenship and Residence Schemes in the EU

This report maps the existing practices and identifies certain risks such schemes imply for the EU, in particular, as regards security, money laundering, tax evasion and corruption. A lack of transparency in how the schemes are operated and a lack of cooperation among Member States further exacerbate these risks, the report finds.

Commission report on investor citizenship and residence schemes in the EU (522.09 ko)

J.J. Mulligan Sepulveda: No Human Is Illegal - Attorney on the Frontlines of the Immigration War

For author Mulligan Sepúlveda, the son and husband of Spanish-speaking immigrants, the battle for immigration reform is personal. Mulligan Sepúlveda writes of visiting border detention centers, defending undocumented immigrants in court, and taking his services to JFK to represent people being turned away at the gates during Trump's infamous travel ban.

Melville House Publishing , 7.2.19

EPIM: Crossing a Red Line: How EU Countries Undermine the Right to Liberty by Expanding the Use of Detention of Asylum Seekers upon Entry. Case Studies on Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, and Italy (feb19)

Practises of de facto detention- which indicates the deprivation of an individual’s liberty without the requirement of a detention order- are widespread and specific to country context. Hot spots, transit zones, pre- removal centres, border zones at which migrants have been ‘pushed- back’ and boats- including search and rescue vessels- have all become spaces in which people can be detained. In other cases “protective detention” results in unaccompanied children having their freedom of movement restricted. With no procedural guarantees and no opportunity to seek judicial review, the only possibility for release is to leave to another country.

The report states that there is no evidence that the use of detention reduces the rate of arrivals to the countries in questionbut it contributes to secondary movements across Europe and is inevitably is counter- productive to refugee integration.

Timur Vermes : ‘Die Hungrigen und die Satten’

Het is ergens in de niet al te verre toekomst. De Europese grenzen zijn potdicht, in Afrika is een gigantisch kamp vol migranten en vluchtelingen. Een Duitse tv-presentatrice reist voor haar reality-show ‘Engel in de ellende’ naar dat kamp en wordt verliefd op een van de bewoners. Samen organiseren ze een groep die dwars door de woestijn naar Europa gaat. Tijdens de voetreis groeit de stoet aan, duizenden bereiken hun doel. Wat doen de Europese politici, houden ze hun grenzen dicht? Bevelen ze op migranten te schieten?


Nieuwsbrief 3, 2019

Fit for purpose? The Facilitation Directive and the criminalisation of humanitarian assistance to irregular migrants: 2018 Update

The study uses the notion of 'policing humanitarianism' to describe not only cases of formal prosecution and sentencing in criminal justice procedures, but also wider dynamics of suspicion, intimidation, harassment and disciplining in five selected Member States – Belgium, France, Greece, Hungary and Italy.

Policing humanitarianism negatively affects EU citizens' rights – such as the freedom of assembly, freedom of speech and freedom of conscience. When civil society is effectively (self-)silenced and its accountability role undermined, policies to combat migrant smuggling may be overused and give rise to serious breaches of the EU's founding values, notably the rule of law, democracy and fundamental rights. Moreover, policing humanitarianism negatively affects wider societal trust and diverts the limited resources of law enforcement from investigating more serious crimes."

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2018/608838/IPOL_STU(2018)608838_EN.pdf, dec18

Europese Commissie: Atlas of Migration 2018

The new Atlas of Migration 2018 is a detailed publication that provides insights on migration for all EU Member States and 44 non-EU countries. With graphs, charts and maps, the Atlas of Migration provides a snapshot of migration in 2017, providing a knowledge base for policy makers, stakeholders, businesses, researchers and the general public.

ICMPD Migration Outlook 2019

This report includes the following topics:

  • General migration situation in 2018 
  • Reforms of EU migration and refugee policy in 2018 
  • Hot spots in 2019 and possible consequences for Europe
  • Formative events in 2019 – European election and Brexit
  • Megatrend 2019: legal migration/labour migration
  • Priorities for 2019 and beyond


Linda Polman: 'Niemand wil ze hebben. Europa en zijn vluchtelingen' (22feb)

Het verhaal van Linda Polman over het Europese 'vluchtelingenmanagement' begint in de zomer van 1938 in het statige Franse kuuroord Evian, bij de eerste internationale top over de vluchtelingencrisis in Europa. Het aantal Joden dat uit nazi-gebied probeerde te ontkomen was geëxplodeerd: er waren dringend opvangplaatsen nodig. Alle argumenten van West-Europese regeringen om de vluchtelingen níét binnen te laten waren dezelfde als nu: de 'migranten' zouden niet stroken met nationale normen en waarden, banen en huizen willen afpakken en de cohesie in de samenleving bedreigen. Het enige wat de conferentie opleverde was de hoon van nazi-Duitsland: 'Niemand wil ze hebben' kopte een Duitse krant triomfantelijk.
Polman onderzoekt de ontwikkeling van het Europese vluchtelingenbeleid sinds 1938. De reis gaat van Evian, naar de na-oorlogse kampen in West-Europa voor vluchtelingen vanachter het IJzeren Gordijn, via de 'veilige enclaves' op de Balkan in de jaren negentig, naar de megavluchtelingenkampen op het Afrikaanse continent, waar de UNHCR Europa's 'containmentbeleid' implementeert, het 'inkapselen' van het vluchtelingenprobleem. De reis eindigt op het Griekse Lesbos, het epicentrum van de grootste Europese vluchtelingencrisis sinds 1938. 
Wat is er terechtgekomen van de belofte van 'nooit meer' waarop het VN-vluchtelingenverdrag in 1951 was gebaseerd? Tachtig jaar Europees vluchtelingenbeleid en nog steeds wil niemand ze hebben.

Karin Zwaan, Monika Schmid, and Peter Patrick (ed): Language Analysis for the Determination of Origin Europe

When asylum seekers cannot submit documentary proof of their origin, their language can be analysed in order to assess whether their linguistic profile is in accordance with their stated origin.

This book reports on current practices and use of Language Analysis for the Determination of Origin (LADO). Readers will find chapters on how it is done, where it is used, how it is used, and learn about recent developments on the use of LADO reports in judicial practice, and current controversies in the field.

Netherlands International Law Review, special issue on ‘Nationality and International Law’

This 65th volume of the Netherlands International Law Review focusses on nationality and international law and includes articles relevant to the topic of statelessness. For example,  Laura van Waas & Sangita Jaghai’s 'All Citizens are Created Equal, but Some are More Equal Than Others' explores how law and practice on citizenship deprivation is to be evaluated against contemporary standards of international law from the observation that the inequality in citizenship status increases in the spheres of citizenship stripping as a counter-terrorism measure. Kristin Henrard’s ‘The Shifting Parameters of Nationality’ places the discussions on nationality in the broader literature on citizenship, also drawing on social sciences, political theory and moral philosophy, and also provides an overview of the other contributions in the special issue.

Javed Masih: ’Geen vreemdeling meer’

Ineens stond hij aan de andere kant. De man die jarenlang vrijwilligerswerk deed voor vluchtelingen in Pakistan, werd er vijf jaar geleden zelf een. Gevlucht uit Pakistan belandde met zijn vrouw en twee kinderen in het Katwijkse asielzoekerscentrum. Al snel besloten de vier hun ervaringen en observaties in die onzekere jaren te verwerken in een boek, als middel tegen depressiviteit én om een boodschap uit te dragen in hun nieuwe thuisland. De Leidenaar hoopt dat het persoonlijke verhaal over asielprocedures en integratie leidt tot een menselijkere aanpak.

Nieuwsbrief 2, 2019

DCI: Extra beschermd of extra beschadigd?; Onderzoek naar de leefomstandigheden van kinderen met een handicap in asielzoekerscentra in Nederland

Defence for Children constateert dat de medische procedure voor kinderen grote gebreken kent. Er wordt vrijwel nooit een verblijfsvergunning toegekend aan kinderen met een handicap vanwege medische redenen en er is geen speciaal toetsingskader voor kinderen om te bepalen of er voor hen een medische noodtoestand ontstaat bij terugkeer. Het Bureau Medische Advisering (het BMA) acht behandeling in het land van herkomst bijna altijd aanwezig. Er wordt niet gekeken of de zorg daadwerkelijk beschikbaar is voor kinderen. Zo wordt niet gekeken of ouders de zorg of medicijnen kunnen betalen. Er wordt ook niet gekeken of er een sociaal- of familienetwerk in het herkomstland aanwezig is en naar de afstand die het kind moet afleggen om de noodzakelijke medische behandeling te krijgen. Ook wordt het hebben van een handicap niet als reden gezien om een asielvergunning te verlenen. Hierdoor blijven kinderen onnodig lang in een voor hun ontwikkeling schadelijke omgeving zitten en wordt hen een volwaardig leven ontnomen.

https://defenceforchildren.nl/media/3232/leefomstandigheden-gehandicapte-kinderen-in-azcs_web.pdf, dec18

EASO : Guidance on reception conditions for unaccompanied children

The general objective of this Guidance is to support Member States in the implementation of key provisions of the Reception Conditions Directive, in order to ensure an adequate standard of living for UASCs by taking into account their special reception needs. The guidance designates UASCs as a particularly vulnerable group and covers several relevant topics, such as: information, participation and representation of UASCs; identification, assessment and response to special needs and safety risks; day-to-day care; staff and finally education, schooling and vocational training. The standards included in the document reflect commonly agreed practices across Europe, as well as general good practice.

https://www.easo.europa.eu/sites/default/files/Guidance-on%20reception-%20conditions-%20for-unaccompanied-children.pdf, dec18

IND: Protocol Identificatie en Labeling

Het Protocol Identificatie en Labeling, of kortweg het PIL, beschrijft een gestandaardiseerde werkwijze voor het identificeren, registreren, wijzigen en verifiëren van persoonsgegevens en het vernietigen van biometrische gegevens in de migratieketen. Het werken volgens het protocol waarborgt dat er unieke, eenduidige persoonsgegevens van een optimale kwaliteit beschikbaar zijn in de migratieketen.

https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/binaries/rijksoverheid/documenten/richtlijnen/2019/01/07/protocol-identificatie-en-labeling-pil/Protocol+Identificatie+en+Labeling+9.0+%28Definitief%29.pdf, 7.1.19

SEO: Toegangswaarde: De maatschappelijke kosten en baten van het Schengen-visumbeleid voor Nederland

SEO Economisch Onderzoek heeft in dit rapport uiteengezet hoe het visumbeleid een serieuze toegevoegde waarde heeft voor de Nederlandse economie en hoe andere belangen adequaat geborgd worden. Dit rapport onderzoekt opties om de uitvoering van het visumbeleid verder te optimaliseren om de kansen die gepaard gaan met deze ontwikkeling maximaal te benutten. Nederland heeft er belang bij dat het visumbeleid efficient wordt gerealiseerd, vanuit de rijksoverheid zal daarop gezamenlijk ingezet blijven worden.

https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/blg-868718.pdf, sept18

ISI, ASKV Refugee Support and ENS: From Syria to Europe

The research focuses on two communities: stateless Kurds from Syria and stateless Palestinians from Syria and examines how lack of nationality affects their experience of the migration process and impacts on their opportunities for protection and durable solutions. The research looked at their country of origin (Syria), a key transit country through which they often travel to get to Europe (Greece), and one of the destination countries (the Netherlands).


Jessica Schultz: The Internal Protection Alternative in Refugee Law - Treaty Basis and Scope of Application under the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Its 1967 Protocol

Under what circumstances can a state refuse refugee status to a person whose risk of persecution exists in only part of her country of origin? This book is the first monograph to examine the treaty basis and criteria for the ‘internal protection alternative’ (IPA), an exception to refugee status increasingly invoked by state parties to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol. Through a critical analysis of the relationship between refugee law and related fields, Schultz finds that the legal scope for IPA practice is narrower than is commonly claimed. Since persons subject to an IPA analysis have a well-founded fear of persecution within their countries of origin, any limit on their right to refugee status must involve a careful balancing of the impact of continued displacement against the state's interest in preserving its restricted protection resources. She argues that the doctrine of implied limits in human rights law can provide analytic structure to the IPA concept and reduce the risk of overly broad application.

https://brill.com/view/title/36269, 6.12.18

WI 2019/1: verwesterde vrouwen

Op de hoofdregel dat verwestering geen grond is voor vluchtelingschap zijn volgens de Afdeling twee uitzonderingen mogelijk.

De eerste uitzondering op de hoofdregel is de situatie waarin een vrouw aannemelijk maakt dat de westerse gedragingen een uitingsvorm zijn van een godsdienstige of politieke overtuiging. De vervolgingsgronden politieke overtuiging en godsdienstige overtuiging gaan allebei over kenmerken die zo fundamenteel zijn voor de identiteit of morele integriteit van een vreemdeling, dat niet mag worden gevraagd dat zij dit opgeeft. Volgens de Afdeling is een voorbeeld hiervan een vreemdeling die aannemelijk maakt dat zij zich heeft afgewend van haar godsdienst en zich juist daarom westers gedraagt. Indien die westerse gedragingen bepaalde risico’s met zich meebrengen, vallen zij wél onder de bescherming die door het vluchtelingenrecht wordt geboden op basis van de vervolgingsgronden godsdienstige en politieke overtuiging. Als er sprake is van een politieke of religieuze overtuiging, dan mag geen terughoudendheid worden verwacht en zal tegen de achtergrond van de situatie in het land van herkomst moeten worden beoordeeld of dit leidt tot vervolging dan wel een reëel risico op een onmenselijke behandeling.

De tweede uitzondering op de hoofdregel dat verwestering geen grond is voor vluchtelingschap, is de situatie waarin een vreemdelinge aannemelijk maakt dat haar een van de vervolgingsgronden wordt toegedicht door een actor van vervolging in verband met haar persoonlijke uiterst moeilijk of nagenoeg onmogelijk te veranderen kenmerken, of waarin een vreemdeling aannemelijk maakt dat zij daardoor in het land van herkomst een risico loopt op een onmenselijke behandeling.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2019-1.pdf, 7.1.19

UNODC: A multiple systems estimation of the numbers of presumed human trafficking victims in the Netherlands in 2010-2015 by year, age, gender, form of exploitation and nationality

Produced with the multiple systems estimation (MSE) methodology, the publication of this estimate marks a leap forward in trafficking research and will pave the way for further studies in other countries in the years to come.

https://www.unodc.org/documents/research/UNODC-DNR_research_brief.pdf, sept18

Nieuwsbrief 1, 2019

Benedita Menezes Queiroz : Illegally Staying in the EU. An Analysis of Illegality in EU Migration Law

Principally, this book comprises a conceptual analysis of the illegality of a third-country national's stay by examining the boundaries of the overarching concept of illegality at the EU level. Having found that the holistic conceptualisation of illegality, constructed through a combination of sources (both EU and national law) falls short of adequacy, the book moves on to consider situations that fall outside the traditional binary of legal and illegal under EU law. The cases of unlawfully staying EU citizens and of non-removable illegally staying third-country nationals are examples of groups of migrants who are categorised as atypical. By looking at these two examples the book reveals not only the fragmentation of legal statuses in EU migration law but also the more general ill-fitting and unsatisfactory categorisation of migrants. The potential conflation of illegality with criminality as a result of the way EU databases regulate the legal regime of illegality of a migrant's stay is the first trend identified by the book. Subsequently, the book considers the functions of accessing legality (both instrumental and corrective). In doing so it draws out another trend evident in the EU illegality regime: a two-tier regime which discriminates on the basis of wealth and the instrumentalisation of access to legality by Member States for mostly their own purposes. Finally, the book proposes a corrective rationale for the regulation of illegality through access to legality and provides a number of normative suggestions as a way of remedying current deficiencies that arise out of the present supranational framing of illegality.

https://www.bloomsburyprofessional.com/uk/illegally-staying-in-the-eu-9781509912872/, 22.2.18

Sarah C. Bishop: Undocumented Storytellers - Narrating the Immigrant Rights Movement

This book chronicles the ways young people uncover their lack of legal status experientially - through interactions with parents, in attempts to pursue rites of passage reserved for citizens, and as audiences of political and popular media. She provides both theoretical and pragmatic contextualization as activist narrators recount the experiences that influenced their decisions to cultivate public voices.

Bishop draws from a mixed methodology of in-depth interviews with undocumented immigrants from eighteen unique nations of origin, critical-rhetorical ethnographies of immigrant rights events and protests, and narrative analysis of immigrant-produced digital media to interrogate the power and limitations of narrative activism. Autobiographical immigrant storytelling refutes mainstream discourse on immigration and reveals the determination of individuals who elsewhere have been vilified by stereotype and presupposition. Offering an unparalleled view into the ways immigrants' stories appear online, Bishop illuminates digital narrative strategies by detailing how undocumented storytellers reframe their messages when stories have unintended consequences. The resulting work provides broad insights into the role of strategic framing and autobiographical story-sharing in advocacy and social movements.

https://global.oup.com/academic/product/undocumented-storytellers-9780190917166?cc=us&lang=en&, jan19

CU Amsterdam: Notitie over basisvoorzieningen voor ongedocumenteerde jongeren

Voor bijna alles heb je een identiteitsbewijs nodig: om te reizen, als je verhuist, bij het afsluiten van een zorgverzekering en om lid te worden van een voetbalclub. Dit geldt ook voor de duizenden hier geboren kinderen die ongedocumenteerde ouders hebben. Deze kinderen zijn afgesloten van vele basale voorzieningen die voor andere kinderen vanzelfsprekend zijn. Dit plaatst de ongedocumenteerde kinderen in een geïsoleerde positie en levert een bedreiging op voor hun ontwikkeling en welzijn.

Dit voorstel is gericht op het verbeteren van de positie van dergelijke kinderen en jongeren op grond van humanitaire redenen. Dit initiatief wordt gedreven door de notie dat ook deze kinderen universele mensenrechten bezitten. Het respecteren van die rechten vormt een wezenlijk aspect van ons democratisch bestuur, ongeacht verblijfsstatus. ... De groep (kinderen van) economische migranten krijgt echter weinig of geen aandacht. Ze vallen buiten de doelgroep van de hiervoor bekende organisaties en zijn op zichzelf aangewezen. De gemeente heeft daardoor ook moeite met het lokaliseren en zorg dragen voor deze groep kinderen

Er zijn geen schattingen bekend van het aantal ongedocumenteerde kinderen in Amsterdam. Wel is in 2016 door Kruispost onderzoek gedaan naar de leefomstandigheden van ongedocumenteerde kinderen in regio Amsterdam.

https://amsterdam.christenunie.nl/blog/2018/12/20/ChristenUnie-Basisvoorzieningen-voor-Amsterdamse-ongedocumenteerde-jongeren?originNode=5998, 20.12.18

PICUM: Resources on safe reporting: 

PICUM developed several resources on the “firewall”, including infographics (see here), as well as explainers for police and service providers, and an updated fact sheet on the Istanbul Convention (link). 

UNHCR: Good practices in nationality laws for the prevention and reduction of statelessness

The impact of statelessness on those it affects cannot be overstated. Statelessness typically leaves people unable to enjoy basic rights that most people take for granted, including the ability to go to school, see a doctor, get a job, open a bank account, vote, get married, and pass on nationality to their children. It can lead to desperation making victims vulnerable to extreme forms of exploitation and abuse. Statelessness affecting particular groups within communities can also impair social and economic development and lead to tensions that result in violent conflict and forced displacement.

https://www.refworld.org/docid/5be41d524.html, nov18

Timmerman, Christiane, Maria Lucinda Fonseca, Lore Van Praag and Sonia Pereira (2018), Gender and Migration. A sensitive approach to Migration Dynamics, Leuven: Leuven University Press.

Considering the dynamic and reciprocal relationship between gender relations and migration, the contributions in this book approach migration dynamics from a gender-sensitive perspective. Bringing together insights from various fields of study, it is demonstrated how processes of social change occur differently in distinct life domains, over time, and across countries and/or regions, influencing the relationship between gender and migration. Detailed analysis by regions, countries, and types of migration reveals a strong variation regarding levels and features of female and male migration. This approach enables us to grasp the distinct ways in which gender roles, perceptions, and relations, each embedded in a particular cultural, geographical, and socioeconomic context, affect migration dynamics. Hence, this volume demonstrates that gender matters at each stage of the migration process. In its entirety, Gender and Migration gives evidence of the unequivocal impact of gender and gendered structures, both at a micro and macro level, upon migrant's lives and of migration on gender dynamics.


Nick Gill, Anthony Good:  Asylum Determination in Europe, Ethnographic Perspectives

Drawing on new research material from ten European countries, Asylum Determination in Europe: Ethnographic Perspectives brings together a range of detailed accounts of the legal and bureaucratic processes by which asylum claims are decided.The book includes a legal overview of European asylum determination procedures, followed by sections on the diverse actors involved, the means by which they communicate, and the ways in which they make life and death decisions on a daily basis. It offers a contextually rich account that moves beyond doctrinal law to uncover the gaps and variances between formal policy and legislation, and law as actually practiced.
The contributors employ a variety of disciplinary perspectives – sociological, anthropological, geographical and linguistic – but are united in their use of an ethnographic methodological approach. Through this lens, the book captures the confusion, improvisation, inconsistency, complexity and emotional turmoil inherent to the process of claiming asylum in Europe.

https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-319-94749-5.pdf, jan19

Ambtsbericht Rusland, 21.12.18

Asylos: Kosovo en Armenie

  • Kosovo: Les femmes qui ont des relations sexuelles hors de mariage et leurs enfants (GLO2018-28) - FR
  • Kosovo: Mariage forcé (GLO2018-29) - FR
  • Armenia/Karabakh : Access to medical treatment (CIS2018-08) - ENG

Maak een account op de site van Asylos om de documenten te lezen.

ACVZ - Advies over de aanpassing van de procedure bij behandeling van herhaalde asielaanvragen

Het voorstel is om in het Vb op te nemen dat bij een opvolgend asielverzoek de IND van horen kan afzien, indien de kennis omtrent de relevante feiten en de af te wegen belangen kan worden vergaard zonder nader gehoor.

De ACVZ vindt de motivering van het ontwerpbesluit tekortschieten en heeft daarvoor drie argumenten.
1. Nut en noodzaak van de voorgestelde wijziging is onvoldoende onderbouwd. De ACVZ adviseert informatie over de efficiency van de maatregel en effecten op de rechtsbescherming van de asielzoeker enerzijds en het voorkomen van ongelijke opvolgende asielverzoeken anderzijds.
2. De ACVZ beveelt aan in de toelichting op het besluit tot uitdrukking te laten komen dat bij nieuwe elementen en bevindingen die relevant zijn voor de beoordeling van de aanvraag, de betrokkene altijd wordt gehoord. De ACVZ denkt hierbij m.n. aan zaken waar het een asielverzoek van bekeerlingen of LGBTI betreft, en toetsing aan de Bahaddar-criteria.
3. De ACVZ beveelt aan in de toelichting op het besluit op te nemen dat alleen gebruik gemaakt wordt van het afzien van horen in opvolgende asielprocedures, indien duidelijk is dat er geen nieuwe relevante elementen en bevindingen zijn aangevoerd of aan de orde gekomen. Voorkomen dient te worden dat rechters in kostbare beroepsprocedures onnodig belast worden en het beroep gegrond verklaren, omdat de SvJ&V de vreemdeling onvoldoende gelegenheid heeft gegeven om de relevantie van nieuw aangedragen elementen of bevindingen in een gehoor toe te lichten. Een dergelijke uitwerking van het achterwege laten van gehoor zou ook in strijd zijn met de processystematiek zoals die volgt uit de Pr en is bevestigd door het HvJEU.

https://acvz.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Advies-herhaalde-asielaanvragen-def.pdf, 18.12.18

WI 2018/20: Nader onderzoek in de nareisprocedure

In deze werkinstructie wordt uiteengezet wanneer nader onderzoek, zoals DNAonderzoek of een nader (identificerend) gehoor, kan worden aangeboden in de nareisprocedure. Deze werkinstructie is van toepassing op aanvragen waarin de identiteit van de na te reizen vreemdeling en de familierechtelijke relatie met referent moet worden aangetoond of aannemelijk moet worden gemaakt. Als de nareiziger geen officiële documenten kan overleggen voor het aantonen van de identiteit en/of familierechtelijke relatie, dan moet de reden hiervoor kenbaar worden gemaakt. Daarnaast moet de nareiziger zijn identiteit/familierechtelijke relatie zo veel mogelijk aannemelijk maken met andere, niet-officiële, oftewel indicatieve documenten. Een enkel indicatief document kan niet tot de conclusie leiden dat de identiteit en/of familierechtelijke relatie voldoende is aangetoond. De vraag of er sprake is van bewijsnood, in combinatie met al dan niet overgelegde indicatieve documenten, is van belang voor de beoordeling of nader onderzoek kan worden aangeboden.
Van een aanbod tot nader onderzoek kan worden afgezien als er sprake is van een contra-indicatie, bv. valse of vervalste documenten, tegenstrijdige, vage of onduidelijke verklaringen, ongerijmdheid tussen de inhoud van een document en de geschetste feiten. Bij een contra-indicatie kan de aanvraag worden afgewezen zonder dat de nareiziger en/of referent vooraf in de gelegenheid wordt gesteld om zijn zienswijze hierop te geven. Vormt een rapport van Bureau Documenten de enige contra-indicatie, dan wordt de nareiziger of referent in de gelegenheid gesteld hierop te reageren.
T.a.v. biologische kerngezinnen, biologische gezinnen waarbij één van de biologische ouders net zal nareizen en (huwelijks)partners zonder kinderen gelden aanvullende instructies.
Wat betreft nader onderzoek door een gehoor, kunnen o.m. aan (pleeg)kinderen ouder dan 12 identificerende vragen worden gesteld. Zijn de kinderen jonger dan 12, dan kunnen de identificerende vragen worden gesteld aan de ouder of wettelijke vertegenwoordiger dan wel aan andere oudere gezinsleden.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2018_20.pdf, 21.12.18

WI 2018/21: De toepassing van de glijdende schaal

Met de glijdende schaal wordt een verband gelegd tussen de duur van de onherroepelijk opgelegde straf voor een misdrijf en de duur van het rechtmatig verblijf in Nederland. Kort gezegd komt het erop neer dat hoe langer de vreemdeling rechtmatig in Nederland verblijft, hoe zwaarder de straf moet zijn om tot de afwijzing van de verlengingsaanvraag dan wel tot beëindiging van het rechtmatig verblijf over te kunnen gaan.

In deze werkinstructie lees je hoe de glijdende schaal moet worden toegepast. Voor de belangenafweging van artikel 8 EVRM bij de toepassing van de glijdende schaal (artikel 3.86, lid 17, Vb) wordt verwezen naar de meest actuele werkinstructie met betrekking tot artikel 8 EVRM.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2018-21.pdf, 27.12.18

Aantrekkelijkheid van Nederland voor kennismigranten

Doel van het onderzoek is inzicht te krijgen in wat het vreemdelingenbeleid kan doen om Nederland aantrekkelijk(er) te maken voor kennismigranten en meer in het bijzonder wat de IND en andere betrokken partijen kunnen doen om de dienstverlening richting kennismigranten te verbeteren. Het onderzoek geeft inzicht in de redenen van kennismigranten om voor Nederland te kiezen en hun ervaringen met het Nederlandse toelatingsbeleid en de dienstverlening. Onder kennismigranten verstaan we alle hooggekwalificeerde arbeidsmigranten van buiten de EU/EER die in Nederland aan de slag zijn als kennismigrant. Dit zijn bijvoorbeeld hoogopgeleide managers of ICT-specialisten, maar ook wetenschappelijk personeel zoals aio’s, onderzoekers of docenten rekenen we tot deze groep. Naast inzicht in de keuzes en ervaringen van kennismigranten zijn in dit onderzoek concrete aanknopingspunten geformuleerd voor het verbeteren van de dienstverlening aan kennismigranten, wat uiteindelijk de aantrekkelijkheid van Nederland als vestigings- en carrièreland ten goede kan komen.

https://wodc.nl/binaries/2877_volledige_tekst_tcm28-363463.pdf, 2.1.19

Kaart: migratie van alleenstaande minderjarigen

Deze kaarten tonen aantallen asielverzoeken van amv’s, waar ze vandaan komen en hoe hun asielverzoeken beoordeeld worden in de landen van de Europese Unie.

https://asile.ch/cartographier-les-migrations/cartographie-la-migration-des-mineurs-non-accompagnes/, dec18

Stierl, Maurice: Migrant Resistance in Contemporary Europe

Over the past few years, increased 'unauthorised' migrations into the territories of Europe have resulted in one of the most severe crises in the history of the European Union. Stierl explores migration and border struggles in contemporary Europe and the ways in which they animate, problematise, and transform the region and its political formation. He follows public protests of migrant activists, less visible attempts of those on the move to 'irregularly' subvert borders, as well as new solidarities and communities that emerge in interwoven struggles for the freedom of movement. Stierl offers a conceptualisation of migrant resistances as forces of animation through which European forms of border governance can be productively explored. As catalysts that set socio-political processes into frictional motion, they are developed as modes of critical investigation, By ethnographically following and being implicated in different migration struggles that contest the ways in which Europe decides over and enacts who does, and does not, belong, the author probes what they reveal about the condition of Europe in the contemporary moment.

https://www.routledge.com/Migrant-Resistance-in-Contemporary-Europe/Stierl/p/book/9781138576230, jan19

WODC: Gebruik van passagiersgegevens voor grenscontrole - Evaluatie van de uitvoering van de API-richtlijn

In de Europese Unie bestaat sinds 2004 een Advance Passenger Information (API)-richtlijn gericht op de verbetering van grenscontroles en de bestrijding van illegale immigratie. Lidstaten mogen volgens de richtlijn (2004/82 EC) bepalingen opnemen in hun nationale wetgeving die het mogelijk maken om luchtvaartmaatschappijen te verplichten om gevalideerde passagiersgegevens voorafgaand aan de vlucht door te geven aan de grensautoriteiten in de betreffende lidstaat. De richtlijn laat het echter aan de lidstaten zelf over om van deze mogelijkheid daadwerkelijk gebruik te maken. Onder andere hierdoor bestaat binnen de EU momenteel een grote variëteit wat betreft het gebruik van API-gegevens.

In Nederland is de API-richtlijn in 2007 geïmplementeerd, met als algemeen beleidsdoel de verbetering van de grenscontrole en de bestrijding van illegale immigratie. Met dit onderzoek is het gebruik van API-gegevens in Nederland geëvalueerd. Het onderzoek is een vervolg op de eerste evaluatie van API in 2014.

https://wodc.nl/binaries/2915_Volledige_Tekst_tcm28-368293.pdf, 21.12.18

M. von Werthern, K. Robjant, Z. Chui, R. Schon, L. Ottisova, C. Mason, C. Katona: The impact of immigration detention on mental health: a systematic review

The literature base reviewed in this paper consistently demonstrated severe mental health consequences amongst detainees across a wide range of settings and jurisdictions. There is a pressing need for the proper consideration of mental health and consequent risk of detention-related harm in decisions surrounding detention as well as for improved care for individuals within detention facilities. Recommendations based on these findings are presented, including increased focus on the identification of vulnerability and on minimising the duration of detention.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12888-018-1945-y, 6.12.18

Tjibbe Veldkamp : Katvis

Ate heeft online een vriend: Baptiste. Baptiste is illegaal in België en Ate legaal in Nederland, maar ze houden van dezelfde youtubers en whatsappen elke dag. Wanneer Baptiste op een dag appt dat hij uit geldnood zijn telefoon moet verkopen weet Ate een oplossing: hij gaat hem zijn oude Samsung brengen. Ate neemt stiekem de trein naar Brussel. Voor hij op de afgesproken plek aankomt wordt hij aangesproken door en miejse. Ze beweert dat zij Baptiste is en, alsof dat nog niet erg genoeg is, dat Ate gezocht wordt door Brusselse gangsters. Ze stelt hem een deal voor: als hij haar meeneemt naar Nederland, helpt zij hem weg te komen uit Brussel. Kan hij haar vertrouwen?

https://www.bol.com/nl/f/katvis/9200000092910477/, aug18

Nieuwsbrief 26, 3018

Oded D. Oron : Let my people stay : irregular migrants' struggle for rights and recognition (Israel)

In January 2014, a mass protest of 40,000 African migrants, demanding rights, recognition and a fair asylum process took place in Tel-Aviv. Their demonstration was unprecedented in its nature and magnitude offering a unique and interesting puzzle: how a foreign-born community without resources or familiarity with the country’s authorities, culture, or tolerance for protest, successfully mobilized and why did the high cost of engaging in protest did not deter the participants?

The case of asylum seekers in Israel demonstrates their ability to self-organize as a diasporic group with collective interests as well the cooperation they built with local human-rights NGOs and other aid groups as the basis for their successful collective operation. Their struggle raised important questions about Israel’s migration regime, workforce dependability, and the balance between adherence to democratic norms and securing a Jewish majority, while capturing the attention of global media and international actors. Despite the inability to achieve their stated policy goals, their success is articulated by their own admission in their ability to mobilize and spread the language of rights in their communities. By examining the similarities in collective action practices and discourses adopted by migrant movements in Washington State I discuss the struggle of asylum seekers in Israel in a wider context and offer a comparative perspective on social movements and political engagement of unrecognized members of society.


WODC: Migratie in beeld

Er zijn allerlei redenen waarom mensen hun land verlaten. Om een jaar te studeren in het buitenland, voor de liefde of voor het werk. Maar het vertrek kan ook gedwongen zijn, bijvoorbeeld als gevolg van oorlog. Wie zijn de mensen die ons land binnenkwamen, waar komen ze vandaan, waarom kwamen ze naar Nederland? En welke mensen vertrokken er juist?


MvJ&V: Beleidsdoorlichting Toegang, toelating en opvang van vreemdelingen

In deze beleidsdoorlichting gaat het om de effectiviteit (doeltreffendheid) en de efficiëntie (doelmatigheid) van het beleid bij de komst van asielzoekers en reguliere migranten, de opvang van asielzoekers en de behandeling van naturalisatieverzoeken van vreemdelingen in de periode 2013-2016. Zoals te doen gebruikelijk, steunt deze beleidsdoorlichting op bestaande evaluaties en onderzoeken die zich richten op de effectiviteit en efficiëntie van de migratieketen. Waar nodig is deze beleidsdoorlichting aangevuld met cijfers over de uitvoering van het migratiebeleid.

https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/blg-866031.pdf, 13.12.18

Ambtsbericht Congo 11dec18

Marcelle Reneman (universitair docent Migratierecht VU), & Y. Al Tamimi, Identification of asylum seekers with special reception and procedural needs in the Dutch asylum procedure

Het rapport gaat in op de manier waarop de IND en het COA kwetsbare asielzoekers  herkennen. Er wordt aandacht besteed aan het Medisch Advies Horen en Beslissen (FMMU-advies), het Forensisch Medisch Onderzoek en signaleringsmethoden die de medische dienst (GCA/GZA) gebruikt in de opvangcentra. Klik hier voor het rapport.

Maartje Goudswaard (forensisch arts IMMO), Eeuw van den Heuvel (juridisch adviseur iMMO en Juliet Cohen (head of doctors, Freedom from Torture, UK) : Hidden evidence of torture, Medico-legal reports in the European Union asylum procedure

Dit artikel  is gepubliceerd n.a.v. het Europese AMIF-project dat iMMO in 2016/medio 2017 in samenwerking met ngo's uit Hongarije en Frankrijk heeft uitgevoerd. Hierin wordt de (nieuwe) Europese regelgeving omtrent het forensisch medisch onderzoek (FMO) in de asielprocedure beschreven en de huidige problemen en uitdagingen omtrent het FMO in de EU.

Klik hier voor het artikel.

Werkinstructie 18/19: Leeftjjdsonderzoek

Het komt regelmatig voor dat vreemdelingen zich melden als Alleenstaande Minderjarige Vreemdeling (AMV), maar dat er getwijfeld wordt aan de gestelde minderjarigheid. In deze werkinstructie wordt uiteengezet hoe de leeftijd kan worden bepaald in de asielprocedure.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2018-19.pdf, 13,12,18

Italy: Vulnerable Dublin Returnees at Risk of Destitution

Asylum seekers returned to Italy under the Dublin Regulation face arbitrary access to accommodation, risks of destitution and substandard reception conditions despite Italy’s obligation to provide guarantees of adequate treatment, according to a report published this week.

The report illustrates the arbitrariness underlying Dublin returnees’ reception by the authorities, timely access to accommodation and to the asylum procedure, and quality of reception conditions. Many asylum seekers have had to wait for several hours or even days without any support at airports such as Rome Fuimicino and Milan Malpensa before being received by the Italian police. Some Dublin returnees are denied access to the Italian reception system upon arrival altogether or must wait a long time before they are accommodated in second-line reception facilities (SPRAR). Substandard conditions in first reception centres and temporary reception centres (CAS) are widely reported, falling far below standards for persons with special needs.


Tesseltje de Lange and Conny Rijken: Towards a Decent Labour Market for Low-Waged Migrant Workers An Introduction

This book is the final output of a research project –Protecting labour migrants in the Netherlands: past, present and in the futurethat allowed us to collaborate with the selected contributors to this volume. Together, we dive into the position of low-waged migrant workers from within the EU, possibly working under worse labour conditions than nationals, or under the level of their education attainments, as well as third-country nationals, especially those in low-paid jobs such as seasonal workers, asylum seekers or those without legal residence. These migrant workers contribute to the labour market, valued for their work but are vulnerable...


European Commission - Trafficking in Human Beings - 2nd Progress Report

Trafficking in human beings is a violation of fundamental rights, and is explicitly prohibited under the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. The EU Anti-trafficking Directive adopted in 2011 put forward a victim-centred, gender-specific and child-sensitive approach to address trafficking in human beings, establishing robust provisions on victims' protection, assistance and support, as well as on prevention and prosecution of the crime. Under the Directive, Member States must report to the EU Anti-Trafficking Coordinator who in turn contributes to the Commission's bi-annual progress report.

On 4 December 2017, the Commission published a Communication outlining its priority actions to address trafficking in human beings. Today's report includes an update on the actions taken under this Communication and its findings will feed into the Communication's further implementation. Today's report also includes an update on the application of EU rules on residence permits for victims of trafficking (Directive 2004/81/EC).

Second Report on the progress made in the fight against trafficking in human beings (423.47 ko)
, 4.12.18

Schaderisico bij uitzetting langdurig verblijvende kinderen - Een multidisciplinaire wetenschappelijke onderbouwing

In Nederland verblijven enkele honderden kinderen die meer dan vijf jaar geleden een verblijfsvergunning hebben aangevraagd en nu met uitzetting worden bedreigd. Het betreft een kleine1 , kwetsbare groep kinderen waarbij tal van risicofactoren aanwezig zijn die kunnen zorgen voor (verdere) beschadiging van de psychische en fysieke gezondheid. Zowel de jarenlange dreigende uitzetting als de eventuele feitelijke uitzetting verhoogt het risico op schade bij deze kinderen dermate sterk dat, volgens vereende wetenschappelijke inzichten, de ontwikkeling van deze kinderen beschermd moet worden door ze een verzekerd en positief toekomstperspectief te bieden. Deze schadenota geeft inzicht in de te verwachte schade op de ontwikkeling van kinderen als ze dreigen te worden uitgezet

https://www.rug.nl/news/2018/nieuwsberichten/1206-schadenota-geworteldekinderen-def.pdf, dec18

Rebecca Deruiter promotie: Detention Conditions in a Cosmopolitan Europe

This dissertation provides an empirical analysis of the standard setting and policy-making processes at the Council of Europe (CoE) and the European Union (EU) in the area of detention conditions for prisoners and asylum seekers.

By focusing on the actors involved and the relations between these actors, this provides us with increased insights into the standard setting and policy-making process at the European level and helps explain why this greater unity in Europe regarding the issue of detention conditions occurs.

Despite the limited number of actors involved, a solid block of common norms and values is present, such as the rule of law, the protection of human rights, and solidarity with the involved policy-makers and experts. The priorities and considerations by the member states play an influential role in taking certain initiatives and driving a policy-making or standard setting process forward. The European Courts have an influential role in triggering policy change and give meaning to what is acceptable and what is considered substandard in Europe.


Nieuwsbrief 25, 2018

WODC : methodenonderzoek 'illegalenschatting'

Dit is vooronderzoek naar de beschikbare data en methoden voor het schatten van het aantal illegalen in Nederland. Doel van de voorstudie is de praktische geschiktheid, bruikbaarheid en beschikbaarheid van aanvullende data en methoden voor het uitvoeren van een illegalenschatting na te gaan.

Het onderzoek is opgedeeld in twee verschillende onderdelen. In het eerste deel ligt de focus op het inventariseren van de beschikbare schattingsmethoden, terwijl het tweede deel is gericht op het in kaart brengen van de potentiële databronnen. De opbrengsten van beide delen zijn in samenhang bezien om tot een overzicht van de meeste kansrijke schattingsmethoden te komen wanneer rekening wordt gehouden met beschikbaarheid, bruikbaarheid en toegankelijkheid van de potentiële databronnen.

https://www.wodc.nl/binaries/2917_Volledige_Tekst_tcm28-356573.pdf, 20.11.18

Holger Wilcke : Illegal und unsichtbar? : papierlose Migrant*innen als politische Subjekte

Der Alltag illegalisierter Migrant*innen ist durch Entrechtungen geprägt. Holger Wilcke zeigt, dass papierlose Migrant*innen dennoch nicht als passive Opfer missverstanden werden sollten, sondern vielmehr über Handlungsmacht verfügen: Sie arbeiten ohne Arbeitserlaubnis, sie organisieren sich Wohnraum, obwohl sie offiziell keinen Mietvertrag unterschreiben können, und sie verschaffen sich ohne Krankenversicherung Zugang zu medizinischer Versorgung. Als politische Subjekte nehmen sie sich – oft unwahrnehmbar – Rechte, die ihnen formal nicht zustehen, und transformieren unentwegt die Gesellschaft, welche ihre Ausschlüsse produziert.


Monique Kremer: Migratie en verzorgingsstaat geen tegenpolen

De verzorgingsstaat heeft vier functies: verzekeren, verzorgen, verbinden en verheffen.

Kremer legt vooral de nadruk op het belang van de functies verbinden en verheffen. Die zouden volgens haar centraal moeten staan. “Verheffen is een ideaal waarbij mensen boven zichzelf kunnen uitstijgen. Er zijn nog steeds mensen die niet tot hun recht komen. Die hebben een steuntje nodig om sociaal te stijgen. Dat zien we vaak bij mensen met een migratie-achtergrond. Tegelijkertijd moet er meer aandacht gaan naar het aspect verbinden”, oordeelt Kremer. “Wat mij betreft is het verheffingsideaal nog steeds noodzakelijk om de verzorgingsstaat migratiebestendig te maken. Op het moment dat migranten op de arbeidsmarkt participeren zie je dat de solidariteit met die groep groeit. Als iedereen werkt, is er meer tevredenheid en minder wrijving in de superdiverse verzorgingsstaat”, stelt de Nederlandse hoogleraar.


Factsheets over huiselijk geweld en kindermishandeling

Er bestaan veel verschillende typen huiselijk geweld en kindermishandeling. Bij al deze typen geweld kunnen er specifieke signalen, risicofactoren en doorverwijsoverwegingen spelen.

Deze factsheets bieden praktische tips bij het signaleren van alle typen geweld en bij wat te doen wanneer je als professional signalen tegenkomt. Ook geven de factsheets een aanzet tot handelen voor alle beroepsgroepen die met de meldcode huiselijk geweld en kinder-mishandeling werken, zoals artsen, verpleegkundigen, verzorgenden, paramedici, psychologen, jeugdhulpverleners, maatschappelijk werkers, onderwijzend personeel, kinderopvang-medewerkers, wijkteammedewerkers, en anderen. 

De factsheets staan op de website huiselijkgeweld.nl

René de Reuver, Dorottya Nagy e.a.: Van Migrant tot Naaste - plaatsmaken voor jezelf

Weinig onderwerpen zijn zo complex als migratie. Natuurlijk schieten we te hulp als mensen in nood ons land binnenkomen. Maar er lijken ook grenzen te zijn aan wat we aankunnen, zeker als onze eigen identiteit bedreigd wordt. Tijd voor een christelijk perspectief op migratie, dat wegblijft bij het klassieke links-rechtsdenken. René de Reuver en Dorottya Nagy trappen af met relevante vragen rond migratie. Wat zegt de Bijbel over migratie? Welke rol speelt macht? Hoe ben ik geworteld? De antwoorden zijn een spiegel voor de lezer.
Zes interviews met migranten geven het vraagstuk een gezicht. Daarnaast bevat dit boek interviews met deskundigen, waaronder Bernhard Reitsma en Kathleen Ferrier.


UNHCR: 'Good practices in nationality laws for the prevention and reduction of statelessness'

Handbook for parliamentarians, providing practical guidance needed to support law reforms that help solve and prevent statelessness, and protect those who are stateless.

EU: Council Presidency calls for action on "secondary movement" of refugees

The Austrian Council Presidency has circulated a Note to the Strategic Committee on Immigration, Frontiers and Asylum (SCIFA) on: Secondary movements (LIMITE doc no: 13353-18, pdf) which seeks to monitor the movement of refugees from the country of arrival northwards - particularly from Greece and Italy - to other EU Member States.

EASO publishes four COI reports on Nigeria

The European Asylum Support Office (EASO) published four Country of Origin Information (COI) Reports on Nigeria: Security Situation, Actors of Protection, Targeting Individuals, and Key Socio-economic indicators. The reports provide information relevant for the protection status determination of Nigerian asylum seekers.


WerkInstructie 2018/16: Artikel 64 vw

De instructie is een handleiding voor de behandeling van de toets van artikel 64 Vreemdelingenwet 2000 (64 Vw). Deze instructie is geactualiseerd, naar aanleiding van de wijzigingen in het beleid van WBV 2017/8, WBV 2017/14 en WBV 2018/1.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI%202018-16.pdf, 21.11.18

ReSOMA Discussion Brief : “Crackdown on NGOs assisting refugees and other migrants

NGOs, Search and Rescue operations, and volunteers have often been on the frontline of what has been called the ‘refugee crisis’ in Europe, providing food, shelter and legal advice and monitoring human rights situations faced by refugees and migrants on the ground. But research indicates that attempts to balance legitimate political objectives of countering and preventing organised criminal groups from smuggling migrants for profit, with the right of association and humanitarian assistance, are also provide an obstacle for the functioning of civil society actors.

The Brief discusses in further detail the criminalisation of NGOs and its facilitation by EU law, the harassment and policing of NGOs beyond formal criminalisation, the role of EU funding in this regard, and the potential impacts of the policies that have been adopted.

In a report released earlier, the European Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), present the result of an online consultation with its civil society network which looks at the challenges faced by civil society organisations (CSOs) in their day- to- day work, ranging from changes in the legal environment, challenges in finding and accessing resources, to obstacles in accessing policymaking, and threats and attacks. FRA concluded that the results of the consultation “confirm earlier messages and point to the need to provide civil society with the resources and the ‘safe space’ that it needs to flourish and operate”.

Nieuwsbrief 24, 2018

The impact of refugees on the labour market: a big splash in a small pond?

What impact will recently arrived refugees have on the labour markets of receiving European countries? This paper looks at the composition of recent refugee inflows and reviews the relevant characteristics of EU labour markets.

https://www.ceps.eu/publications/impact-refugees-labour-market-big-splash-small-pond, 8.11.18

Benson and Crock : Protecting Migrant Children

With unprecedented numbers of children on the move in search of safety, the editors/authors of Protecting Migrant Children explore the complex legal and human rights issues that arise when children cross borders as migrants. They critically examine the strengths and weaknesses of international and domestic laws with the aim of identifying best practice for migrant children. In their new book, the authors have brought together an interdisciplinary and multinational group of experts to assess the nature and root causes of child migration in different parts of the world, featuring national and comparative case studies in Asia-Pacific, Europe, and North America.

https://www.e-elgar.com/shop/protecting-migrant-children (nov18)

Thomas, Stefan; Sauer, Madeleine und  Zalewski, Ingmar: Unbegleitete minderjährige Geflüchtete - Ihre Lebenssituationen und Perspektiven in Deutschland

Wie sind die Lebenssituationen und Perspektiven unbegleiteter minderjähriger Geflüchteter in Deutschland? Was sind förderliche Organisationskulturen, die eine gelingende Versorgung und Betreuung ermöglichen?
Durch eine dreifache Perspektivübernahme gehen die Autor_innen diesen Fragen nach: Gemeinsam mit geflüchteten Jugendlichen nehmen sie die Subjektperspektive ein und erforschen die Sicht der Jugendlichen auf ihr Leben in Deutschland. Aus der Einrichtungsperspektive evaluieren sie, wie Probleme und Herausforderungen in den Einrichtungen bearbeitet werden. Und mit dem Blick aus der Strukturperspektive untersuchen sie schließlich die sozialräumliche Einbettung und fragen nach Faktoren, die die Teilhabe der jungen Geflüchteten am gesellschaftlichen Leben begünstigen.

https://www.transcript-verlag.de/978-3-8376-4384-8/unbegleitete-minderjaehrige-gefluechtete/,  okt18

Werkinstructie 2018/15: Aanmeldgehoor en Eerste gehoor

Deze werkinstructie beoogt inzicht te geven in het doel van het (uitgebreide) aanmeldgehoor en het verificatie eerste gehoor. Daarnaast wordt een toelichting gegeven op de formats van deze gehoren. In de toelichting zal worden ingegaan op de achtergronden van de te behandelen onderdelen van de formats. De nummering in de paragrafen C (format aanmeldgehoor) en E (format (verificatie) eerste gehoor) van deze werkinstructie sluit zo veel mogelijk aan op de nummering van de betreffende onderdelen van de formats.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2018-15.pdf, 15.11.18

Karen Geertsema promotie: Rechterlijke toetsing in het asielrecht - Een juridisch onderzoek naar de intensiteit van de rechterlijke toets in de Nederlandse asielprocedure van 2001-2015

De intensiteit van de rechterlijke toetsing in asielzaken is sinds de invoering van de Vreemdelingenwet 2000 onderwerp van kritische discussie. De bestuursrechter toetst het bestuurlijk oordeel over de geloofwaardigheid van een asielrelaas terughoudend, zij het dat deze toetsing sinds de implementatie van de herziene Procedurerichtlijn in 2015 minder terughoudend is dan voorheen. In dit boek geeft de auteur de juridische achtergrond weer van de terughoudende rechterlijke toetsing in asielzaken en biedt zij aan de hand van het uitgevoerde jurisprudentieonderzoek een nieuw inzicht in de intensiteit van de rechterlijke toetsing in asielzaken. Dit inzicht is actueel omdat sprake is van een verschil tussen de Nederlandse toetsing, de vereiste Unierechtelijke toetsing en de toetsing van het Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens in asielzaken. Ook verrijkt het verkregen inzicht algemeen bestuursrechtelijke theorie over bestuurlijke beslissingsruimte en rechterlijke toetsing. Een boek voor iedereen die zich bezighoudt met het migratierecht en het algemene bestuursrecht.

https://www.bju.nl/juridisch/catalogus/rechterlijke-toetsing-in-het-asielrecht-1 (nov18)

Human Rights Committee : concluding observations on Bulgaria

According to the Committee reliable reports from multiple sources indicate that persons who may be in need of international protection have been prevented from entering Bulgarian territory or expelled, at times with force, without an opportunity to apply for asylum or an individualised assessment. The Committee recommends that Bulgaria should fully respect the principle of non-refoulement and enhance training for the border police and immigration personnel to ensure full respect for the rights of asylum seekers, refugees and migrants.

With regard to reception conditions, the Committee stressed the need to avoid placing asylum seekers in detention, except as a last resort and for the shortest period, and to improve conditions for those seeking international protection. The Committee also recommended that action is taken to ensure the adequate reception of children seeking international protection, in particular unaccompanied minors.


Mensenrechtencommissaris RvE: situatie migranten in Griekenland

On 6 November, the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe, Dunja Mijatović, released a report following a visit to Greece that took place in June 2018. The report focuses, inter alia, on the reception and integration of migrants and asylum seekers in Greece.

The Commissioner expressed her concern that living conditions in reception camps present significant risks to people's health, which are exacerbated by very difficult access to primary healthcare services and lack of overall support. The Greek authorities were also encouraged to address all the contributing factors to the widespread issue of sexual and gender-based violence, to provide assistance to victims, and to prevent its recurrence. In addition to this, the situation of most unaccompanied migrant children, including their lack of shelter, access to education and social support, was also characterised by the Commissioner as alarming, drawing special attention to the problematic regime of "protective custody".

Against this background, the Commissioner also urges the authorities to reconsider the geographical restriction which prevents migrants arriving in the islands from reaching mainland facilities, while also expressing her concerns over the length and efficacy of the vulnerability assessment procedure.

Lastly, the Commissioner noted that Greek authorities should design and enforce a more comprehensive and long-term integration policy, to effectively address the high numbers of arrivals that Greece has been facing.

https://rm.coe.int/report-on-the-visit-to-greece-from-25-to-29-june-2018-by-dunja-mijatov/16808ea5bd, 6.11.18

Statewatch: Decriminalising solidarity by promoting the regularisation of migrants

Translation of a speech given by Fulvio Vassallo Paleologo (Osservatorio Solidarieta Carta di Milano) at the session "Decriminalizing Solidarity: an ever more topical challenge", Palermo, 13 October 2018.


Building walls - Fear and securitization in the European Union

This report reveals that member states of the European Union and Schengen Area have constructed almost 1000 km of walls, the equivalent of more than six times the total length of the Berlin Walls, since the nineties to prevent displaced people migrating into Europe. These physical walls are accompanied by even longer 'maritime walls', naval operations patrolling the Mediterranean, as well as 'virtual walls', border control systems that seek to stop people entering or even traveling within Europe, and control movement of population.

https://www.tni.org/en/publication/building-walls?fbclid=IwAR1QkqBfBeOYDK3nLuNAz3fEkdtVVRnwZfZBeY_lAll1EeDsiLCrIEwrWUI, 9.11.18

Yasha Maccanico, Ben Hayes, Samuel Kenny, Frank Barat: The shrinking space for solidarity with migrants and refugees - How the European Union and Member States target and criminalize defenders of the rights of people on the move

Europe’s “refugee crisis” triggered a wave of solidarity actions by both civil society organisations and ordinary citizens. Their efforts were part of a wave of compassion, as people organised convoys to refugee reception centers, warmly greeted arrivals at train stations and lined highways to provide food and water to those making the journey from Syria and elsewhere. Just a few years later those same activists are treated as criminals and humanitarian search and rescue missions are criminalised.

The current onslaught originated in the intensification of the EU’s restrictive approach to immigration policy from late 2014 and the EU’s treatment of Italy and Greece, front-line states on the EU’s migration routes. Today in Europe, solidarity with migrants and refugees can lead to arrest, legal troubles, or harassment. The actions of national police, judiciaries, political powers and far-right militants have created and compounded hostility to solidarity with refugees and migrants.

This report looks at how EU policy has played out and offers a glimpse into the ways citizens and movements are resisting xenophobic and securitarian policies.

The shrinking space for solidarity with migrants and refugees(pdf, 2.15 MB) , 6.11.18

Nieuwsbrief 23, 2018

Barbara Oomen: Frontier Cities the rise of Local Authorities as an Opportunity for HRL

The growing influence and self-confidence of local authorities count among the most interesting recent phenomena in global governance. While not entirely oblivious, international law as a field has struggled to get ahead of this dynamic, focusing instead on how to integrate local authorities into static conventional frameworks firmly based on the notion of state sovereignty. However, as a discussion of the global state of affairs and a focus on human rights cities shows, local actors increasingly claim and obtain a key role in the realization of international law. Additionally, they hold important potential to address some of the most pressing challenges to international human rights law concerning its efficacy and legitimacy. This article therefore calls for a proactive approach to the study of local authorities that considers local authorities as a ‘new frontier’ in international law generally and in human rights law specifically. It proposes a critical research agenda for this purpose that could produce important new insights into (i) the continued relevance and legitimacy of human rights as a discourse of governance; (ii) the bearing of domestic constitutional arrangements on the implementation of human rights law and (iii) questions of, and possible shifts in, legal sub- jecthood in the contexts of ‘state failure’.


Michel Agier : The Jungle - Calais's Camps and Migrants

For nearly two decades, the area surrounding the French port of Calais has been a temporary staging post for thousands of migrants and refugees hoping to cross the channel to Britain. It achieved global attention when, at the height of the migrant crisis in 2015, all those living there were transferred to a single camp that became known as ‘the Jungle’. Until its dismantling in October 2016, this precarious site, intended to make its inhabitants as invisible as possible, was instead the focal point of international concern about the plight of migrants and refugees.

Anthropologist Michel Agier and his colleagues use theparticular circumstances of the Jungle, localized in space and time, to analyse broaderchanges underway in our societies, both locally and globally. Starting from the camp’s architecture, the authors describe the transformation of its spaces into an embryonic shantytown, encouraging a wider reflection on urbanism in the context of increasingly mobile populations. They investigate how everyday life and routine operated in the Jungle, raising broader questions about how marginalised communities are perceived and represented. Finally, addressing the mixed reactions to the camp - from hostile government policies to movements of solidarity - the authors show our relationship with the Other as part of a wider struggle in the formation of local, national and transnational identities.

http://politybooks.com/bookdetail/?isbn=9781509530601&subject_id=1&tag_id=27 (okt18)

Conny Rijken, Tesseltje de Lange:  Decent Labour Market for Low-Waged Migrant Workers

This book is the f inal output of a research project : Protecting labour migrants in the Netherlands: past, present and in the future. We dive into the position of low-waged migrant workers from within the EU, possibly working under worse labour conditions than nationals, or under the level of their education attainments, as well as third-country nationals, especially those in low-paid jobs such as seasonal workers, asylum seekers or those without legal residence. These migrant workers contribute to the labour market, valued for their work but are vulnerable to abuse. The research aim of this project was to contribute to developing theories and strategies to overcome this vulnerability and window for abuse: to work towards a decent labour market for low-waged migrant workers.

Understanding the fragmented legal framework and its consequences for migrant workers was a first step to achieve this aim. Together with the contributors to this volume, we looked into opportunities to mitigate the negative consequences.

Link: http://www.oapen.org/search?keyword=rijken

CPB en SCP: Verdringing op de arbeidsmarkt, beschrijving en beleving

Op de Nederlandse arbeidsmarkt bestaan voor de meeste groepen geen aanwijzingen voor verdringing: niet tussen ouderen en jongeren, tussen hoog- en laagopgeleiden en vaak ook niet door migranten. Dit betekent niet dat er helemaal nooit sprake is van verdringing. Mensen aan de onderkant van de arbeidsmarkt kunnen er wel mee te maken hebben. Zijzelf geven ook aan verdringing te ervaren, maar dit niet het meest prangende probleem te vinden.

CPB/SCP-publicatie Verdringing op de arbeidsmarkt, beschrijving en beleving

Marianne Jossen : Undocumented Migrants and Healthcare: Eight Stories from Switzerland

The inclusion of undocumented migrants in healthcare in Switzerland remains partial and precarious. Exclusion is a reality and an ever-present threat, even while both patients and professionals are making every possible effort to achieve inclusion. Undocumented migrants are included in some aspects of healthcare, but only by paying a high price. Their inclusion is partial and they are excluded from some aspects of care, notwithstanding entitlements such as insurance. The health and healthcare of undocumented migrants are therefore deeply affected by their legal status. A discussion about whether this makes sense in political, economic and ethical terms is urgently needed in Switzerland — and beyond.


Masterscriptie : ervaring met hulpverlening en toekomstverwachtingen van AMV’s

In deze masterproef lag de focus op de toekomstverwachtingen en de ervaringen van nietbegeleide minderjarige vluchtelingen omtrent de hulpverlening. Er werd gepoogd enerzijds na te gaan over welke aspecten in de hulpverlening ze tevreden zijn en anderzijds hoe hun toekomstverwachtingen eruit zien en hoe ze hierbij ondersteund en begeleid worden.

Er bestaan heel wat motieven om het land van herkomst te verlaten, maar één iets hebben alle vluchtelingen, begeleid of niet-begeleid, gemeen, namelijk de hoop op een betere toekomst. Uit de resultaten blijkt dat ondanks de soms onzekere positie van de jongeren, zij hoge toekomstverwachtingen hebben en deze durven uitspreken. Het benoemen van wensen en verwachtingen gaat niet voor ieder individu gepaard met het vertrouwen om deze verwachtingen ook effectief in de lossen. Het is belangrijk om hiervoor bij de begeleiding voldoende aandacht aan te besteden en met de nodige zorgvuldigheid het thema ‘toekomst’ aan te brengen. Hierbij moet men steeds vertrekken vanuit de wensen van de jongeren zelf.


CBS: aantal immigranten/ emigranten eerste drie kwartalen

In de eerste drie kwartalen van 2018 kwamen er in Nederland 81 duizend inwoners bij. De groei wordt vooral bepaald door buitenlandse migratie. Er schreven zich 69,5 duizend meer mensen vanuit het buitenland in bij een Nederlandse gemeente dan er vertrokken. Daarnaast werden ruim 11 duizend meer kinderen geboren dan er mensen overleden.

Het aantal Aziatische (waaronder Syrische) migranten neemt per saldo af, de migratie uit Afrika, Amerika en vooral Europa neemt toe. Tot nu toe hebben zich 92 duizend immigranten uit Europa gevestigd en vertrokken er 56 duizend. Het aantal migranten met een Aziatische achtergrond nam af. In de eerste drie kwartalen schreven zich ruim 35 duizend immigranten in, ruim 7,5 duizend minder dan vorig jaar. De emigratie bleef vrijwel gelijk. Er kwamen vooral minder immigranten met een Syrische achtergrond.

Er immigreerden en emigreerden minder mensen met een Nederlandse achtergrond.

https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2018/44/aantal-immigranten-en-emigranten-ook-in-2018-hoog, 30.10.18

Study - Sponsorship and International Protection

This study assessed the feasibility and added value of sponsorship schemes as a possible pathway to channels for admission of persons in need of protection in the EU

The study finds that while the concept of private sponsorship is rather ill-defined, the number of different sponsorship schemes has proliferated across the EU and have a wide variety of characteristics in the eligibility criteria of the sponsor and beneficiary, responsibilities of the sponsor, and in the status granted and associated rights.

The study assessed possible options for EU action in the area, by continuing with the status quo, providing for specific soft measures (training, toolkits, peer reviews), financing of sponsorship activities, and legislative action.

The study finds that soft measures and financing are most feasible and have highest added value, whereas legislative action carries certain risks and is considered less feasible.

Study on the feasibility and added value of sponsorship schemes as a possible pathway to safe channels for admission to the EU, including resettlement (2.50 Mo), 24.10.18

EASO: security situation in Pakistan

This report provides a general description of the security situation in Pakistan, including an overview of the recent conflicts in the country and the actors involved, as well as the state's ability to secure order and provide safety to the civilian population.
The report also includes more detailed descriptions of the different regions in Pakistan. In each regional chapter, a short description is given of the region, the background of the violence as well as the actors present in the region, followed by a description of the security trends, and the impact of the violence on the population.


Europol : report child trafficking

  • One of the most serious aspects of this phenomenon is the role of the family, with Europol receiving regular notifications of children being sold to criminal networks by their families. In some cases they engage directly in the trafficking and exploitation of their own children.
  • Female suspects play a key role in the trafficking and exploitation of minors, much more than in criminal networks which are trafficking adult victims.
  • Most of the cases reported to Europol involve networks escorting non-EU minor victims across the entire route from their country of origin to the place of exploitation, frequently with the involvement of smuggling networks. Smuggling of minor victims through the external borders and across member states usually entails the use of forged travel documents.
  • Criminal profits are mainly redirected to the country of origin of the key suspect, in small amounts via money transfer services and in larger sums using criminal money couriers and mules.
  • Children are trafficked from around the world into the EU. The majority of non-EU networks reported to Europol involved Nigerian organised crime groups which are trafficking young girls to be sexually exploited.
  • Children in migration and unaccompanied minors are at higher risk of trafficking and exploitation. Although the scale of trafficking of unaccompanied minors remains unknown, a future increase is expected.

These are some of the findings of the Situation Report on Criminal networks involved in the Trafficking and Exploitation of Underage Victims in the European Union , which Europol released today on the occasion of the EU Anti-Trafficking Day. (18.10.18)

Freedom of Movements Research Collective : "Stop Killing Us Slowly: A Research Report on the Motivation Enhancement Measures and the Criminalisation of Rejected Asylum Seekers in Denmark," (sept18)

As researchers and observant participants in and of the Danish and European migration control apparatus, we take the call of deportation centre inhabitants to ‘stop killing us slowly’ as an invitation to critically analyse the Danish deportation centres and their ‘surplus’ functions. We understand the Danish deportation centres as one of many instruments of the European deportation regime, designed to punish and expel non-white immigrants at serious human and societal costs. The report addresses asylum-seekers and their support networks, practitioners, and the Danish public, and hopes to contribute to nuance the public debate on the setup and effects of deportation centres.

Impact of punitive immigration policies, parent-child separation and child detention on the mental health and development of children

Detention of children for immigration purposes is known to be practised in over 100 countries worldwide, despite a significant body of research demonstrating the extensive harm of such policies. This review explores and contextualises the key potential impacts of family separation and detention of children for immigration purposes including damaged attachment relationships, traumatisation, toxic stress and wider detrimental impacts on immigrant communities. As such, it is critical for host nation governments to cease the practice of family separation and child detention for immigration control and promote postmigration policies that protect children from further harm, promote resilience and enable recovery.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173255/, 26.9.18

Chris de Stoop: wanneer het water breekt

Dit is het verhaal van Vietnamese bootvluchtelingen die in 1981 de Vietnam-oorlog ontvluchten en opgepikt worden door een Belgisch schip. Ze bouwen een bestaan op in Wichelen, woren koster, restauranteigenaar, arts, ingenieur of bankier.

https://www.bol.com/nl/f/wanneer-het-water-breekt/9200000092035917/, sept18

'Archipel van de hond', Philippe Claudel

De Middellandse Zee. Een eilandengroep met wijngaarden en olijfbomen, bevolkt door een kleine vissersgemeenschap. Een geïsoleerde plek, weg van het lawaai van de wereld, tot op een dag een oude vrouw op het vulkanische strand drie lijken aantreft. Wie waren deze mensen? Wat moet er gebeuren met hun overblijfselen? Moet de waarheid onder ogen worden gezien of is het mogelijk dit mysterie te negeren?
Archipel van de hond is een roman over de wereld waarin wij leven. Het is net als Philippe Claudels geliefde romans Grijze zielen en Het verslag van Brodeck een tijdloze reflectie op de menselijke natuur en de keuzes die we maken.

https://www.bol.com/nl/f/archipel-van-de-hond/9200000092035666/?country=NL, sept18

Nieuwsbrief 22, 2018

Medisch Contact : Help de vluchteling aan werk

De beste manier om gezondheidsproblemen bij vluchtelingen te voorkomen is goede integratie en een zinvolle dagbesteding. Huisartsen kunnen daarbij een actieve rol spelen.

https://www.medischcontact.nl/nieuws/laatste-nieuws/artikel/help-de-vluchteling-aan-werk.htm (en hier)

FairWork: Strategic Manual for the prevention of labour exploitation and human trafficking.

By using various online tools in a professional manner, we have actively informed migrant workers about their rights in the Netherlands and about available options for support. With the experiences we have gained and the analysis of our results, we have produced a strategic manual, which is available in English and Dutch.

Download the English manual or the Dutch manual.

CBS: migratiecijfers

In 2017 vestigden zich 235 duizend immigranten in Nederland en vertrokken 154 duizend emigranten. Sinds het begin van de officiële migratiestatistieken in 1865 waren beide stromen nog nooit zo groot. Ook het migratiesaldo is met 81 duizend een record. De hoge migratie hangt samen met toegenomen immigratie uit andere EU-lidstaten en met immigratie van asielzoekers en nareizigers. Dit blijkt uit de definitieve migratiecijfers over 2017 van het CBS.


AIDA : Access to protection in Europe: Border controls and entry into the territory

The report provides an analysis of legal frameworks and practice relating to access to the territory for the purpose of seeking asylum. Push backs, through incorrect use of refusal of entry procedures or an avoidance of formal procedures altogether, remain an endemic problem across internal and external borders of the continent. The persisting practice of push backs is closely connected to policy discussions on the Common European Asylum System, and the EU’s discourse shift from the plight of refugees to prevention of “illegal migration” at any cost. It is also driven by misconceptions about the Dublin system and the erroneous view that a person can be turned away at the border without being able to make an asylum claim due to another state being responsible under the Dublin Regulation, as evident in political statements as it is in practice by police officials.

You can access the report here.

AIDA : Access to protection in Europe: The registration of asylum applications

The report analyses the legal and practical aspects of registration of asylum claims, with focus on: responsible authorities and content of information collected; locations of registration; time limits; and documentation. It also discusses interplay of the Dublin procedure (following the Court of Justice of the European Union ruling in Mengesteab) and the specific mechanisms for registration of asylum applications made at the border and in detention centres.

The analysis of national practice illustrates that a single-step registration process ensures simplicity in access to the asylum procedure. Additional layers of procedure are counter-productive as they usually entail more coordination within or between authorities, more types of official acts and documents, and inevitably more time for both asylum seekers and officials to comprehend and to navigate. States should build infrastructural and human capacity to make multiple registration points available across their national territory so as to conduct registration and issue documentation within short time- frames. Phone or online platforms used in some countries can be additional technical support tools for registration purposes but can never substitute administrative capacity. Without it, they are liable to exacerbate backlogs and prolong delays and precariousness rather than speeding up access to protection. The volume of documents issued to applicants for international protection should also be minimised in the interests of legal certainty and cost-efficient use of administrative resources. Documents should also have clear and consistent format so as to be recognisable by all actors coming into contact with asylum seekers, be they border guards, police officers, medical professionals, employment agencies, educational institutions or other.

You can access the report here.

EASO : judicial analysis on the principle of non-refoulement 

The analysis centres around the principle of non-refoulement and asylum procedures, in the context of the Common European Asylum System and Directive 2013/32/EU, as well as including an overview of procedures relating to the determination of Member States responsible for examining an application for international protection under the Dublin III Regulation.
The Directive's basic principles, safeguards and procedural guarantees are analysed in detail, with specific focus on the right to an effective remedy in this context. The analysis also offers an examination of the scope of Directive 2008/115/EC (Returns Directive) and its relevance to asylum procedures.


Amnesty: Afghanistan

Amnesty International calls on European governments to stop forcibly sending people to deadly conditions in Afghanistan. The recent dramatic increase in returns of Afghan asylum-seekers have put thousands of people at a real risk of serious human rights violations in contravention of the binding international legal principle of non-refoulement, which prohibits states from transferring anyone to a place where they are at real risk of serious human rights violations. Despite demonstrably deteriorating security and humanitarian situation in Afghanistan over the past two years and the record number of civilian casualties, European countries have stepped up the deportations of Afghan nationals arguing that areas of the country are “safe” – in stark contrast to the developments on the ground.


Council of Europe : Course on Protection of Refugee and Migrant Children

The CoE has a free online course focused on the protection of refugee and migrant children.

Click here to take the course in English.

Save The Children: From Europe to Afghanistan: Experiences of Child Returnees

This report reveals that European states returning thousands of children and adults to Afghanistan are failing to provide appropriate reintegration support. In particular, children are being returned to a dangerous environment where they face threats including violent attacks and recruitment by armed groups.

The report examines the returns processes implemented by EU states, including Norway, Sweden and Germany, over the past five years. The research includes a survey of 53 children returned to Afghanistan, as well as dozens of in-depth interviews with children and their parents or guardians.

In particular, the survey found:

  • Nearly three-quarters of children surveyed said they did not feel safe during the return process, with more than half reporting instances of coercion or violence, including some who reported having returned voluntarily
  • Almost half arrived in Afghanistan alone or accompanied by police
  • Only three children had received a specific reintegration plan
  • Three quarters could not rule out re-migrating the following year
  • Whereas 45 of the 53 children had attended school in Europe, only 16 had since returning to Afghanistan. Three quarters cited education as their greatest need
  • Almost 1 in 5 said someone had tried to recruit them to fight in combat, commit acts of violence or engage with an armed group after returning

From Europe to Afghanistan: Experiences of Child Returnees (16.9.18)

Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel: Slachtoffermonitor 2013-2017

Het zicht op slachtoffers van mensenhandel is in 2017 niet verbeterd. De daling van het aantal slachtoffers dat in beeld is bij CoMensha (coördinatiecentrum tegen mensenhandel) die in 2015 is ingezet, is doorgezet in 2017. 

Het gebruik van de verblijfsregeling Mensenhandelslachtoffer is sinds 2013 fors gedaald, maar vanaf 2016 stabiel. Uit de monitor blijkt dat meer dan een derde van alle slachtoffers die niet verder gebruik maakt van de verblijfsregeling mensenhandel, in plaats daarvan voor een asielprocedure kiest. Dit betekent dus dat zij de bijbehorende specifieke bescherming niet meer ontvangen. Als slachtoffers zelfs uitsluitend voor asiel kiezen loopt de politie daarnaast mogelijk opsporingsinformatie mis die nodig is om mensenhandelaren te vervolgen. De Nationaal Rapporteur heeft de staatssecretaris van Justitie en Veiligheid daarom aanbevolen verder onderzoek te doen naar de reden dat slachtoffers voor een asielprocedure kiezen.

https://www.nationaalrapporteur.nl/binaries/Slachtoffermonitor%20mensenhandel%202013-2017_tcm23-359693.pdf, 18.10.18

Corporate Watch: The UK Border Regime

Throughout history, human beings have migrated. To escape war, oppression and poverty, to make a better life, to follow their own dreams. But since the start of the 20th century, modern governments have found ever more vicious ways to stop people moving freely.

The UK border regime includes the razor wire fences at Calais, the limbo of the asylum system, and the open violence of raids and deportations. Alongside the Home Office, it includes the companies running databases and detention centres, the media pushing hate speech, and the politicians posturing to win votes. It keeps on escalating, through Tony Blair’s war on refugees to Theresa May’s “hostile environment”, spreading fear and division.

This book describes and analyses the UK’s system of immigration controls. It looks at how it has developed through recent history, the different actors involved, and how people resist. The aim is to help understand the border regime, and ask how we can fight it effectively.

You can read the introduction and summary of the book here: https://corporatewatch.org/the-uk-border-regime-book-introduction-and-summary/
Web link with pictures: https://corporatewatch.org/new-book-the-uk-border-regime/

Evidence that Alternatives to Detention Can Be Effective

The first independent evaluation report on three alternative to detention pilot projects in the European ATD Network is now out. It provides evidence that community-based case management can be effective in helping migrants to work towards resolving their cases in the community. Read the Report and Briefing Paper.

Recast Return Directive

The European Commission President announced a Recast of the Return Directive to “accelerate the return of irregular migrants,” among a series of measures on migration. The proposals broadly reflect the Commission’s approach in its 2017 policy package which seeks to increase the rate of returns through enforcement-based measures.

ECRE : Taking Liberties: Detention and Asylum Law Reform

The European Council on Refugees and Exiles provides analysis of the restrictions on asylum seekers liberty in the reform of the Common European Asylum System. https://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Policy-Note-14.pdf (sept18)

Nieuwsbrief 21, 2018

DvdW: Barrieres voor ongedocumenteerden in toegang tot anticonceptie en abortus

Onder de groepen migranten, vluchtelingen en ongedocumenteerde migranten zijn meer vrouwen en kinderen aanwezig dan tien jaar geleden. Dit vraagt om een breed palet van zorg waarin ook seksuele en reproductieve rechten goed gewaarborgd zijn. In Nederland is hard gestreden voor het recht op zelfbeschikking van vrouwen. Bovendien is Nederland internationaal actief voorvechter om vrouwenrechten te ondersteunen, bijvoorbeeld via het waardevolle ‘She decides’-initiatief. Vanuit ons internationale werk voelen we ons hierdoor gesteund.

Dokters van de Wereld Nederland ziet in haar spreekuurpraktijk in Amsterdam, Den Haag en Rotterdam dat vrouwen zonder verblijfspapieren achterblijven in het kunnen maken van eigen keuzes. Anticonceptie kent een te hoge financiële drempel en ook abortus is vrijwel ontoegankelijk. De nota ‘Barrières voor ongedocumenteerden in toegang tot anticonceptie en abortus’ geeft inzicht in de knelpunten die wij in de praktijk zien..

Barrières voor ongedocumenteerden in toegang tot anticonceptie en abortus (sept18)

TNI : The shrinking space for solidarity with migrants and refugees  - How the European Union and Member States target and criminalize defenders of the rights of people on the move (okt18)

Europe’s “refugee crisis” triggered a wave of solidarity actions by both civil society organisations and ordinary citizens. Their efforts were part of a wave of compassion, as people organised convoys to refugee reception centers, warmly greeted arrivals at train stations and lined highways to provide food and water to those making the journey from Syria and elsewhere. Just a few years later those same activists are treated as criminals and humanitarian search and rescue missions are criminalised.

The current onslaught originated in the intensification of the EU’s restrictive approach to immigration policy from late 2014 and the EU’s treatment of Italy and Greece, front-line states on the EU’s migration routes. Today in Europe, solidarity with migrants and refugees can lead to arrest, legal troubles, or harassment. The actions of national police, judiciaries, political powers and far-right militants have created and compounded hostility to solidarity with refugees and migrants.

This report looks at how EU policy has played out and offers a glimpse into the ways citizens and movements are resisting xenophobic and securitarian policies.

The shrinking space for solidarity with migrants and refugees (pdf, 6.14 MB)

Theo Francken: Continent zonder grens (sept18)

Brexit, euroscepticisme, aanslagen, culturele angst voor de islam… Europa beleeft roerige tijden. In 'Continent zonder grens' betoogt de Belgische staatssecretaris Theo Francken overtuigend dat onder meer de massale immigratie daarvoor verantwoordelijk is. In zijn directe stijl bespreekt hij de drijfveren achter de "lange mars op Europa', die honderdduizenden jonge mannen uit Afrika, het Midden-Oosten en Centraal-Azië elk jaar opnieuw ondernemen. Een mars die sinds de migratiecrisis van 2015 helemaal uit de hand is gelopen.
Zonder schroom fileert Theo de passiviteit die het traditionele establishment daartegenover plaatst. Hij neemt u mee naar plekken waar geen camera's draaien. Naar de achterkamerpolitiek van de Europese Raden en de mechanismen van de mensensmokkelindustrie, maar ook naar de getormenteerde geschiedenis van Europa en de morele complexen van onze eigen westerse maatschappij. Tegelijk toont hij ons de weg vooruit: hoe het elders in de wereld wél anders kan, en hoe het moet in Europa.


Maarten Bolhuis and Joris van Wijk : ‘Case management, identity controls and screening on national security and 1F exclusion; a comparative study on Syrian asylum seekers in five European countries’

The armed conflict in Syria that erupted in 2011 has produced a vast number of forced migrants since 2014. The sudden and dramatic increase in the number of asylum applications led to exceptional challenges with regard to the identification and screening of asylum seekers from Syria.

This report discusses how five European countries – Belgium, Germany, Norway, the Netherlands and Sweden – have organized the identification, registration and decision-making in relation to asylum applications made by Syrian nationals, as well as the screening of Syrian nationals with regard to possible national security and 1F exclusion aspects. This assessment forms the basis for recommendations on how a situation with a large asylum caseload with similar challenges can be handled best in the future.

Bolhuis, M.P. & Van Wijk, J. (2018). Case management, identity controls and screening on national security and 1F exclusion. Final report of a study commissioned by the Norwegian Directorate of Immigration, UDI.

AIDA: Dublin Update - Figures of 14 EU countries on the Dublin system jan-jun 2018

Germany, which has heavily debated measures to speed up Dublin transfers since the summer, implemented most actual transfers (4,922), ahead of Greece (2,743), Austria (1,408) and the Netherlands (1,080). Yet, compared to 30,305 outgoing requests issued during the same period, the figure indicates that almost 85% of Dublin procedures initiated by the German authorities did not result in a transfer. The transfer rate was higher in Switzerland (23.8%), the Netherlands (27.3%) and Austria (43.9%), which had slightly less outgoing transfers but also dramatically lower numbers of outgoing requests compared to Germany. Greece, which issued Dublin requests primarily for family unity reasons, had a transfer rate of 89%.

http://www.asylumineurope.org/sites/default/files/aida_2018halfupdate_dublin.pdf, okt18

EPRS: EU asylum, borders and external cooperation on migration - Recent developments

This publication takes stock of recent EU developments in the area of asylum, borders and external cooperation on migration. It presents the major policy and legislative initiatives put forward by the EU in order to respond to on-going migratory challenges, focusing on three major aspects: reforming the common European asylum system (CEAS), strengthening the EU's external borders and reinforcing the EU's external cooperation on migration.

http://www.europeanmigrationlaw.eu/documents/EPRS_EU-Asylum-Borders-ExternalCoop-dev_Sept2018-EN.pdf, sept18

Nieuwsbrief 20, 2018

IOM: veel minder irreguliere migranten naar EU in 2018

Volgens het IOM kwamen sinds het begin van het jaar ongeveer 74.500 migranten Europa binnen via de Middellandse Zee. Dat waren er in dezelfde periode vorig jaar bijna 129.000. 

De drukste landroute voor irreguliere migratie loopt volgens de IOM van Turkije naar Griekenland. De Griekse autoriteiten registreerden sinds het begin van het jaar in totaal 12.166 aankomsten. Vorig jaar waren dat er 'slechts' zo'n 5550. Meer dan 50 procent van degenen die in Griekenland aankomen zijn Syriërs, Irakezen en Afghanen, zegt het VN-agentschap.

https://www.iom.int/news/over-one-fifth-irregular-migrants-europe-coming-land-new-iom-report (14.9.18)

IOM : International Migration, Internal Migration, Mobility and Urbanization: Towards More Integrated Approaches

This new publication explores migration as one of the most problematic of the population variables. While reviewing the various instruments to measure international and internal migration, the research questions the tendency to consider the diverse forms of mobility separately from one another. The publication argues that human mobility is best conceived as a system that integrates internal and international migration within a single framework and that gives due account to tourism and its significant linkages with migration.

Available for PDF download

European Implementation Network (EIN) :  Handbook on implementation of ECtHR Judgments

The handbook is intended as a practical tool for legal practitioners who are following up and advocating on the implementation of ECtHR judgments, in the context of the supervisory process of the Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers.


CEPS : Offshoring Asylum and Migration in Australia, Spain, Tunisia and the US

This report examines the feasibility of extra-territorial processing of asylum and migration management for the EU. Based on a comparative account of past and current experiences of extra-territorialisation of asylum processing and migration policies in Australia, Spain, Tunisia, and the US, the Report draws 'lessons learned' and identifies key challenges from the perspective of their effectiveness.

The findings highlight how external processing of asylum applications is politically, legally and operationally unfeasible and ineffective for the EU. It would pose profound challenges to EU and Member States' rule of law and human rights obligations. Past and current policies outsourcing protection obligations to third countries often amount to extra-legal processes as well as violations of the principle of non-refoulement and of the prohibition of arbitrary detention under inhuman and degrading conditions. The research findings show that extraterritorial actions of the EU and its Member States abroad would fall to varying degrees under EU and domestic judicial, administrative and financial accountabilities which present strong potentials for bringing portable justice to potential victims of human rights violations. In this way, this report contributes to and suggests ways forward in creative legal thinking to close any loopholes inherent to ideas on extraterritorial asylum processing and migration management for the EU.
read more (18.9.18)

FRA :   How the Eurosur Regulation affects fundamental rights (sept18)

In November 2017, the European Commission requested FRA’s support in evaluating the impact on fundamental rights of the European Border Surveillance System (Eurosur) Regulation. Further to this request, FRA reviewed the work of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) and analysed cooperation agreements concluded by EU Member States with third countries which are relevant for the exchange of information for the purposes of Eurosur. This report presents the main findings of such review.

ECRE Policy Note: Taking Liberties: Detention and Asylum Law Reform

This policy Note analyses the changes agreed so far on the reform of the Reception Conditions Directive and the way these reforms will likely lead to an increased use of detention against asylum seekers. As negotiations on the recast Directive reach the final stage, trends towards the restriction and deprivation of liberty for reasons of administrative convenience are emerging in different European countries.

The current form of the proposal equips states with powers to impose general restrictions on asylum seekers’ freedom of movement for reasons of convenience, without taking an individual decision. Restrictions on liberty, imposed for reasons of public order or to prevent individuals from absconding, can in some cases lead to detention if they are not complied with.

Encouraging states to subscribe to general restrictions on asylum seekers’ freedom of movement and to employ the use of punitive detention contravenes standards laid down in human rights law and runs counter to the broader policy objectives of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) such as to ensure the quality of asylum systems and societal inclusion of refugees.

ECRE recommends amendments to the recast Reception Conditions Directive proposal to ensure that restrictions on individuals’ freedom of movement are based on formal, individual decisions that are amenable to judicial control, and to remove the possibility for states to impose detention as punishment for non-compliance with residence restrictions.

ECRE Policy Note: Taking Liberties: Detention and Asylum Law Reform, September 2018

Report: Alternatives to Detention pilot projects in Bulgaria, Cyprus and Poland

These pilot projects provide holistic case management as engagement-based alternatives to confinement-focused migration control measures such as immigration detention. The evaluation provides evidence that engagement-based case management can be effective in helping migrants to work towards resolving their cases in the community: 

  • 97% of migrants participating in the pilot projects stayed to cooperate with case management, including in countries with high overall rates of secondary movement
  • Holistic case management provided in the pilots had a positive impact towards case resolution in 88% of cases
  • Community-based support led to improved coping and well-being for 100% of clients

The report also provides insight into how, practically, a case management pilot project can be set up, and the challenges faced, which can support further pilots for evidence-building.
Detailed results can be found in the evaluation report and the accompanying briefing paper. (sept18)

Nieuwsbrief 19. 2018

Cor Ofman, Zoektocht naar Gastvrijheid

Onlangs nam Cor Ofman afscheid als consulent van de protestantse diaconie Amsterdam. Ter gelegenheid daarvan heeft hij verschillende van zijn ervaringen met de mensen aan de zelfkant van de maatschappij verzameld. Tegelijk schetst hij zijn eigen ontwikkeling, hoe hij is gegroeid naar een meer open en oecumenische geloofshouding. Tussen de ervaringsverhalen door reflecteert Ofman op het thema gastvrijheid, met behulp van diverse denkers uit verschillende bronnen.

Ondanks de heftige problemen waarmee de mensen kampen die Ofman in zijn loopbaan dagelijks ontmoette, is het toch geen loodzwaar verhaal geworden. Daarvoor staan er genoeg mooie en hoopgevende ervaringen in van wat gastvrijheid en openheid op kan leveren.

Cor Ofman, Zoektocht naar gastvrijheid. Heilige plicht of mensenrecht? 

Recommendations about care for children on the move

The context of the last years in Europe highlighted the need to significantly rethink the objectives and approaches of care offered to children and youth on the move. Therefore a conference 'Beyond the emergency: quality care for children and youth on the move across Europe' was held in november last year. Main topics were how care should be provided and what type of care is appropriate given children's differing needs profiles. During the conference, it was identified that there are concrete opportunities to move beyond a 'crisis mode' and to further the approach of alternative models of care embedded in the communities and supporting inclusion on an individualised level which are widely recognised as the most beneficial for all children.
The following two documents aim to capture the concerns and key insights from both providers and receivers of care which were voiced at the conference:

IFO: The Majority of OECD Countries has gained from Immigration

Immigration affects the native population through labour market competition, firms’ job creation and public finances. The new research examines the overall effects of immigration on low-skilled and high-skilled natives in 20 OECD countries. Their analysis accounts for cross-country differences in natives’ and immigrants’ wages and unemployment rates, unemployment benefits and other public spending. 

Battisti, Michele, Gabriel Felbermayr, Giovanni Peri and Panu Poutvaara, "Immigration, Search, and Redistribution: A Quantitative Assessment of Native Welfare", Journal of the European Economic Association, Oxford University Press, aug 2018, InformationDetails

SCP: Verdeeldheid en verbinding. Terugblik op de rol van de civil society bij de komst van vluchtelingen (6.9.18)

Deze publicatie beschrijft de civil society rondom asielzoekers, mensen met een vluchtelingenstatus en uitgeprocedeerde asielzoekers (voortaan: ‘vluchtelingen’). De civil society bestaat uit initiatieven en organisaties die mensen vrijwillig vormen. De vrijwilligersgroepen vormen een breed spectrum waarvan de meest luidruchtige de boventoon voeren. Ze gaan soms in tegen overheidsbeleid. Hierdoor lijkt het alsof groepen met verschillende opvattingen – ‘voor- en tegenstanders’ van vluchtelingen – in gescheiden werelden leven. In werkelijkheid blijken een constructieve dialoog en praktische oplossingen vaak mogelijk, al is er nog meer werk nodig om het te realiseren. Uiteindelijk kan dit leiden tot wederzijds begrip en polarisatie tegengaan.

Het rapport is gebaseerd op 32 interviews met organisaties die het landelijk asiel- en integratiebeleid beïnvloeden, burgerinitiatieven die de sociale netwerken van vluchtelingen in Utrecht versterken en groepen die zich verzetten tegen de komst van asielopvang in de Utrechtse wijk Overvecht.

UNHCR Report ‘Desperate Journeys’ – the situation of refugees and migrants arriving in Europe

The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) has published its updated report on the situation of people trying to reach safety in Europe via the Mediterranean. The Desperate Journeys report finds that the crossing has become even more deadly; the total number of people arriving in Europe has fallen yet the death rate has risen sharply. More than 1600 people have died or gone missing trying to reach Europe this year.

Between January and June 2018, Greece received the most arrivals or refugees, with 22,000 people recorded crossing both land and sea. By July Spain had become the primary entry point to Europe with 27,600 arrivals. In Spain and Greece, the numbers of arrivals have increased in comparison to the same time frame in 2017, however in Italy they have fallen. In total this has meant a 41% decrease in people reaching Europe via these three countries.

While the numbers of crossings have decreased, the death rate of those crossing has increased. One in every 18 persons who tried to reach Europe via the Central Mediterranean route between January and July has died or gone missing. UNHCR report that the high number of deaths is due to the decreased capacity of NGOs to operate search and rescue missions at sea since 2017. Rather rescues and interventions have been carried out primarily by two Libyan Coast Guard Patrol Vessels, further from shore. This has forced refugees and migrants to remain on unsafe vessels for longer periods and cover longer distances with fewer actors to assist in the event of a capsize.

UNHCR: Desperate Journeys; Refugees and migrants arriving in Europe and at Europe’s borders January – August 2018, sept18

UNHCR Guidelines voor uitzettingen naar Afghanistan, sept18

UNHCR: Position on Returns to Libya

It urges all States to suspend forcible returns to Libya until the security and human rights situation has improved sufficiently, and determines that internal flight or relocation should not be considered an alternative while the relevance and reasonableness criteria are not being met.

EASO Country of Origin Information report : Chechens in Russia

The topics include, among others, detailed information on regional demographics, as well as legal requirements and procedures for entry and residence credentials in the respective areas. The report covers the situation of housing, education, work and healthcare, both analysing the general access standards in Russia, and specifically addressing issues of access to each area for Chechens. The report also offers a wide analysis on the specific needs and issues relating to particular social groups, including women, LGBTI+ persons, children, and Chechen returnees.


Expert opinion: legality of revocation of Dutch nationality of dual nationals

This expert opinion concerns cases of revocation of Dutch nationality of dual nationals (allegedly) involved in terrorist organizations. In some of these cases Dutch nationality is revoked on the basis of a final conviction for a terrorism-related crime. Other cases concern the revocation of Dutch nationality of so-called ‘jihadists’ who travelled to Syria, in the interests of national security. These two types of revocation are based on two different provisions in the Dutch Nationality Act. The revocation of Dutch nationality of dual nationals raises important legal questions, which are addressed in this expert opinion.

This expert opinion first explains the concept of nationality and its importance. It will argue that the Dutch legislation, which allows for the revocation of Dutch nationality of dual nationals, leads to unequal treatment of mono- and dual nationals, in particular Dutch-Moroccan nationals. It is contended that there are strong indications that Dutch legislation is directly discriminating on grounds of nationality and that no convincing justification for this has been brought forward by the Dutch Government. Moreover it is argued that the question whether a person’s conduct is seriously prejudicial to the vital interests of the state should be answered on an individual basis. Even if a person’s conduct fulfils this criterion, the proportionality of the revocation of nationality should be assessed.

https://migrationlawclinic.org/2018/09/07/the-legality-of-revocation-of-dutch-nationality-of-dual-nationals-involved-in-terrorist-organizations/, 7.9.18

Werkinstructie 2018/11: toets 8EVRM

De toets aan artikel 8 EVRM is een afweging van alle aangevoerde omstandigheden van het individuele geval. Het individuele geval verschilt van casus tot casus en daarmee ook het gewicht van de aangevoerde omstandigheden nu deze in onderling verband wordt bepaald. Deze werkinstructie is daarom geen beleidsdocument. Het bevat geen harde regels die altijd op dezelfde manier moeten worden toegepast, maar het geeft handvatten voor de invulling van de belangenafweging.

De werkinstructie is niet opgesteld met het doel om alle mogelijke casusposities te ondervangen. Het is een basisdocument dat je helpt om je belangenafweging op te zetten. Hier en daar wordt het begin van een richting gegeven, maar het zal altijd afhankelijk zijn van het concrete geval hoe deze omstandigheden zich tot elkaar verhouden en welk gewicht aan die omstandigheden toekomt.

In deze instructie geldt als algemeen uitgangspunt dat het aan de vreemdeling of zijn familie- en gezinsleden is om op geobjectiveerde wijze aan te tonen dat sprake is van het gestelde gezins- of familieleven en dat aan de voorwaarden voor verblijf op grond van 8 EVRM wordt voldaan.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2018-11.pdf, 24.8.18

EU: Schengen searches to be extended

Persons listed in the Schengen Information System may, inter alia, be observed or searched by the police. The numbers of these Article 36 alerts are increasing rapidly and are now being explained for the first time in detail. A new category "inquiry check" is planned in the new regulation for the police database.

Joost Jan den Otter, Boris Drožđek e.a.: Special Situations: Places of Immigration Detention

The detention of migrants and asylum seekers has become a common practice in both developing and high-economy regions. The fact of detention but also the conditions of detention are the subject of much criticism. They have been shown to frequently violate international human rights standards and to have an adverse impact on the psychological health and, later, the integration of migrants. In this chapter the authors outline standards and risks, based on research data and a case example, but also alternatives to detention as outlined by UNHCR.

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-72914-5_12, juli 2018

Khaled Hosseini - Bede aan de zee

Op een maanverlicht strand houdt een vader zijn slapende zoon vast terwijl ze wachten op een boot. Hij vertelt de jongen over de lange zomers van zijn jeugd, hij herinnert zich zijn opa's huis in Syrië, het geritsel van de olijfbomen in de wind, het gemekker van de geit van zijn oma, het gerinkel van haar pannen. En hij herinnert zich de bruisende Oude Stad van Homs, de drukke steegjes, de moskee en de grote soek, de tijd dat de hemel nog geen bommen spuugde en ze moesten vluchten. 
Als de zon opkomt, verzamelen zij en de andere mensen hun spullen en gaan ze een gevaarlijke reis tegemoet, op zoek naar een veilige plek om te leven.

https://www.bol.com/nl/p/bede-aan-de-zee/9200000095471538/ (aug18)

Nieuwsbrief 18. 2018

Jasper Rietman: Exodus (mei18)

Exodus is de verbeelding van een archetypische uittocht van een groepje mensen op de vlucht voor oorlog en vervolging. Een kijkboek op de grens van illustratie en strip waarin actuele thema's op subtiele wijze overgaan in een toekomstvisioen. De zesenveertig naadloos op elkaar aansluitende illustraties vormen samen een grote panoramatekening van bijna veertien meter.

EMN: jaaroverzichten migratie NL en EU 2017

Deze rapporten geven inzicht in de belangrijkste beleidsontwikkelingen voor migratie en asiel in Nederland en de Europese Unie (EU). Zo pasten in 2017 vrijwel alle lidstaten hun opvangcapaciteit voor asielzoekers aan, stimuleerden lidstaten effectieve terugkeer, werd de kwaliteit van integratie verbeterd en het beleid voor gezinshereniging versoepeld.

Syntheserapport ‘Annual report on Migration and Asylum 2017’: Dit  rapport geeft een overzicht van de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen in migratie- en asielbeleid in de EU-lidstaten in 2017.

 ‘Jaaroverzicht 2017 over migratie en asiel in Nederland’: dit jaaroverzicht beschrijft de ontwikkelingen in het Nederlandse migratie- en asielbeleid in 2017. Beschikbaar in Nederlands en Engels.

EMN 10 Year Anniversary Report ‘Understanding Migration in the European Union. Insights from the European Migration Network 2008-2018’: de belangrijkste trends in migratie- en asielbeleid van de afgelopen tien jaar in de EU.

Family Matters: A Study into the Factors Hampering Voluntary Return of Migrants Residing at Family Locations (24.8.18)

Following the Dutch High Court ruling in the Ferreira case in 2012, the Government of the Netherlands organizes the housing of migrant families whose asylum application has been rejected (and consequently obliged to leave the Netherlands) in designated family locations, until the youngest child has reached the age of 18. In that same year, the Government of the Netherlands introduced the Mauro law or Rooting law, followed by a child amnesty provision in 2013, legalizing a group of asylum children (and household) based on the rooting principle. Despite these developments, which intended to make a clear distinction between the right to stay and the obligation to leave, the return figure of migrant families in the family locations is relatively low.

This study provides insight into the decision-making process of migrant families in these family locations, whose legal remedies in most cases have been exhausted, but nevertheless decide not to return.

Ambtsbericht Ethiopie, 2.7.18

ECRE Policy Note: Voluntary Departure and Return: Between a Rock and a Hard Place, 24.8.18

ECRE argues that three pre-requisites must be in place for fair return procedures: fair and consistent asylum systems that properly assess whether a person is entitled to international protection; fair and humane return procedures; and fair and transparent relations with third countries based on international human rights law and standards. ECRE also argues that the effectiveness of return should not be measured only by the numbers of those returned but should also take into account their situation on return. Even with the pressure to increase returns, most stakeholders agree that voluntary return is preferable to forced return. This Policy Note examines expanding practices in the grey area between forced and voluntary return, including “voluntary departure” and “assisted voluntary return” (AVR), which are political priorities for the EU.
Based on the analysis ECRE recommendations include: voluntary departure and supporting assisted return programmes open up to the moment of return, and for as wide a group as possible. Extension of the thirty-day period of voluntary departure, rather than reduction of it. Member States to refrain from setting additional legal requirements which may prevent third country nationals from choosing a more humane form of return. Independent information, counselling and support to potential returnees and their families and dignified alternative solutions in the form of a status that provides basic socio-economic rights for those who cannot return. 

Nieuwsbrief 17, 2018

Lizebeth Melse: ‘I do not know where the wind will blow me’ - A research on the changing lives and survival strategies of aging long-term undocumented migrants in the Netherlands. (juli18)

This thesis explores the most important changes that have taken place in particular areas of life of long-term undocumented migrants in The Netherlands and how these changes interfere with their survival strategies. Further, it elaborates on how these changes influence their ideas about the future. The areas of life that are examined are housing, income, support networks, mental and physical health, the role of criminality and detention and possible future scenarios.

Findings are based on qualitative research; 20 semi-structured in-depth interviews are held with undocumented migrants who are here for more than 15 years and who are 50 years or older and the data are analyzed using an abductive analytical approach. The data show that long-term aging undocumented migrants are facing difficulties in all explored areas of life and that these difficulties have emerged and increased during the course of 15-30 years. People have found multiple ways to make ends meet, but the many years that they constantly had to adapt their survival strategies have taken their toll and there have been periods that people have lived or still live in dire circumstances.

The option to return to their country of origin seems far away, but a majority sees their lives in the Netherlands as hopeless too: they find themselves in a stalemate position.

Glenn Oostveen: Een langdurig ongedocumenteerd bestaan: leven versus beleid

In deze thesis is specifiek aandacht voor de groep ongedocumenteerden die een langere tijd in Nederland verblijft. Middels een analyse van gesprekken met twaalf onrechtmatig in Nederland verblijvende migranten zijn er verklaringen gezocht voor de vraag waarom langdurig ongedocumenteerden, die langer dan zeventien jaar in Nederland verblijven, nog niet zijn gelegaliseerd.

Dit werd gedaan aan de hand van drie hypothesen, namelijk (1) de ongedocumenteerden waren bewust van de legalisatieregeling, maar voldeden niet aan de eisen die door de overheid werden gesteld; (2) de ongedocumenteerden hebben geen gebruik gemaakt van de legalisatieregelingen, omdat zij dit niet noodzakelijk achtten; (3) de ongedocumenteerden zijn niet gelegaliseerd, omdat zij niet of te laat op de hoogte waren van de legalisatieregeling. Daarbij wordt onderzocht wat de consequenties zijn van het langdurig onrechtmatig verblijf in Nederland.

De gesprekken vonden allen plaats bij het Wereldhuis, een project dat zich inzet voor ongedocumenteerden op het gebied van informatie en begeleider, maar het organiseert ook cursussen en culturele activiteiten.


Bekereeks: Links-extremisme in beeld, Een verkennend onderzoek naar links-extremistische groeperingen in Nederland

Links-extremisme is al langere tijd een aandachtspunt van de Nederlandse overheid. Hoewel het NCTV en de AIVD periodiek rapporteren over dit onderwerp, dateert het laatste wetenschappelijke onderzoek uit 2010. In opdracht van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid is een verkennend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar links-extremistische groeperingen in Nederland.

Op basis van uiteenlopende onderzoeksactiviteiten (hoofdzakelijk openbronnenonderzoek, interviews en observaties) wordt een beeld gegeven van de thema’s waarop links-extremistische groeperingen zich momenteel in Nederland profileren, in hoeverre deze de afgelopen jaren buiten de wet hebben geopereerd en wat hun modus operandi zijn.

De onderzoeksbevindingen laten zien dat op een aantal vlakken sprake is van kennislacunes. De resultaten kunnen worden benut voor het vormgeven aan en invullen van toekomstig beleid in relatie tot links-extremisme.

https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/blg-851338.pdf, juni18

Nieuwsbrief 16, 2018

Dokters van de Wereld: De Deur naar Zorg. Het recht op gezondheid en zorg voor ongedocumenteerde migranten

Het rapport geeft een overzicht van het Nederlandse beleid rond zorg aan ongedocumenteerde mensen en de gevolgen hiervan in de praktijk, zich afspelend in een mondiale context van toenemende migratie en internationale mensenrechtelijke verplichtingen, en in de Nederlandse context van een duurder wordende en soms overbelaste gezondheidszorg en het immigratiedebat. Het is geschreven vanuit een mensenrechtenperspectief, waarbij het recht op gezondheid niet alleen tijdige toegang tot passende gezondheidszorg inhoudt, maar ook recht op de onderliggende determinanten van gezondheid. Aan de hand van de bevindingen en beschouwingen hierover, roept Dokters van de Wereld op tot het waarborgen van een adequate levensstandaard en (financiële) toegang tot medisch noodzakelijke zorg, het beter toerusten van zorgverleners, het verbeteren van informatievoorziening aan ongedocumenteerden, en structurele verandering van het huidige systeem van vreemdelingendetentie.

Het rapport is gebaseerd op data verkregen van cliënten en medewerkers van Dokters van de Wereld, met name in Amsterdam en Den Haag, en in Rotterdam.

https://doktersvandewereld.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Dokter-van-de-Wereld-Hoofdrapport_Zorgrecht-2018.pdf, juli 2018

ECHR: Guide on article 2 - right to life

The European Court of Human Rights has published a new Guide on Article 2 ECHR (right to life), as part of the series of guides aimed at informing legal practitioners about the fundamental judgments and decisions delivered by the ECtHR. The guide includes general considerations on Article 2 ECHR, information on the standards for the protection of life, prohibition of intentional deprivation of life (including the use of force by State agents), and procedural obligations (such as with regard to the investigation of Article 2 ECHR violations).

The Open Society Justice Initiative, Namati and UNHCR : Community-Based Practitioner’s Guide on Documenting Citizenship and Other Forms of Legal Identity. (juni18)

Ensuring that every individual is recognized as belonging and can access the documents to prove their legal status is important and multifaceted work. Governments with political will to do so can end the legal and administrative causes of statelessness and lack of documentation, but positive legislative and policy reform, modernized civil registries, and other high-level initiatives often do not alone improve access to documentation for those who need it. Effective access depends on the education, awareness, and initiative of individuals in navigating legal identity documentation processes and claiming their own rights. Knowledgeable support can make an enormous difference in the lives of individuals. This guide is designed to support community-based efforts that will complement the high-level initiatives described above. Its focus is legal empowerment through a community-based approach. The advice and resources provided will also be relevant for other models of communitybased and grassroots justice services. The guide itself incorporates the experiences of a wide variety of different models of grassroots justice services. (For more, see A Note on the Preparation of this Guide.)

IND-Webinar : zoekjaar naar werk na studievisum

Zie: https://channel.royalcast.com/studyinholland/#!/studyinholland/20180710_1 . Deze staat ook op ind.nl onder study/looking for a job after study. Daar is ook een splinternieuw instructiefilmpje voor de online aanvraag.

Meldpunt Vreemdelingendetentie: Onderzoek naar onuitzetbaarheid en herhaalde detentie

Al decennia lang vindt er bestuursrechtelijke detentie plaats om migranten die onrechtmatig in Nederland verblijven uit te zetten. Hoewel vreemdelingendetentie bedoeld is om ongewenste migranten uit te zetten, blijkt dat niet iedere gedetineerde migrant ook daadwerkelijk uitgezet wordt. Soms wordt een migrant vrijgelaten en later opnieuw weer vastgezet in vreemdelingendetentie. Dit betekent dat de uitzetting bij de eerste detentie niet is gelukt en dat er opnieuw wordt geprobeerd om de migrant uit te zetten bij een volgende detentie. Zo belanden deze migranten in een vicieuze cirkel van detineren en illegaal verblijf. In dit onderzoek wordt belicht hoe migranten die met herhaalde vreemdelingendetentie te maken hebben dit probleem ervaren.

Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd door Ruben Timmerman voor zijn master Criminologie aan de Utrecht Universiteit. Het resultaat is een eind scriptie met belangrijke conclusies. Het Meldpunt Vreemdelingendetentie maakt zich grote zorgen om de vreemdelingen die herhaald gedetineerd worden, met name wanneer de cumulatieve duur van 18 maanden overschreden wordt.

Lees de volledige scriptie (in het Engels) hier.

Meldpunt Vreemdelingendetentie: Rapport Straf-  en ordemaatregelen

Afgelopen jaar heeft Poonam Bharatsingh bij het Meldpunt Vreemdelingendetentie een onderzoek gedaan naar straf- en ordemaatregelen die zijn opgelegd in de periode 2012 tot en met juni 2017 in de drie vreemdelingendetentiecentra die Nederland kent. Uit de resultaten van dit onderzoek komt onder andere naar voren dat er vanaf 2012 een stijgende trend is met betrekking tot de kans op straf- en ordemaatregelen in detentiecentrum Rotterdam. In detentiecentrum Zeist vindt er een afname plaats van de kans op straf- en ordemaatregelen. In detentiecentrum Schiphol heeft er sinds 2012 fluctuatie plaatsgevonden in deze kans.

Het Meldpunt Vreemdelingendetentie maakt zich zorgen over de toename van de kans op straf- en ordemaatregelen en betreurt dat in het wetsvoorstel Terugkeer en Vreemdelingenbewaring een ruime mogelijkheid voor straf- en ordemaatregelen blijft bestaan. Het Meldpunt pleit voor de afschaffing van strafmaatregelen in vreemdelingendetentie en de beperking van ordemaatregelen tot enkel strikt noodzakelijk en voldoende gemotiveerd.
Het rapport vindt u hier.

Nieuwsbrief 15, 2018

UN: tekst Global Compact for Migration vastgesteld

The Global Compact is the culmination of thematic discussions and consultations among Member States and such actors as local officials, civil society representatives and migrants themselves. The agreement now forms a basis to improve governance and international understanding of migration, to address the challenges associated with migration today, and to strengthen the contribution of migrants and migration to sustainable development.

The agreement will be formally adopted by Member States at the Intergovernmental Conference to Adopt the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, which will be held in Marrakesh, Morocco, on 10 and 11 December 2018.

Final Draft Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, 13.7.18

MEDAM : Flexible Solidarity: A comprehensive strategy for asylum and immigration in the EU

The report provides a comprehensive strategy for EU asylum and immigration policies that is both politically feasible and effective, based on the concept of flexible solidarity between EU member states.

Show PDF preview, 15.6.18


Thematisch ambtsbericht Veiligheidssituatie in Syrië van juni 2018, 6.7.18
Algemeen ambtsbericht Nigeria juni 2018, 9.7.18

EASO practical guide: Qualification for international protection, apr18

The purpose of this practical guide is to assist in examining each application for international protection individually, objectively and impartially, and applying the same legal criteria and common standards when determining who qualifies for international protection. It aims to serve as a practical tool accompanying case officers across the European Union and beyond in their daily work.

This guide focuses on who qualifies for international protection, referring to both refugee status and subsidiary protection. The term ‘qualification’ is preferred for consistency with the terminology used in the qualification directive. It is understood as being equivalent to terms such as ‘eligibility’ and ‘inclusion’, used in other relevant European Asylum Support Office (EASO) products.

This Practical Guide is supplemented by a Poster with a flowchart of the qualification process aiming to support the practitioners in their everyday work. 

The document will be translated into 22 EU languages.

AIDA briefing: Withdrawal of reception conditions of asylum seekers

This AIDA-briefing identifies circumstances in which the intention to restrict the possibility of ‘abuse’ of the asylum system can take precedence over the need to ensure an “adequate” or “dignified” standard of living for all applicants throughout the status determination process. The withdrawal of reception conditions as punishment of violations of reception centre house rules remains a contested measure, and one that will likely be clarified by the Court of Justice of the European Union following a recent preliminary reference.

An assessment of the risk that individuals will face destitution should their reception conditions be reduced or withdrawn is not applied in practice across many national systems. The result is a situation in which reception conditions can be withdrawn arbitrarily or as a punitive measure, which in many cases may lead to asylum seekers facing destitution and unable to access the basic requirements that they need to live at subsistence level.
Legal Briefing

EMN-Inform Safe Countries of Origin

Een aantal belangrijke punten die opvallen in de vergelijking van het Nederlandse beleid met de andere EU lidstaten: 

  • Met 32 landen (buiten de EU) heeft Nederland de meeste landen op de nationale lijst staan, gevolgd door het Verenigd Koninkrijk (24 landen) en Oostenrijk (20 landen).
  • Nederland heeft, net als bijna alle andere lidstaten ook, de Westelijke Balkanlanden als veilig aangewezen. Sommige landen die op de Nederlandse lijst staan, zijn echter op weinig lijsten van andere lidstaten te vinden, zoals Algerije, Jamaica, Marokko, Senegal, Tunesië en Oekraïne.
  • Nederland is samen met Finland het enige land dat asielzoekers met een Dublin-indicatie uit bepaalde veilige landen niet aan een andere lidstaat overdraagt, maar de aanvraag in de nationale asielprocedure afhandelt. 
  • Wat betreft terugkeer is Nederland een van de weinige lidstaten die een verkorte vertrektermijn toepast en een strenger beleid voor het opleggen van inreisverboden hanteert bij afgewezen asielzoekers uit veilige landen. 
  • Nederland is de enige lidstaat die heeft gerapporteerd dat in de laatste 2 jaar de terugkeer- en herintegratieondersteuning voor personen uit bepaalde veilige landen is gereduceerd.

Kamerstuk 19637 nr. 2413, 26.6.18

Monitor inburgering buitenland

Met oa aantallen en slagingspercentages per nationaliteit

https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/blg-847748.pdf, 28.3.18

ECAS: Freedom of Movement in the EU: A Look Behind the Curtain

Although freedom of movement in the EU has come a long way and EU citizens generally move and reside freely in the EU, obstacles still remain. EU nationals with non-EU family members often see their family members’ entry rights not being respected. Moreover, EU nationals wishing to settle in another EU country are not always able to obtain a residence document easily. Those without a long term work contract are more likely to face difficulties. Residence documents are still often made a prerequisite to completing administrative formalities and accessing public and private services. More needs to be done at EU and national level in order to achieve true freedom of movement in the EU.

http://ecas.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/ECAS-Long-report-final.pdf, 28.3.18

Nieuwsbrief 14, 2018


De geschriften van jodendom, christendom en islam benadrukken de heilige plicht tot het verlenen van gastvrijheid, juist in situaties waarin die door de heersende macht wordt geweigerd. ‘Heb de vreemdeling lief’, is de klemmende oproep als de spanning oploopt.

In dit boek beschrijft Cor Ofman hoe droom en daad soms botsen. Aan de hand van zijn eigen ervaringen als pastor en hulpverlener voor afgewezen asielzoekers en migranten verkent hij de heilige boeken en de opvattingen van theologen, filosofen, sociologen en beleidsmakers. ‘Een vreemdeling is de vriend die je nog niet eerder hebt ontmoet’, noteert hij. Maar als hulpverlener loopt hij ook tegen grenzen aan. Als individu kun je niet iedereen helpen, maar kun je je met anderen wel sterk maken voor universele mensenrechten waaraan overheden gehouden dienen te worden.


DCI : “Je ziet me niet, maar ik ben er wel”

In 2017 verdwenen 130 kinderen uit de vrijheidsbeperkende gezinslocatie van het Centraal Orgaan opvang asielzoekers (hierna het COA). De landen van herkomst zijn divers; Afghanistan, Armenië, Nigeria, Irak en Servië voeren de top 5 van herkomstlanden aan. De gezinnen verdwijnen vaak uit angst voor uitzetting naar het land van herkomst of omdat het oudste kind de leeftijd van achttien jaar bereikt. Omdat de kinderen recht hebben op opvang in de vrijheidsbeperkende locatie hebben ze geen recht op opvang in de gemeente. Ook kunnen zij geen gebruik maken van de bed-bad-brood-regeling die er voor volwassenen is ingericht die nog niet zijn teruggekeerd naar hun land van herkomst.

De Kinderrechtenhelpdesk van Defence for Children vroeg zich af hoe het met de kinderen gaat.

https://www.defenceforchildren.nl/media/2544/20180608_quickscan-_kinderen-in-armoede_a5_web.pdf, 12.6.18

Hippolyte d’Albis, Ekrame Boubtane, and Dramane Coulibaly: Macroeconomic evidence suggests that asylum seekers are not a “burden” for Western European countries

Vluchtelingen verslechteren de economie van een land niet. Vooral de werkloosheid gaat na de toevoer van asielzoekers opvallend omlaag. En als de asielzoekers zich permanent vestigen, wordt hun macro-economische invloed positief, blijkt uit deze studie.

http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/6/eaaq0883, 20.6.18

Note European Commission - Managing Migration in all its aspects

This note, presented before the European Council on Migration, provides an overview of the work over the past 3 years on the European Agenda on Migration.

The note also looks forward and points to areas Leaders can focus on to take the very necessary debate on migration forward. The Commission believes there are several areas where the EU and its Member States can make significant progress – areas in which we are far more united than we are divided, and where coordinated European action can make a world of difference.

Commission Note ahead of the June European Council 2018 (2.02 Mo), 20.6.18

Sargentini: Migratie, het eerlijke verhaal

Sinds de start van de migratiecrisis in 2015 is het beleid van de EU om de oorzaken van migratie bij de wortels aan te pakken in de praktijk vooral gericht om migratie richting de EU tegen te gaan, onder andere door grenswachten te versterken. De ontwikkeling van de regio komt hierdoor onder druk, omdat deze activiteiten worden gefinancierd uit ontwikkelingsgeld. 

Goed bestuur en meer democratie spelen een belangrijke rol bij migratie-overwegingen, tegelijk leidt meer economische ontwikkeling tot meer migratie op de korte termijn. Er zijn vormen van reguliere migratie noodzakelijk, constateren Sargentin en Staes. Dit heeft een remmende werking op irreguliere migratie en biedt de EU ook de kans de voordelen van migratie te plukken.

Sargentini wil dat regeringsleiders werken aan het ontwikkelen van partnerlanden, met name ook door beleid coherent te maken en reguliere routes en partnerschapen op het gebied van terugkeer te creëren. 

Rapport: Migratie het eerlijke verhaal, 20.6.18

WRR: Regie over migratie: Naar een strategische agenda

Deze bundel heeft tot doel het beleidsdebat over de regulering van migratie te stimuleren. Het kader ervoor wordt gevormd door het WRR-project ‘Migratiediversiteit’, waarin de WRR onderzoekt hoe (de)centrale overheden kunnen omgaan met de toegenomen migratiediversiteit. In de bijdragen aan deze bundel staat de vraag centraal of het huidige migratiebeleid aanpassing behoeft in het licht van die hedendaagse migratiebewegingen.

Kern van de bundel vormen twee essays waarin prof. dr. Leo Lucassen (UL) en prof. dr. Paul Scheffer (UvA/TiU) op uitnodiging van de WRR elk hun kijk geven op de toekomst van het migratiebeleid. Daarbij bouwen ze voort op hun eigen werk over dit thema. Aan het eind geeft prof. dr. Ernst Hirsch Ballin (WRR en TiU/UvA) een reactie op de twee essays en gaat hij in op de mogelijkheden voor toekomstig nationaal en Europees migratiebeleid

https://www.wrr.nl/binaries/wrr/documenten/publicaties/2018/06/19/regie-over-migratie-naar-een-strategische-agenda/Hollands+Spoor+Debat+2018+Regie+over+migratie.pdf, 19.6.18

Commissie Meijers : brief ter voorbereiding van de Migratietop

Democratie, rechtsstaat en respect voor mensenrechten gelden als kernwaarden van de Europese Unie. Het respect voor deze waarden is naar mening van de Commissie Meijers een conditio sine qua non voor succesvolle samenwerking op het gebied van justitie en veiligheid en het uitbouwen van een Veiligheidsunie. De Commissie Meijers wenst dan ook haar zorg uit te spreken over de uitholling van de rechtsstaat in een aantal lidstaten en de gevolgen die dit met zich meebrengt voor de rechtsbescherming van de Europese burgers, alsmede de samenwerking op het gebied van justitie en binnenlandse zaken.

https://www.commissie-meijers.nl/sites/all/files/cm1808_brief_over_de_jbz_raad_12-13_juli.pdf, 29.6.18

HRW : Towards an Effective and Principled EU Migration Policy

The focus of EU policy over the past three years has been on preventing arrivals, outsourcing responsibility to countries outside the EU, and downgrading refugee protection inside the EU.

These policy responses to migration and asylum pose serious human rights concerns and threaten the integrity of the international refugee protection system. A different approach is possible and necessary. The paper presents Human Rights Watch’s recommendations towards an effective and principled approach that ensures EU global leadership on refugee protection, preserves the right to asylum, more equitably shares responsibility among EU member states, safeguards the rights of all migrants and allows EU governments to control their borders.

Document de HRW sur la politique migratoire de l'UE (PDF en anglais), 18.6.18

CEPS: Flexible Solidarity: A comprehensive strategy for asylum and immigration in the EU

The report provides a comprehensive strategy for EU asylum and immigration policies that is both politically feasible and effective, based on the concept of flexible solidarity between EU member states.

The various challenges faced by the EU are interconnected, requiring a comprehensive approach and the support of all member states. Policy instruments such as agreements with third countries of origin on development assistance, readmission and legal migration opportunities are more effectively negotiated by the European Commission than by individual member state governments. At the same time, however, member states are affected by immigration in very different ways, and the political preferences of policymakers and voters also differ considerably from one member state to another. Yet even countries that now refuse to take in refugees will soon require labour migrants from third countries, if they do not already do so, to sustain their economic growth. They may consider opening up alternative channels for migrants, including refugees, through employment opportunities, student visas and family reunification.

https://www.ceps.eu/publications/flexible-solidarity-comprehensive-strategy-asylum-and-immigration-eu#, 15.6.18

CEPS : We’re in this boat together Time for a Migration Union

In the run-up to the European Council meeting of June 28th and 29th and looking ahead to the EU inter-institutional renewal slated to take place in mid-2019, this Policy Insight puts forward three main courses of action for a common EU policy approach on asylum and search and rescue (SAR) addressing the double gap in solidarity afflicting EU asylum policy. Given the likelihood that many of these issues will remain unresolved, it also constitutes an early contribution towards future reflections on policy priorities on asylum for the new European Commission and the EU inter-institutional setting, which will emerge in mid-2019.

The debate should move from ‘asylum quotas’ towards building an intra-EU institutional solidarity framework covering both asylum and SAR operations. A new EU Asylum Agency should be formed and tasked with implementing a permanent distribution model of asylum responsibility, according to a distribution key and the supervision and support of all EU member states’ reception systems. This initiative should be coupled with a reinforced role for the European Border and Coast Guard (Frontex) on SAR in the Mediterranean.

The practice of ‘offshoring’ asylum and SAR responsibilities to African countries presents deep challenges in terms of its practical feasibility as well as its respect for the rule of law. To return rescued people to unsafe environments, with the risk of arbitrary and inhumane detention, would incur liability for grave human rights violations before international and European instances. Such actions fall far short of securing a stable, long-term asylum policy and they make the EU highly vulnerable to and dependent on third countries.

Any way forward for the EU must be anchored in a solid EU institutional response to asylum and SAR, which would be accompanied by robust financial support from the Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF). The goal should be to establish a common European Border and Asylum Service (EBAS), bringing together under the same roof the responsibilities currently borne by Frontex and the European Asylum Support Office (EASO), thereby creating a fully-fledged EU civil service on asylum.

https://www.ceps.eu/system/files/SCandKL_PI2018_09_MigrationUnion.pdf, 22.6.18

EASO Annual Report on the Situation of Asylum in the European Union

In 2017, there were 728,470 applications for international protection in the EU. This represents a decrease of 44% compared to 2016, when there were almost 1.3 million applications.

https://www.easo.europa.eu/sites/default/files/Annual-Report-2017-Final.pdf, 18.6.18

UNHCR: Global Trends Survey 2017

The UN Refugee Agency’s annual Global Trends survey found 68.5 million people had been driven from their homes across the world at the end of 2017, more people than the population of Thailand.

Refugees who have fled their countries to escape conflict and persecution accounted for 25.4 million. This is 2.9 million more than in 2016, also the biggest increase UNHCR has ever seen in a single year.

New displacement is also growing, with 16.2 million people displaced during 2017 itself, either for the first time or repeatedly. That is an average of one person displaced every two seconds. And overwhelmingly, it is developing countries that are most affected.

UNHCR - Global Trends - 2017 - Full Report (6.39 Mo)

IND: aantallen behandelde asielverzoeken 2018 (t/m maart)

In 2018 (januari t/m maart) werd ongeveer 39% van de eerste asielaanvragen afgewezen op grond van de Dublinverordening. Van de ongeveer 3.840 behandelde eerste asielaanvragen is ongeveer 2.890 afgewezen. Hiervan zijn ongeveer 1.520 asielaanvragen op grond van Dublin afgewezen. (Bron: Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie, afgerond op tientallen). Dit betekent dat 41% van de niet-Dublin-beoordelingen een status kreeg.


MvJ&V: Handreiking Uitwisseling medische informatie in de vreemdelingenketen

Vreemdelingen hebben recht op goede medische begeleiding en behandeling. Voor die goede begeleiding en behandeling is het uitwisselen van medische gegevens belangrijk. Die uitwisseling wordt echter begrensd door het medisch beroepsgeheim en de privacywetgeving. Bovendien zijn er bijna altijd meerdere instanties en zorgverleners betrokken bij de medische zorg voor vreemdelingen. Het delen van medische of gezondheidsinformatie is noodzakelijk voor continuïteit van de zorg en voor een veilig en zorgvuldig terugkeerproces van vreemdelingen.

https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/binaries/rijksoverheid/documenten/brochures/2016/05/01/handreiking-uitwisseling-medische-informatie-in-de-vreemdelingenketen/handreiking-uitwisseling-medische-informatie-mei-2018.pdf, mei18

Eritrea Ambtsbericht, juni18

COC: Trots of Schaamte?

De Immigratie- en Naturalisatiedienst (IND) hanteert vaste criteria om te beoordelen of mensen, die naar Nederland vluchten uit vrees voor vervolging wegens hun seksuele identiteit, LHBTI zijn. Het belangrijkste criterium, zo blijkt uit het dossieronderzoek dat het COC de afgelopen 2 jaar uitvoerde bij de IND, is of de asielzoeker een zogenaamd ‘proces van bewustwording en zelfacceptatie’ van de seksuele identiteit heeft doorgemaakt.

Onderzoeker mr. Sabine Jansen concludeert dat dit een ondeugdelijk stereotype is zonder wetenschappelijke onderbouwing. Veel LHBTI-asielzoekers voldoen niet aan het stereotiepe beeld: ze hebben nooit een ‘proces van bewustwording en zelfacceptatie’ doorgemaakt, begrijpen niet wat er mee bedoeld wordt en/of kunnen er niet gedetailleerd over vertellen.

LHBTI-asielzoekers lopen een fors risico dat hun asielverzoek wordt afgewezen als ze een dergelijk proces niet hebben doorgemaakt en dus niet voldoen aan het criterium, zo blijkt uit het rapport. De IND wijst in totaal ruim een derde (37%) van de onderzochte LHBTI-asielverzoeken af. In bijna alle gevallen (85%) is dat omdat niet geloofd wordt dat ze LHBTI zijn.

In een brief roept het COC staatssecretaris Harbers op om het ‘proces van bewustwording en zelfacceptatie’ te schrappen als belangrijkste criterium bij het beoordelen van LHBTI-asielverzoeken. Zelfidentificatie zou centraal moeten komen te staan: wat zegt de asielzoeker zelf over haar of zijn seksuele identiteit?

http://www.coc.nl/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Trots-of-Schaamte-rapport-LHBTI-asielbeleid-van-Sabine-Jansen-voor-COC-NL-juni-2018-definitieve-versie.pdf, 23.6.18

Carla van Os: Best Interests of the Child-Assessments for recently arrived refugee children. Behavioural and children’s rights perspectives on decision-making in migration law

Een systematische literatuurstudie naar inhoudelijke aspecten die nodig zijn voor het BIC-Assessment met gevluchte kinderen heeft ertoe geleid dat twee instrumenten aan het bestaande BIC-Assessment worden toegevoegd. Daarmee kunnen stressvolle levensgebeurtenissen en trauma-gerelateerde stressklachten in kaart worden gebracht.

Het delen van hun levensverhaal is lastig door verschillende barrières. Daarover is een tweede systematisch literatuurstudie uitgevoerd. Gevluchte kinderen kunnen worden ondersteund bij het vertellen van hun levensverhaal met een respectvolle en positieve attitude van interviewers, die voldoende tijd uittrekken om vertrouwen op te bouwen.

Naar aanleiding van de literatuurstudies is een conceptversie van het aangepaste BIC-Assessment voorgelegd aan experts: gedragswetenschappers en juristen.. In overleg met gedragswetenschappers is besloten dat de BIC-Assessments niet in de eerste vier weken na aankomst in het gastland kunnen worden uitgevoerd.

In een empirisch onderzoek is het BIC-Assessment afgenomen bij 27 gevluchte kinderen. De BIC-Assessments bleken voldoende informatie te geven die op een betrouwbare wijze wordt verzameld. Deze informatie over het belang van het kind zou de IND mee kunnen wegen in de beslissing over het asielverzoek.

https://www.rug.nl/research/portal/en/publications/best-interests-of-the-childassessments-for-recently-arrived-refugee-children(a96f6564-f7c6-4bba-9486-a85f509d16dc).html, juni18

CPT factsheet on transport of detainees

Whatever the grounds for transferring persons deprived of their liberty from a place of detention to another place (e.g. from a police station to a prison, from a prison to another prison, a courthouse or a hospital, or from a border point of entry to an immigration detention centre), the CPT considers that transportation should always be carried out in a humane, secure and safe manner.

This new factsheet, prepared by the CPT’s Secretariat, presents the CPT’s main standards on this subject which have been developed over several decades.
The factsheet covers: Material conditions, Safety measures, Security measures, Health issues

Read the CPT factsheet on transport of detainees, 22.6.18

IOM: Back and Beyond

In deze Nederlands-Engelse publicatie presenteert IOM zes verschillende portretten van migranten en een interview met een IOM-counselor. Het boekje laat zien waarom het belangrijk is om een migrant die terugkeer overweegt persoonlijke begeleiding te geven.


Inspectie: Gedwongen vertrek in beeld Een nadere beschouwing van het gedwongen vertrek uit Nederland van vreemdelingen zonder verblijfsrecht

Het doel van dit onderzoek is om het vertrekproces van vertrekplichtige vreemdelingen in beeld te brengen. De Inspectie beoordeelt hierbij of betrokken organisaties en professionals handelen in overeenstemming met de norm dat het vertrekproces zorgvuldig uitgevoerd moet worden en veilig en humaan moet verlopen. Daarnaast brengt de Inspectie in beeld in welke mate het vertrekproces leidt tot een daadwerkelijk en tijdig vertrek van vreemdelingen zonder verblijfsrecht en welke factoren van invloed zijn op het vertrekproces. In gevallen waarin niet (volledig) aan de norm wordt voldaan benoemt de Inspectie factoren die een belemmering vormen, wat daarvan de oorzaken zijn en welke verbeteringen, in de uitvoering of anderszins, mogelijk zijn. Daarbij besteedt de Inspectie aandacht aan de vooruitgang die geboekt is met betrekking tot verbeterpunten die zij eerder in haar jaarbeelden heeft gesignaleerd. Op die manier draagt de Inspectie bij aan het bevorderen van de effectiviteit en de kwaliteit van de uitvoering van het vertrekproces.

https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/blg-846785.pdf, april 18

Inspectie: Periodiek beeld Terugkeer 2017

Dit periodieke beeld geeft op hoofdlijnen de bevindingen van de Inspectie weer met betrekking tot de in 2017 geïnspecteerde uitzettingen. Achtereenvolgens worden de volgende processen onder de loep genomen: 

  • Het vervoer van de vreemdeling naar Schiphol;
  • De voorbereidende handelingen van de Koninklijke Marechaussee (hierna KMar) op het vertrekcentrum te Schiphol (het zogenoemde grondproces); 
  • De vlucht naar het bestemmingsland en de overdracht aan de ontvangende autoriteiten.

Ook beoordeelt de Inspectie de uitwisseling van informatie tijdens het gehele terugkeerproces. Tot slot stelt de Inspectie vast wat de kwaliteit van de taakuitvoering is als het gaat om internationale terugkeeroperaties.

https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/blg-846786.pdf, mei18

Nieuwsbrief 13, 2018

WODC: Onderdak en opvang door Rijk en gemeenten van vertrekplichtige vreemdelingen en de invloed daarvan op hun terugkeer

Dit rapport presenteert de resultaten van het onderzoek naar onderdak en opvang door Rijk en gemeenten van vertrekplichtige vreemdelingen en de invloed daarvan op terugkeer.

Het onderzoek stelt de relatie tussen opvang- en onderdakvoorzieningen geboden door het Rijk en door gemeenten enerzijds en de uitstroom uit die voorzieningen van vreemdelingen met een vertrekplicht anderzijds centraal.

https://www.wodc.nl/binaries/2882_Volledige_Tekst_tcm28-325328.pdf, apr18

Algemene Rekenkamer : Asielketen

Voor de Algemene Rekenkamer vormde de vluchtelingencrisis van 2015 aanleiding om onderzoek te doen naar de feiten en cijfers rond de asielinstroom in die periode. Na jaren van gematigde instroom, steeg in 2015 het aantal asielzoekers flink. De Algemene Rekenkamer concludeert dat betrokken instanties binnen de asielketen veerkracht hebben getoond bij de grote instroom asielzoekers. De gemiddelde duur van asielprocedures nam weliswaar toe tijdens de piek van de asielstroom, maar daalde daarna ook weer snel.

Het onderzoek laat zien dat Dublinafspraken niet goed worden nageleefd. Op basis van dat verdrag kan Nederland asielzoekers overdragen aan de EU-lidstaat waar zij als eerste werden geregistreerd. Onderzoek van de Algemene Rekenkamer toont aan dat slechts 14,8% van de zogenoemde Dublinclaims leiden tot daadwerkelijke overdracht. EU-lidstaten die van Nederland verzoeken krijgen om een asielzoeker over te nemen, zijn daartoe niet in dezelfde mate bereid.

https://www.rekenkamer.nl/binaries/rekenkamer/documenten/rapporten/2018/06/11/asielinstroom/rapport+Asielketen.pdf, 11.6.18

Afghanistan Ambtsbericht, mei18

De veiligheidssituatie in 2017 bleef zorgelijk. AGE’s voerden highprofile aanslagen uit op stedelijke centra en het aantal burgerslachtoffers bleef hoog. Kinderen vormden daarbij bijna een derde van het totale aantal burgerslachtoffers. In 2017 registreerde de VN 23.744 veiligheidsincidenten. Ook in dat jaar vormden gewapende conflicten in 63% van de gevallen de oorzaak. De 950 luchtaanvallen die in 2017 werden geregistreerd betekenden een toename van meer dan 67% vergeleken met 2016. Het aantal zelfmoordaanslagen nam in 2017 met vijftig procent toe. De meeste veiligheidsincidenten, 55% van het totale aantal, vonden plaats in de oostelijke en zuidelijke regio.108 De controle en veiligheid fluctueren en de situatie is in veel opzichten complex en diffuus. Het is dan ook niet altijd mogelijk om aan te geven in welke gebieden de regering danwel de opstandelingen de controle uitoefenen. Ook als een gebied in handen van de regeringstroepen is, kan de Taliban invloed uitoefenen of aanslagen plegen. Beschrijvingen van de veiligheidssituatie zijn dan ook vaak niet meer dan een momentopname.

SEO: De economische waarde van arbeidsmigranten uit Midden- en Oost-Europa voor Nederland

Oost-Europese arbeidsmigranten dragen voor miljarden bij aan de Nederlandse economie en zijn bovendien onmisbaar: ze doen werk waarvoor geen Nederlanders te vinden zijn. Tot deze conclusie komt het Amsterdamse onderzoeksbureau SEO Economisch Onderzoek.

http://www.seo.nl/uploads/media/2018-37_De_economische_waarde_van_arbeidsmigranten_uit_Midden-_en_Oost-Europa_voor_Nederland.pdf, apr18

Nieuwsbrief 12, 2018

Algemeen ambtsbericht Irak

https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/binaries/rijksoverheid/documenten/ambtsberichten/2018/04/01/algemeen-ambtsbericht-irak/Algemeen+ambtsbericht+Irak+april+2018.pdf, 24.5.18

EASO Practical Guide on qualification for international protection 

The purpose of the practical guide is to assist in examining each application for international protection individually, objectively and impartially, and in applying the same legal criteria and common standards when determining who qualifies for international protection.

The starting point for this guide isthe legal provisions of the 1951 Geneva Convention and the qualification directive (Directive 2011/95/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on standards for the qualification of third-country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection, for a uniform statusfor refugees or for persons eligible forsubsidiary protection, and for the content of the protection granted). The guide goes a step further and translates those legal requirements into guidance for practitioners

https://www.easo.europa.eu/sites/default/files/easo-practical-guide-qualification-for-international-protection-2018.pdf (apr18)

AIDA: Relocation of asylum seekers in Europe- A view from receiving countries

This Legal Briefing analyses the practice of countries receiving asylum seekers from Italy and Greece through the relocation scheme.

The briefing sketches out the treatment of asylum seekers post-relocation in the areas of registration and processing of asylum claims, protection status granted, as well as reception conditions and content of protection provided by destination countries.
The bureaucratic and logistical delays of the procedures in Italy and Greece in the early days of the relocation scheme – triggered by factors such as the lack of sufficient and timely pledges, insufficient administrative capacity and prohibitive preferences with respect to the profiles of relocation candidates – contrast with the relatively smooth operation of the relocation process in the countries of destination. The majority of countries which genuinely engaged in relocation eventually managed to avoid excessive bureaucracy and duplication of efforts, while most countries managed to complete the relocation procedure within the prescribed time limits.

http://www.asylumineurope.org/sites/default/files/aida_brief_relocation.pdf (mei18)

EASO : Update Afghanistan Country of Origin Information Report

The report is an update of the EASO COI Afghanistan Security Situation Report, published in December 2017. It provides an update of some of the information found to be time-sensitive, while still referring to the December 2017 report for more long-term, contextual information.

https://www.easo.europa.eu/news-events/easo-publishes-country-origin-information-coi-report-security-situation-afghanistan-0, 30.5.18

IND : Werkinstructie over polygamie

Deze werkinstructie is een verzameling van alle verschenen berichten met betrekking tot de toets aan artikel 8 EVRM. In hoofdstuk 1 een overzicht wanneer getoetst moet worden aan artikel 8 EVRM; in hoodfstuk 2 de belangenafweging; in hoofdstuk 3 de belangen van kinderen; in hoofdstuk 4 wordt priveleven uiteengezet; hoofdstuk 5 zet een...

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2018-6.pdf, 24.5.18

Eurostat : EU citizens in other EU Member States in 2017

According to Eurostat, 3.8% of European Union (EU) citizens of working age (20-64) were residing in another Member State than that of their citizenship in 2017. This share has increased from 2.5% ten years ago. The situation varies among Member States, ranging from 1.0% for working age citizens of Germany to 19.7% for citizens of Romania.

Of mobile EU citizens 32.4% have tertiary education, while the share for the entire EU population is 30.1%. The employment rate of mobile EU citizens is also higher : 76.1%, compared with the total EU employment rate of 72.1%.

EU citizens in other EU Member States (142.42 ko) Eurostat, 28.5.18

EP: Resolution on the Protection of Children in Migration

The Resolution on the Protection of Children in Migration call upon the EU and its Member States to ensure that childhood statelessness is adequately addressed in national laws in full compliance with Article 7 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Childhood statelessness comes up in the Resolution as a serious human rights challenge, delaying the process for determining the status of children in the EU and denying children access to basic services and their rights.

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+TA+P8-TA-2018-0201+0+DOC+PDF+V0//EN, 3.5.18

LIBE Committee : annual report on the functioning of Schengen.

Entrusted to the rapporteur Carlos Coelho, the first report provides an accurate analysis of the progress and shortcomings that accompany or affect the proper functioning of Schengen. Member States are not spared by the MEP

http://www.europeanmigrationlaw.eu/documents/EP-Annual%20report%20on%20the%20functioning%20of%20the%20Schengen%20area.pdf, 3.5.18

Michael Flynn: Actor-Oriented Approaches Explaining the Rise of Immigration Detention

While deportation, detention, and border-control policies are by no means new, there has been a clear surge in emphasis on these policies in recent years. GDP's Executive Director Michael Flynn and Contributing Researcher Matthew Flynn examine the factors that have spurred the global growth of immigration detention. The authors advance an actor-oriented analysis that views detention systems as complex organisations that rely on institutional and legal structures to buttress their existence, count on multiple sources of financing to grow operations, and receive support from a broad range of social actors who have both diverging and overlapping motives for promoting expansion of this tool of social control. https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/critiquing-zones-of-exception-actor-oriented-approaches-explaining-the-rise-of-immigration-detention, 1.5.18

Izabella Majcher : The Effectiveness of the EU Return Policy at All Costs

In February 2017, the European Commission adopted a specific Recommendation to guide EU states in the interpretation of the Returns Directive, which stressed that detention can be essential in enhancing the effectiveness of the return system. However, despite its administrative label, pre-removal detention as interpreted by the commission contains punitive elements.

Researcher Izabella Majcher explored this issue at the "Understanding Causes and Consequences of Criminalization of Migration" conference in Ljubljana. Majcher argued that employing detention as recommended by the commission is a manifestation of the phenomenon of “crimmigration”—or, the convergence of immigration and criminal law.

https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/the-effectiveness-of-the-eu-return-policy-at-all-costs-the-coercive-use-of-administrative-pre-removal-detention, 18.5.18

Nieuwsbrief 11, 2018

PICUM: HOOR ONZE STEM: Kinderen en jongeren zonder papieren delen hun verhaal.

Deze collectie getuigenissen geeft zowel kinderen en jongeren als hun ouders, verzorgers en andere ondersteunende organisaties een stem, om de realiteit van ongedocumenteerde kinderen en jongeren in Europa te tonen. Zie hier

IOM: More Than Numbers: hoe gegevens over migratie reële voordelen kunnen opleveren (jan18)

Informatie is van essentieel belang voor het bereiken van resultaten in de praktijk, zoals het beschermen van migranten in kwetsbare situaties, het opvullen van de tekorten op de arbeidsmarkt en het bevorderen van de integratie, het organiseren van asielprocedures, zorgen voor een humane terugkeer van migranten die niet in aanmerking komen voor asiel of de overmakingsstromen te vergroten.

Het rapport geeft gedetailleerde berekeningen van de voordelen van migratie voor een groot aantal verschillende beleidsdomeinen, zowel voor ontwikkelde landen als ontwikkelingslanden. Veel van de migranten in de Europese Unie hebben bijvoorbeeld vaardigheden die niet in overeenstemming zijn met hun job. Door data te gebruiken kunnen we deze overkwalificaties verminderen en hierdoor zou het inkomen van migranten in de EU met 6 miljard euro kunnen stijgen. Dit zou een enorm voordeel voor de Europese economie kunnen betekenen.

WODC | Pro Facto - Evaluatie van de Wet toelating en uitzetting BES, 1.3.18

Op 10 oktober 2010 zijn Curaçao en Sint Maarten zelfstandige landen binnen het Koninkrijk geworden, zijn Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba als openbare lichamen deel gaan uitmaken van Nederland en is de Wet toelating en uitzetting BES (WTU-BES) in werking getreden. Het functioneren van deze wet is nu geëvalueerd d.m.v. een literatuur- en documentenstudie, interviews met beleidsambtenaren van verschillende ministeries, een analyse van kwantitatieve gegevens en gesprekken met betrokkenen van de uitvoerende diensten op de eilanden, de openbare lichamen en maatschappelijke organisaties. Het vreemdelingenbeleid van de Nederlandse Antillen was van oudsher restrictief en de Europees Nederlandse regering achtte het voortzetten van een dergelijk beleid noodzakelijk vanwege de in sociaal-economisch opzicht zeer beperkte mogelijkheden van de kleine eilanden om grote aantallen mensen op te nemen.


FRA: Age assessment and fingerprinting of children in asylum procedures - Minimum age requirements concerning children’s rights in the EU 

The methods used to determine the age of an applicant may include “invasive” medical tests which interfere with the rights of the child, including their right to dignity, integrity and privacy. It is often a challenge to find the right balance between protecting children from harm and promoting their participation in these procedures. This report provides important insights and identifies the implications of collecting children’s biometric data and conducting age assessments. The publication can be found here.

EASO: Over 31 000 unaccompanied minors registered in the EU in 2017, most Afghans

In 2017, 31 400 asylum seekers applying for international protection in the Member States of the European Union (EU) were considered to be unaccompanied minors. This was nearly half the number recorded in 2016 (63 200 unaccompanied minors registered) and almost one-third of the peak registered in 2015 (95 200), but over two and a half times higher than the annual average during the period 2008-2013 (around 12 000 per year). In total in the EU, unaccompanied minors accounted for 15% of all asylum applicants aged less than 18.

In 2017, a majority of unaccompanied minors seeking asylum were males (89%). Considering age, over two-thirds were aged 16 to 17 (77%, or about 24 200 persons), while those aged 14 to 15 accounted for 16% (around 5 000 persons) and those aged less than 14 for 6% (almost 2 000 persons). Afghan (17%, or around 5 300 persons) continued to be the main citizenship of asylum applicants considered to be unaccompanied minors in the EU.

Asylum applicants considered to be unaccompanied minors - 2017 (230.79 ko), 17.5.18

European Parliament - Infographic - Migrants flows to the EU in 2017

This infographic aims to present the latest available data on migrant flows to the EU in the year 2017. It covers the detection of illegal crossings on the EU's external borders, numbers of deaths of migrants on those crossings, the number of asylum applications in EU Member States and their decisions on those applications.

Migrant flows to the EU in the year 2017 (2.89 Mo) EPRS - Infographic, 16.5.18

TNI en Stop de Wapenhandel : Expanding the Fortress

De samenwerking van de EU met derde landen om migranten tegen te houden versterkt autoritaire regimes, onttrekt geld aan ontwikkeling en schaadt mensenrechten, terwijl beveiligings- en wapenbedrijven profiteren. Het is zorgelijk dat de Nederlandse regering zegt een voortrekkersrol in dit beleid te willen spelen.

Expanding the Fortress, 14.5.18
Expanding the Fortress: executive summary
Uitbreiding van het Fort: samenvatting (Nederlands)

Nieuwsbrief 10, 2018

UK: Human rights groups publish ‘how-to’ guide to resist the ‘Hostile Environment’

"In addition to forcing undocumented people into exploitation and destitution, the effects of the hostile environment reverberate well beyond its stated targets. By effectively outsourcing immigration control to the public and private sectors, the Government has given a green light to racism and discrimination in all areas of life, by fuelling suspicion of anyone who does not appear sufficiently “British”.
Ultimately, we increasingly live in a society in which we are all conditioned to show ID and have our interactions with the State logged, as the Government’s obsession with monitoring and policing migrants demands surveillance of every one of us.
Written by nine human rights groups, A Guide to the Hostile Environment explains the Government’s toxic vision and the action we can all take to dismantle it."

http://www.righttoremain.org.uk/blog/how-to-guide-resist-hostile-environment/, 9.4.18

AIDA: Boundaries of Liberty: Asylum and de facto detention in Europe

The detention of persons seeking protection is a frequent component of asylum systems, despite well-established evidence of its damaging effects on individuals and limited efficiency in regulating the movement of people. More critically, however, it remains a highly opaque phenomenon. Places of confinement are underpinned by varying and creative terminology from one country to another, while data on the scale of detention remain scarce, complex and in constant need of qualification and explanation.

Practices which allow states to circumvent their international and European Union (EU) law duties stem from ambiguities in legal frameworks, often driven by deliberate policy choices. States may have different reasons for maintaining the obfuscation between reception and detention. They may seek to circumvent the prescriptive standards stemming from refugee and human rights law when depriving those seeking asylum of their liberty to expose them to particularly precarious situations, or for reasons of simple administrative convenience. States may also see an interest in downplaying the scale of coercive measures in their asylum systems through inaccuracy or misrepresentation in statistics.

http://www.asylumineurope.org/sites/default/files/shadow-reports/boundariesliberty.pdf, 6.4.18

IDC : revised Deliberation 5 on arbitrary detention

The revised text includes a call on States to seek alternatives to detention such as community-based solutions to ensure immigration detention is only used as an exceptional measure of last resort and that detention of migrants in situations of vulnerability never takes place.

It reaffirms the absolute prohibition of arbitrary detention in migration contexts, the exceptionality of any form of administrative detention and the absolute prohibition of detention of migrants in situations of vulnerability. As such, detention must be used only in exceptional circumstances and, when resorted to, must be lawful, justified as reasonable, proportionate and necessary by a judicial authority, and only for the shortest period of time.

With this revised Deliberation No.5 the Working Group consolidates its own jurisprudence on deprivation of liberty of migrants and reflects relevant changes in international law providing a helpful tool not only for States but also for advocates and human rights defenders working to protect migrants from criminalisation practices such as detention and other forms of deprivation of liberty.

Read the Revised Deliberation No. 5 on deprivation of liberty of migrants here.

Nieuwsbrief 9, 2018

KIS: Beleidsverkenning Duldung (apr18)

In Duitsland krijgen uitgeprocedeerden die nog niet uitgezet kunnen worden, een zogeheten Duldung. Dit houdt in dat hun plicht om het land te verlaten tijdelijk is uitgesteld. Deze groep heeft bepaalde rechten wat betreft onderwijs, werk en wonen. KIS verkende het Duitse beleid van Duldung, en doet daar in deze publicatie verslag van.


AIDA: Asylum Systems in Europe 2017 (mrt18)

This report provides an overview of developments relating to asylum systems in 23 countries


UNHCR: “Legal considerations regarding access to protection and a connection between the refugee and the third country in the context of return or transfer to safe third countries” (apr18)

UNHCR summarises its position on access to protection and rights in the context of transfer to “first countries of asylum” and “safe third countries”. It comments on the issue of a connection of the applicant with the third country and the precondition that the applicant will have access “to standards of treatment commensurate with the 1951 Refugee Convention, its 1967 Protocol and international human rights standards” there. It affirms that this goes beyond the observance of the principle of non-refoulement and encompasses all corresponding rights of the 1951 Refugee Convention, such as access to the legal right to pursue gainful employment in accordance with Articles 17, 18 and 19 of the 1951 Convention in order to enable the progressive achievement of self-reliance. This may only be effectively and durably guaranteed “when the state is obliged to provide such access under international treaty law, has adopted national laws to implement the relevant treaties and can rely on actual practice indicating consistent compliance by the state with its international legal obligations”.


EASO Practical Guide on Age Assessment (mrt18)

This guide provides updated guidance, key recommendations and tools on the implementation of the best interests of the child when assessing the age of a person from a multidisciplinary and holistic approach. It also provides up-to-date information on the methods conducted by EU+ states and on new methods to be explored. 

Age assessment remains a complex process with potential far-reaching consequences for applicants undergoing the assessment. Age assessment methods and processes differ across EU Member States and reliable multidisciplinary and rights-compliant age assessment processes are not always guaranteed. While this publication addresses age assessment for the specific purpose of international protection procedures, it may also serve as a useful reference in other contexts where age assessment is required (migrant children, minimum age of criminal responsibility, etc.).


AIDA: 2017 Dublin Update (mrt18)

This update releases figures for 17 European countries revealing an increase in transfers in the aftermath of European Union and domestic political commitments for a stricter enforcement of the Dublin system.

Germany continues to spearhead the Dublin system with a record-high 64,267 outgoing requests to other countries. France issued 41,500 requests, Austria 10,490 and Greece 9,784. With the exception of Greece, the majority of countries make marginal use of the family unity and the humanitarian clause. Most states overwhelmingly rely on the irregular entry criterion and applications previously made by asylum seekers in other countries.
The number of transfers implemented in 2017 was 7,102 for Germany, 4,268 for Greece, 4,201 for Sweden and 3,760 for Austria. While the “transfer rate” of effective outgoing transfers to outgoing requests was 43.6% in Greece and 35.8% in Austria, Germany’s rate was only 11%, thereby indicating that the vast majority of Dublin procedures do not result in a transfer.

Finally, the Dublin Update illustrates the widely disparate approaches taken by European states with regard to the safety of countries such as Hungary, Bulgaria and Greece.


PICUM: Manual Regularisation of children (mrt18)

Het handboek beschrijft regularisatiemechanismen voor kinderen in België, Frankrijk, Griekenland, Ierland, Italië, Luxemburg, Nederland, Noorwegen, Spanje en Groot-Brittannië.

Er is geen universeel regularisatie mechanisme of programma. Daarom benadrukt het handboek sleutelaspecten uit verschillende mechanismen en campagnes die effectief zijn gebleken in het verleden, als ook de problemen en uitdagingen. Het handboek is bedoeld als bron van inspiratie en reflectie, om regularisatie te ondersteunen op zowel technisch als beleidsmatig vlak.

De samenvatting en beleidsaanbevelingen zijn beschikbaar in een apart document, om te delen met besluitvormers.

We hebben ook bespreekpunten geformuleerd om organisaties te ondersteunen die spreken met besluitvormers en andere belanghebbenden.

AIDA : Boundaries of liberty: asylum and de facto detention in Europe (mrt18)

This report seeks to clarify the instances and spaces where states resort to deprivation of liberty in the asylum context, whether formally designated as such or occurring de facto. It first demarcates the scope of detention through an analysis of the interpretation of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and EU law, and examines the permissible reasons for interfering with the right to liberty and the necessary safeguards attached thereto. The report then looks at the ambiguous regimes of detention applied by states in practice, through a comparative analysis of national legal frameworks and practice in the 23 European countries covered by the Asylum Information Database (AIDA). It draws primarily upon European and national case law, AIDA Country Reports containing statistics and information on national legal provisions and practice, as well as other sources including national monitoring bodies.


Nieuwsbrief 8, 2018

Fairwork: Poolse vrouwen onvoldoende beschermd tegen seksuele intimidatie (apr18)

Poolse vrouwelijke arbeidsmigranten lopen vanwege hun kwetsbare arbeidspositie en culturele achtergrond een verhoogd risico op seksuele intimidatie in hun werkomgeving. Seksuele intimidatie is een van de signalen die kunnen wijzen op slechte arbeidsomstandigheden en/of arbeidsuitbuiting. Werkgevers moeten de vrouwen beter beschermen en slachtoffers moeten hun recht kunnen halen zonder angst voor ontslag.


VWN & Radboud universiteit Nijmegen: Veilig land van herkomst?

In november 2015 stelde de staatssecretaris van Veiligheid en Justitie een lijst met veilige landen van herkomst vast. Vanaf maart 2016 worden vrijwel alle asielaanvragen van mensen afkomstig uit een zogenaamd veilig land versneld afgewezen. VluchtelingenWerk Nederland wilde weten of de manier waarop dit concept van veilige landen wordt toegepast, voldoende recht doet aan de positie van asielzoekers uit ‘veilige’ landen die mogelijk wél recht hebben op bescherming en heeft de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen gevraagd hier onderzoek naar te doen. Dit rapport bevat de bevindingen naar aanleiding van het onderzoek. Ook bevat het een aantal aanbevelingen.

https://www.vluchtelingenwerk.nl/actueel/nieuws/publicatie-rapport-%E2%80%98veilig-land-van-herkomst%E2%80%99, mrt18

IND: werkinstructie 2018/4 over EU recht

In deze werkinstructie worden diverse onderwerpen op het gebied van het recht van de Europese Unie behandeld. Zo worden uitgebreid de verblijfsrechten op grond van Richtlijn 2004/38/EG betreffende het recht van vrij verkeer en verblijf op het grondgebied van de lidstaten voor de burgers van de Unie en hun familieleden 1 besproken. Er wordt ingegaan op afgeleide verblijfsrechten voor familieleden van Unieburgers en Nederlanders op grond van artikel 21 van het Verdrag betreffende de werking van de Europese Unie. Hierbij komt ook de Europa-route aan bod. Daarnaast worden het verblijfsrecht op grond van artikel 10 van Verordening (EEG) nr. 492/2011 2 en de verblijfsrechten van familieleden van dienstenverrichters besproken.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2018-4.pdf, 20.3.18

Sergio Carrera, Marco Stefan: Complaint Mechanisms in Border Management and Expulsion Operations in Europe: Effective remedies for victims of human rights violations?

Border control, surveillance operations and expulsion of irregular immigrants – particularly through return flights – can pose serious challenges to human rights. Is Europe properly equipped to ensure effective access to remedies for alleged rights violations or possible abuses of force against immigrants and asylum seekers? This book examines whether adequate complaint mechanisms and bodies are in place and to what extent they succeed in monitoring and redressing human rights violations in the context of border management and joint return flights.

The book sets out a number of policy recommendations aimed at ensuring access to effective remedies for violations of the human rights of migrants and asylum seekers that might occur in extraterritorial and dispersed locations (such as in cooperation with or in territories of third countries), and in the context of joint return flights aimed at expelling irregular immigrants. Particular attention is paid to issues with access to justice in the context of activities undertaken by the new European Border and Coast Guard (Frontex).

https://www.ceps.eu/system/files/Complaint%20Mechanisms_A4.pdf, 26.3.18

Verblijfblog: WAV

De Wet Arbeid Vreemdelingen (Wav) verbiedt werkgevers om vreemdelingen arbeid te laten verrichten zonder tewerkstellingsvergunning. Doet een werkgever dit wel, dan kan de Inspectie voor Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid hoge boetes opleggen. Volgens de Wav ben je als particulier of bedrijf al snel een werkgever. Wie is werkgever onder de Wav?

http://verblijfblog.nl/?p=2581, 29.3.18

FRA: European legal and policy framework on immigration detention of children (juni17)

In dit rapport wordt onderzocht wat het recht op vrijheid en veiligheid inhoudt, waarbij het recht van kinderen op bescherming en zorg, zoals dat is vastgelegd in art. 24 EU Handvest centraal staat. Het rapport zet de belangrijkste grondrechtelijke waarborgen uiteen die onrechtmatige en willekeurige detentie moeten voorkomen. Ook worden voorbeelden gegeven uit de praktijk van lidstaten.

http://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra_uploads/fra-2017-immigration-detention-children_en.pdf, 22.6.17

Nieuwsbrief 7, 2018

Eurostat - Asylum Applications in the EU in 2017

In 2017, 650 000 first time asylum seekers applied for international protection in the Member States of the European Union (EU). This was just over half the number recorded in 2016, and is comparable to the level recorded in 2014, before the peaks of 2015 and 2016.

Syrian (102 400 first-time applicants), Iraqi (47 500) and Afghan (43 600) continued to be the main citizenships of people seeking international protection in the EU Member States in 2017, together accounting for 30% of all firsttime applicants.

Eurostat - Asylum Applications in the EU in 2017 (480.38 ko), 22.3.18
See also article and infographic on the Eurostat website.

IND Werkinstructie 2018/3 - Grensprocedure

In de grensprocedure wordt beslist op de asielaanvraag van een vreemdeling die aan de Schengenbuitengrens te kennen heeft gegeven een asielaanvraag te willen indienen en die niet voldoet aan de voorwaarden voor toegang tot Nederland.

In deze werkinstructie komt het volgende aan de orde:

  1. Kader
  2. De grensprocedure
  3. Het asielbesluit (toegangsweigering) en de omzetting van de maatregel
  4. Rechtsmiddelen na de beschikking in de asielprocedure

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2018-3.pdf, 15.3.18

CAT : Toepassing van artikel 3 Verdrag tegen foltering

Deze General Comment biedt een leidraad aan Staten voor toepassing van artikel 3 Verdrag tegen foltering : Geen enkele Staat die partij is een persoon uitzetten of terugzenden of uitleveren naar een andere Staat wanneer er gegronde redenen zijn om aan te nemen dat hij het daar gevaar zou lopen te worden onderworpen aan foltering ; en over de wijze waarop het VN-Comité tegen foltering de ontvankelijkheid en de waarde van individuele berichten waarin klachten op grond van dit artikel worden ingediend beoordeelt.

http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/CAT/CAT-C-GC-4_EN.pdf, 9.2.18

EASO : Practical Guide on Age Assessment, 2nd edition

EASO has published the second edition of its Practical Guide on Age Assessment, providing updated guidance, key recommendations and tools on the implementation of the best interests of the child when assessing age based on a multidisciplinary and holistic approach.


Methodiek ‘Levensverhalen van LHBT-asielzoekers’

Voor asielzoekers uit landen waar homoseksualiteit strafbaar is, kan het lastig zijn om tijdens de asielprocedure open en gedetailleerd hun verhaal te vertellen. Om hen hierin te ondersteunen ontwikkelde KIS een nieuwe methodiek voor vrijwilligers en (sociaal) professionals. De methodiek ‘Levensverhalen van LHBT-asielzoekers’ is gebaseerd op praktijkgericht onderzoek. Deze publicatie beschrijft hoe de methodiek eruit ziet en wat belangrijke aandachtspunten zijn in de toepassing ervan.

DOWNLOAD (15.3.18)

IND Werkinstructie 2018/4 - Het recht van de EU

In deze werkinstructie worden diverse onderwerpen op het gebied van het recht van de Europese Unie behandeld. Hoofdstukindeling:

  1. Inleiding
  2. Het verblijfsrecht van de Unieburger
  3. Het verblijfsrecht van de familieleden van de Unieburger
  4. Duurzaam verblijfsrecht voor de Unieburger en zijn familielid
  5. Het eindigen en beëindigen van het verblijfsrecht
  6. De rechten van een Nederlander en zijn familieleden
  7. Verzorgende ouders van minderjarige Unieburgers
  8. Vrij verkeer van diensten

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2018-4.pdf, 20.3.18

VN-Working Group on arbitrary detention: on deprivation of liberty of migrants

Placing migrants and asylum seekers in detention should be seen as a last resort to be used only in strictly limited circumstances, the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention has stated in its position document based on international law and its own jurisprudence.

http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Detention/RevisedDeliberation_AdvanceEditedVersion.pdf, 7.2.18

ENN: “Effectiveness of return in EU member states”. (15.2.18)

The report addresses the following questions:

  • What recent changes were reported by Member States in their legal and/or policy framework?
  • Do Member States systematically issue a return decision to irregularly-staying third-country nationals?
  • How is the risk of absconding assessed by Member States?
  • How do Member States effectively enforce return decisions?
  • What are the procedural safeguards and remedies available to third-country nationals during the return process?
  • What specific measures were adopted by Member States to guarantee third-country nationals’ family life and state of health, as well as adequate conditions for children in the return process?
  • How do Member States regulate the period for voluntary departure?
  • What are the grounds and conditions for entry bans in Member States?

This Synthesis Report is based on the National Contributions from the following Member States: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Latvia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, United Kingdom.

Nieuwsbrief 6, 2018

Valérie Léon, Groupe URD : Les solidarités face aux flux migratoires : quelles marges de manœuvre en France aujourd’hui ? (jan18)

Cette étude vise à fournir des éclairages sur la manière dont les divers acteurs de la solidarité en France peuvent aujourd’hui apporter une assistance et une protection de base aux migrants dans le respect de leurs mandats et des valeurs qui guident leur action, que celle-ci soit qualifiée d’humanitaire, de sociale ou de militante. L’auteure s’est efforcée de traiter deux questions centrales : quel est le périmètre et la nature de l’espace humanitaire dans le contexte des politiques nationales actuelles ? Quelles solutions et pratiques innovantes pour l’évolution des réponses de l’aide dans un environnement certes plus contraint, mais également source d’initiatives nouvelles ? Pour conclure, cette étude propose quelques pistes d’action pour améliorer l’aide aux migrants.


PICUM fact sheet on the CoE Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (mrt18)

The Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (Istanbul Convention), is the first comprehensive legal instrument on violence against women. The Convention is a milestone for undocumented women and for women with precarious residence status because it expressly forbids discrimination based on migration status and requires states to make it possible for women whose status is dependent on a violent partner or spouse to obtain an independent residence status.

This fact sheet explains key provisions which can be used to ensure protection and access to counselling services, shelter and other services for undocumented migrant women. It also outlines how civil society can contribute to the monitoring process of the Convention’s implementation in different countries.

To view the fact sheet, click here.

Statelessness & Human Rights: The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women

The denial of equal nationality rights to women is a rejection of the equal worth and dignity of women as citizens, rights bearers and political agents. It stands in the face of decades of progress in women’s equality movements around the world and undermines gender parity by excluding women – through the denial of citizenship – from education, employment and political participation. The denial of equal nationality rights to women has also left countless children around the world stateless, subjecting them to exclusion and disadvantage, right from the start.

The new ISI essentials booklet provides an overview on how the CEDAW can be used by rights advocates to strengthen every woman’s equal nationality rights through engaging with the CEDAW Committee and other human rights mechanisms. The booklet also identifies the UN Sustainable Development Goals as an important framework through which gender inequality and equal nationality rights for all can be addressed. The booklet notes that change is happening – 15 countries successfully amended their nationality laws in the last 14 years.

Statelessness & Human Rights: The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women”, 8.3.18

ACVZ: Op weg naar 2030

In deze toekomstverkenning biedt de ACVZ handvatten om met de onzekere toekomst van migratie om te gaan. Onder meer klimaatverandering, conflicten in de landen rond Europa, de bevolkingsgroei in Afrika, de toekomst van de Europese Unie, innovatie en de sociale cohesie in Nederland passeren de revue als relevante factoren voor migratie. De ACVZ schetst op basis daarvan vier verschillende mogelijke ‘toekomsten’ waarin een migratiebeleid ontwikkeld kan worden. 

We zijn het in Nederland echter niet met elkaar eens over de richting van het migratiebeleid. Sommige Nederlanders vinden dat migratiebeleid vooral het economisch belang van Nederland moet dienen, anderen dat migratiebeleid er is om vluchtelingen en migranten te beschermen en weer anderen vinden juist dat migratie een last is voor onze samenleving en daarom zoveel mogelijk moet worden beperkt. De ACVZ heeft daarom drie verschillende beleidsscenario’s geschreven, die ieder één van deze perspectieven als uitgangspunt heeft. Uit de studie komt duidelijk naar voren dat de toekomstbestendigheid van de beleidsscenario’s erg afhankelijk is van de vraag hoe de (onbekende) toekomst eruit komt te zien. Voor een zinvol beleid zal zodoende een voortdurende afstemming van het beleid aan de omgeving noodzakelijk zijn.

U kunt het rapport raadplegen op de website van de ACVZ via deze link: rapport, 5.3.18

EMN : Challenges and practices for establishing the identity of third-country nationals in migration procedures (jan18)

Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van de uitdagingen die Europese lidstaten ervaren bij het vaststellen van de identiteit van derdelanders tijdens verschillende procedures (bijvoorbeeld de asiel- of terugkeerprocedure). Het vaststellen van de identiteit blijkt in de praktijk vaak  lastig door ofwel valse/ongeldige documenten of door het ontbreken van documenten. Daarom maken EU-lidstaten in toenemende mate gebruik van nieuwe en andere methoden, zoals het vergelijken van vingerafdrukken en DNA analyses.

Het syntheserapport vindt u hier: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/00_eu_synthesis_report_identity_study_final_en_1.pdf

John Borton, Sarah Collinson, Network Paper N° 81, HPN, ODI : Responses to mixed migration in Europe : Implications for the humanitarian sector, (dec17)

The influx of refugees in 2015 presented a humanitarian challenge arguably on a scale Europe had not faced since the immediate aftermath of the Second World War. In many key respects the response to that challenge, by states, regional institutions and the international humanitarian system, failed, and for long periods the basic material and protection needs of many refugees and irregular migrants were not met. For this to have happened in Europe – widely regarded as the birthplace of modern humanitarianism – with its high income and well-developed infrastructure, is both astonishing and shaming.


EASO: Number of asylum decisions surpasses number of applications in EU+ countries

A third of all applications for international protection in the EU+ were submitted by citizens of just five countries: Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan. The number of Syrian applicants reached the lowest monthly number since February 2014, while some other nationalities increased.

Data shows that Georgians became the sixth most common citizenship among all applications in the first instance.  In January 2018 applications more than doubled the number registered four months earlier (from 874 in September 2017 to 1,859 in January 2018). Despite the increased numbers, just 3% of Georgians who applied for asylum in the EU+ were granted either refugee status or subsidiary protection in 2017. 

See: www.easo.europa.eu/latest-asylum-trends, 1.3.18

UN Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment - focus on migration (feb18)

The UN Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment has published a new report focused on migration and recalling the broad range of international legal obligations flowing from the prohibition of torture and ill-treatment, analysing their relation with current migration policies and providing recommendations. The report pays special attention to human rights concerns in relation to migration-related detention, smuggling and trafficking, and non-refoulement obligations.

https://www.asgi.it/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/2018_report_tortura_onu_A_HRC_37_50_EN.pdf, 26.2.18

Germany: Government report on “deteriorating” security situation in Afghanistan (mrt18)

This German security update on Afghanistan sets out the deteriorating situation since the withdrawal of NATO forces in 2014. The report highlights refugees and deportation as key issues.

According to the report, the situation is characterized by "insufficient effectiveness of state administration and security forces, increased attacks by the Taliban and IS groups, corruption, poverty and unemployment, flight and migration."  Last year the German Embassy in Kabul was destroyed by a truck bomb attack and the Consulate-General in Mazar-i-Sharif was heavily damaged by a Taliban bomb attack in 2016.

The report highlights that Afghanistan is one of the main sources of refugees in the world while at the same time mentioning corruption, economy and population growth as well as security as push factors. 121 people were deported to Afghanistan from Germany in 2017. According to the Federal Government deportations- given the security situation- are limited to criminal offenders, those assessed as a threat and people who fail to provide proper identification. The Federal Government is planning to increase incentives for voluntary returns.

https://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Artikel/2018/03/2018-03-07-bundeswehrmandat-fuer-afghanistan-verlaengert.html, 7.3.18

EMN-inform: 'Attracting and retaining foreign startup founders'

De inform laat zien dat er momenteel nog geen EU-breed startup visumbeleid bestaat, maar dat er in verschillende lidstaten steeds meer nationaal beleid ingevoerd wordt om buitenlandse oprichters van startups aan te trekken. Startups spelen een belangrijke rol met betrekking tot de economische groei en innovatie, dus het is van belang voor de EU en de EU-lidstaten om deze aan te trekken en vervolgens te behouden. De inform is een samenvatting van de workshop 'attracting and retaining foreign startup founders', die werd georganiseerd tijdens een EMN-congres in Tallinn over de concurrentiepositie van de EU.

Zie voor de inform: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/inform_startups_2018_final_revised.pdf

UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention: position document

Placing migrants and asylum seekers in detention should be seen as a last resort to be used only in strictly limited circumstances, the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention has stated in its position document based on international law and its own jurisprudence. “The irregular entry and stay in a country by migrants should not be treated as a criminal offence,” it states. 

“The deprivation of liberty of an asylum-seeking, refugee, stateless or migrant child, including unaccompanied or separated children, is prohibited by international law,” the deliberation adds.

People detained in the course of migration proceedings enjoy as a minimum the same rights as those detained in the criminal justice or other contexts, the deliberation notes.

The new document updates a deliberation issued in 1999 to tackle the situation of immigrants and asylum seekers held in prolonged custody without the possibility of administrative or judicial remedy. The new deliberation reflects changes in international law and the Working Group’s jurisprudence since then, as well as concern over the growing use of detention in the context of migration.

Revised Deliberation No. 5, 26.2.18

EMN: Verschillen in het terugkeerbeleid van EU-lidstaten – wat werkt?

Uit onderzoek van het EMN blijkt dat meer dan de helft van de EU-lidstaten sinds 2015 het nationale terugkeerbeleid heeft veranderd. Een grote uitdaging voor lidstaten blijft het risico dat migranten uit derde landen uit het zicht van de autoriteiten raken om terugkeer te voorkomen. Daarnaast  is de weigering van derde landen om migranten terug te nemen een probleem voor EU-lidstaten. Een 'good practice' met betrekking tot effectief terugkeerbeleid is het combineren van een terugkeerbesluit met een besluit tot beëindiging van legaal verblijf. Dit alles blijkt uit het nieuwe EMN-rapport over de effectiviteit van terugkeer dat afgelopen februari werd gepubliceerd. Het EMN voerde dit onderzoek uit omdat effectieve terugkeer één van de pijlers van het Europees asiel- en migratiebeleid is, maar de terugkeer van migranten niet effectiever is geworden sinds de toename van terugkeerbesluiten in 2014. Momenteel bereiden we nog een aanvullende publicatie voor waarin we de belangrijkste bevindingen voor Nederland in perspectief plaatsen met andere EU-lidstaten, de zgn. 'Benchmark NL - EU'. Deze publicatie zal op korte termijn op onze website beschikbaar worden gemaakt.

Zie voor het gehele rapport: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/00_eu_synthesis_report_return_study_final_light_en.pdf
Voor een samenvatting van de bevindingen, de inform, zie: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/00_eu_inform_return_study_final_en.pdf

Nieuwsbrief 5, 2018

United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights : Principles and practical guidance on the protection of the human rights of migrants in vulnerable situations

The present document contains the text of the principles and guidelines, supported by practical guidance, on the human rights protection of migrants in vulnerable situations which have been developed by the Global Migration Group Working Group on Human Rights and Gender Equality under the leadership of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). The principles and guidelines are being submitted to the Council pursuant to Human Rights Council resolution 35/17, in which the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights was requested to submit, as co-Chair of the Global Migration Group Working Group on Migration, Human Rights and Gender Equality, principles and practical guidance on the protection of the human rights of migrants in vulnerable situations, on the basis of existing legal norms, and to report thereon to the Council at its thirty-seventh session

https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G18/025/44/PDF/G1802544.pdf?OpenElement, 7.2.18

Algemeen ambtsbericht China, 19.2.18

UN Committee Against Torture: General Comment regarding non-refoulement obligations

The UN Committee Against Torture has recently published its "General Comment No. 4 (2017) on the implementation of Article 3 of the Convention in the context of Article 22", which provides guidance to State Parties on the scope of Article 3 of the UN Convention Against Torture ("No State Party shall expel, return ("refouler") or extradite a person to another State where there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture") and on how the Committee Against Torture assesses the admissibility and the merits of individual communications raising complaints under that article.

http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/CAT/CAT-C-GC-4_EN.pdf, 9.2.18

Amnesty: Vreemdelingendetentie: twee rapporten over vreemdelingendetentie

Het opsluiten van vreemdelingen staat op gespannen voet met mensenrechten. Detentie is meestal onnodig, duurt vaak veel te lang en de detentieomstandigheden hebben een strafrechtelijk karakter.

Die conclusie trekt Amnesty International op basis van twee onderzoeksrapporten.

UN Committee on the Rights of the Child : EU-wide ban on child immigration detention

EU law currently stipulates that migrant and asylum-seeking children may be placed in detention, as a last resort, if it is in their best interests. However, the UN body declares that detaining children, whether unaccompanied or on the basis of their or of their parents' immigration status, is never in the best interests of the child and constitutes a violation of the rights of the child.

The Committee on the Rights of the Child further emphasized that irregular entry or stay should not be equated to the commission of crimes. According to the Committee, although the possibility of detaining children as a last resort exists in criminal law, it does not apply to immigration proceedings as that would never be in the best interests of the child. When it is in the best interests of the child to remain with his/her family, the Committee highlighted that the prohibition of detention extends to the child's parents as well. In such cases, non-custodial solutions must be found for the entire family.

UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention: Revised Deliberation on deprivation of liberty of migrants

The UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention published its revised Deliberation on deprivation of liberty of migrants. The document lays down standards on topics such as the right to personal liberty and the right of migrants not to be detained arbitrarily, non-criminalisation of migration, the exceptionality of detention in the course of migration proceedings, length of detention, right to an effective remedy and the rights of vulnerable migrants.

http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Detention/RevisedDeliberation_AdvanceEditedVersion.pdf, 7.2.18

Nieuwsbrief 4, 2018

ACVZ: verkennend onderzoek BBB (feb18)

De ACVZ heeft eind 2017 knelpunten bij en mogelijke oplossingsrichtingen voor de bed-bad-broodopvang van niet rechthebbende vreemdelingen geïnventariseerd bij gemeenten, opvangorganisaties en het Rijk. Gelet op de huidige toenadering tussen Rijk en gemeenten zal de commissie vooralsnog niet over dit onderwerp adviseren.

Op de website kunt u het verslag van het verkennend onderzoek lezen. (8.2.18)

Out in the cold Homelessness among destitute refugees in London (jan18)

This report by the Jesuits Refugee Service (JRS) documents the dire conditions that destitute refugees and asylum seekers endure in London : 3 out of 5 asylum seekers interviewed had been homeless for at least part of the last year. Half did not have a stable place to sleep at the time of interview. 

“Homelessness,” the report concludes, “rendered most of those surveyed extremely vulnerable, with widespread fear of abuse, a strong sense of physical danger, and the feeling that any mistreatment had to be accepted. This has something in common with homelessness in the general population. However, this needs to be set in the further context of a fear of immigration control, and the chronic, all-encompassing uncertainty with which it frames these refugees’ lives. Fear of one’s housemates, landlord, or abusive partner is exacerbated by fear of detention, and in some cases removal into even greater danger.”

The report further notes: “The destitution of those whose asylum claims have been refused is created by government policy. The Home Office aims to create a ‘hostile environment’ for undocumented migrants. This criminalises many every day activities, such as driving and work, and makes it extremely difficult for undocumented migrants to access vital services, notably healthcare. As criminal convictions and unpaid medical bills count against an applicant in the immigration system, these policies also serve as a further impediment to regularising immigration status.”


WODC: Van Perceptie naar Feit – buurtcriminaliteit (feb18)

Het onderzoek toont aan dat, hoewel het aandeel personen met politiecontacten onder de asielzoekers wat hoger is dan gemiddeld onder de reguliere bevolking, de aanwezigheid van een AZC geen statistisch significant effect heeft op de buurtveiligheid.

Wel is het zo dat het percentage asielmigranten in opvang dat verdacht wordt van criminaliteit in alle onderzochte jaren hoger is dan gemiddeld onder de reguliere bevolking. Het percentage criminaliteitsverdachten onder de asielmigranten was in 2015 naar schatting tussen de 2,5% en 3,7%. Bij de reguliere bevolking was dat 1,1%. Die oververtegenwoordiging blijkt grotendeels te verklaren door de afwijkende samenstelling van de groep asielzoekers naar leeftijd en geslacht: het betreft veelal jonge mannen. Daarnaast speelt de zwakke sociaaleconomische positie van asielzoekers en het feit dat zij relatief vaak buiten gezinsverband wonen mee. De oververtegenwoordiging is geconcentreerd onder groepen met een kleine kans op een verblijfsvergunning die veelal afkomstig zijn uit relatief veilige landen. Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat asielzoekers ongeveer 0.5% van de criminaliteitsverdachten vertegenwoordigen.

Van feit naar perceptie; asielzoekers en buurtcriminaliteit (Cahier, 2017-16) (1.2.18)

EPSC : 10 Trends Shaping Migration (dec17)

Today, about 244 million people live outside their country of birth. That's 3% of humanity. Migration has always been changing, but the ways it intersects with socio-economic, demographic and technological transformations are now reshaping it in unprecedented ways.

What are the 10 trends currently impacting the way people migrate and migration policies?

Download PDF (4.1 MB)

FRA : Migration to the EU: five persistent challenges (jan18)

The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) has regularly reported on migration. This report highlights key trends and persistent concerns between October 2016 and December 2017. It focuses on five areas: access to territory, reception conditions, asylum procedures, unaccompanied children and immigration detention.

FRA will continue to report on migration-related fundamental rights concerns in selected EU Member States. The drop in new arrivals has not led to a decrease in fundamental rights concerns, but identified problems appear to persist, often remaining the same throughout several months.

Download  (feb18)

EASO : asielaanvragen 2017 (feb18)

In 2017, EU+ countries recorded 706 913 asylum applications. This is a decrease by 43 % compared to 2016, and the second consecutive year with fewer applications after the unprecedented influx in 2015 and 2016. Still, the 2017 total remained at a slightly higher level than the number of applications lodged in 2014, indicating that the asylum-related inflow in the EU+ remained considerable.

About 55 000 applications, or 8 % of the total, were repeated applications. At least 3.5 % of all applications concerned claimed unaccompanied minors(UAM). 

Syria was the most common country of origin of applicants for the fifth consecutive year, with more than 98 000 applications. Iraqi, Afghan and Nigerian nationals each lodged more than 40 000 applications in 2017.  These four countries of origin together constituted one in three applications throughout the EU+ in 2017. The top ten of countries of origin also included Pakistan, Eritrea, Albania, Bangladesh, Guinea and Iran. Other noteworthy increases were recorded for Venezuelan (+ 158 %), Turkish (+ 45 %), Georgian (+ 35 %) and Ivoirian (+ 24 %) applicants.


ACVZ:  ‘Op zoek naar veilige(r)landen’ - Lappendeken van lijsten veilige landen (feb18)

Nederland volgt, net als andere EU lidstaten, zijn eigen koers in het al dan niet aanmerken van een herkomstland als veilig. Het ontbreken van een gemeenschappelijk aanvaarde interpretatie van ‘veilig land’ heeft binnen Europa geleid tot een onoverzichtelijke en moeilijk te verdedigen lappendeken van lijsten met veilige landen. Bovendien zijn er grote verschillen tussen de lidstaten in de behandelduur en uitkomsten van de asielprocedures. Omdat een ‘gelijk speelveld’ in de EU ontbreekt nodigt dat asielzoekers uit een veilig land feitelijk uit tot ‘asielshoppen’ in de EU. Daarom moet volgens de ACVZ ingezet worden op een geharmoniseerde EU definitie van ‘veilig land’ en een uniforme toepassing daarvan.

U kunt het advies raadplegen op de website van de ACVZ via deze link: advies (6.2.18)

OCSE en TRACKS: meer steun nodig voor asielzoekers als slachtoffers van mensenhandel (jan18)

Trafficking victims have specific reception needs and cannot be subjected to the same procedures as regular asylum seekers. These two reports found that identifying and addressing vulnerabilities was difficult because of several cross-cutting factors; such as ability to articulate vulnerabilities, lack of credibility and lack of legal information. Human trafficking victims require specific social and legal support as well as asylum procedures adapted to their particular vulnerabilities.

The TRACKS report further found that human trafficking victims are rarely granted any form of international protection, while the OSCE report found that the traffickers usually exploit the overall chaotic conditions found in many reception systems across Europe.  Additionally, the focus of European countries is on stopping the smuggling rather than the trafficking.

OCSE: From Reception to Recognition: Identifying and Protecting Human Trafficking Victims in Mixed Migration Flows, 18.1.18
TRACKS – identification of TRafficked Asylum seeKers’ Special needs, 25.1.18

EASO COI Report : “Afghanistan: Networks”

This report describes various types of networks in Afghanistan and the significance of these networks for individuals and families, be it during displacement or for reintegration after return from abroad or after internal displacement within the country.

https://coi.easo.europa.eu/administration/easo/PLib/Afghanistan_Networks.pdf, feb18

ACVZ: De belangenafweging in het vreemdelingrechtelijke openbare-ordebeleid (feb18)

De adviescommissie heeft onderzocht hoe het Nederlandse openbare-ordebeleid, met inachtneming van het Unierecht, op een evenwichtige wijze kan worden ingericht. Zodanig dat enerzijds recht wordt gedaan aan het belang van bescherming van de openbare orde en anderzijds aan de bescherming van rechtmatige belangen van migranten.

Op basis van het gedane onderzoek beveelt de ACVZ het volgende aan:

1. De actuele-bedreigingstoets en de bescherming van de fundamentele belangen van migranten moeten altijd in ogenschouw worden genomen bij toepassing van de glijdende schaal;
2. Herzie de huidige praktijk van intrekking van het verblijfsrecht met terugwerkende kracht;
3. Breng het aantal glijdende schalen terug van drie naar één;
4. Veranker zowel de actuele-bedreigingstoets als de brede belangenafweging in het Vreemdelingenbesluit.

U kunt het advies raadplegen op de website van de ACVZ via deze link: advies (6.2.18)

Nieuwsbrief 3, 2018

Scriptie 'Bed, Bad en Brood: Cities filling the gap? Een bestaansminimum voor vreemdelingen - ongeacht hun status - als sociale minimumnorm en de rol van lokale overheden bij de verwezenlijking hiervan' - A. Stupers (27.11.17)

Vreemdelingen zonder verblijfsstatus blijven vooralsnog verstoken van enig sociaal recht. Stupers beargumenteert dat dit in het licht van de ondeelbaarheid van klassieke en sociale mensenrechten moeilijk te verantwoorden is. Dit illustreert o.m. de Limbuele-zaak van het Verenigd Koninkrijk en in de Duitse constitutie is dit bijvoorbeeld vastgesteld als een 'Existenzminimum': een absolute ondergrens die de menselijke waardigheid van iedere persoon moet verwezenlijken. Benadrukt wordt ook dat voor vreemdeling niet per definitie hetzelfde niveau van sociale rechten geboden hoeft te worden. Het centrale beleid van Nederland, waarin de toegang tot voedsel en onderdak afhankelijk wordt gemaakt van het (aantoonbaar) bereid zijn mee te werken aan vertrek uit Nederland, sluit niet aan bij internationale sociale minimum-normen, die de rechtstheoretische overtuiging van een bestaansminimum als ondergrens weerspiegelen.

Doordat gemeenten het als hun zorgplicht zien om te voorkomen dat vreemdelingen zonder voedsel op straat slapen, lijken zij zich aan te sluiten bij het rechtstheoretische uitgangspunt en de internationaal-juridische norm, dat iedereen een bestaansminimum toekomt. Het 'inspringen' van gemeenten op dit terrein is staatsrechtelijk gezien in beginsel mogelijk.


Rekenkamer den Haag 'Van de straat' (18.1.18)

In het onderzoek is de vraag beantwoord in hoeverre de gemeente een adequate ondersteuning aan daklozen en een goede door- en uitstroom uit het traject realiseert. Het onderzoeksrapport bestaat uit een bestuurlijk deel, met conclusies en aanbevelingen, en een feitenrapport, waarin de bevindingen uit het onderzoek zijn opgenomen.

Grootse dromen, uitgekomen? in Mens en maatschappij, Volume 92, Number 4

While many unaccompanied minors deal with their precarious situation by focusing on school success, there is a lack of knowledge about the diversity of factors that hinder and stimulate their life trajectories, including their school career. This article focuses on the long term school trajectories of unaccompanied minors who were highly motivated to have a successful school career when they arrived in the Netherlands. We show that in spite of their eagerness and qualities, institutional factors in education and discursive exclusion are obstacles in their school career. Nonetheless, these ambitious young people are largely able to overcome these obstacles by mobilizing different kinds of social support. However, some of them are confronted with a legal obstacle when they turn eighteen and did not obtain a residence ­permit. This makes them unable to continue their school career for several years. Therefore, the school careers of these highly motivated young people vary greatly: some people were still able to make their dreams partly come true, others got marginalized.


WAVE #Fempower Magazine: Violence against undocumented migrant and refugee women in Europe and their human rights

With articles offering a unique and country-specific insight into the situation of this vulnerable group of migrant women. This topic was also a central focus of the activities undertaken within the frame of our pan-European WAVE Step Up! Campaign in 2017, together with PICUM.


WODC: Draagvlak migratiebeleid

De hoge instroom van asielzoekers in 2015 heeft het migratievraagstuk op de maatschappelijke agenda geplaatst. Dit onderzoek focust op het draagvlak onder de Nederlandse bevolking voor verschillende aspecten van het Nederlandse migratiebeleid.

De onderzoeksvraag is: Welke factoren beïnvloeden de mate van maatschappelijk draagvlak voor de verschillende aspecten van het migratiebeleid in Nederland, en in hoeverre kunnen die factoren worden ingezet om maatschappelijk draagvlak voor die aspecten te behouden dan wel versterken?

Het onderzoek bestaat uit drie delen. Het eerste deel is een literatuurstudie waarin is nagegaan welke processen het draagvlak voor migratiebeleid bepalen. Het tweede deel is een enquête naar draagvlak onder een grote steekproef Nederlanders. Het derde deel bestaat uit telefonische interviews onder 80 deelnemers aan de enquête , waarbij het doel was om beter inzicht te krijgen in de redenen waarom men zo over deze beleidsmaatregelen en hun uitvoering denkt.


VN: Making Migration work for All (11.1.18)

The present report has been prepared pursuant to General Assembly resolution 71/280, in which the Assembly requested the Secretary-General to present a report as an input to the zero draft of the global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration and related intergovernmental negotiations. Written submissions were received from States, intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations in response to a note verbale requesting information.

The report focuses on making migration work for all, emphasizing its links to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The report highlights: (a) options for Member States to help migrants fulfil their economic and social potential; (b) steps to promote regular migration; and (c) policies to meet the legitimate security considerations of Member States concerning irregular migration. It also explores the specific challenges arising from large mixed movements of migrants and refugees.

The report offers suggestions for Member States to frame an action-oriented global compact, addressing aspects of migration from the subnational to the global level and a specific strategy for responding to large movements of migrants. The Secretary-General also sets out plans to conduct intensive consultations within the United Nations system to address how the Organization can adapt to provide better support for the global compact and sets out proposals for follow-up to the compact by Member States.


Elvis Peeters: Brood (roman)

In Brood verplaatst Elvis Peeters zich in een jongen die niet  anders kan dan zijn door oorlog geteisterde land ontvluchten. Na een barre overlevingstocht begint hij aan zijn leven in een nieuwe samenleving. Maar voor hij het weet loopt het uit de hand.

Rapport Directie Migratiebeleid - Staatloosheid: Een Mondiaal Probleem. Een overzicht van staatloosheid en geboorteregistratie wereldwijd (1.12.16)

In het advies 'Geen land te bekennen: een advies over de verdragsrechtelijke bescherming van staatlozen in Nederland' adviseerde de ACVZ niet alleen dat Nederland een vaststellings-procedure voor staatloosheid nodig heeft, maar ook dat staatloze personen worden vrijgesteld van de plicht om bij de naturalisatie een geboorteakte over te leggen, aangezien zij meestal niet aan die eis kunnen voldoen.

Dit onderzoek geeft allereerst een overzicht van de personen en bevolkingsgroepen wereldwijd die te maken hebben met staatloosheid, en de oorzaken van hun staatloosheid. Ten tweede wordt gekeken naar het niveau van geboorteregistratie wereldwijd, waardoor bepaald kan worden in welke landen en bij welke bevolkingsgroepen problemen bestaan met registratie, en waar een gebrekkige, onvolledige of ontbrekende registratie dus aannemelijk is.


IMI: Counting Deaths at the border

Migrant deaths in border-zones have become a major social and political issue, especially in the euro-Mediterranean region and in the context of the refugee/migrant crisis. While media, activists and policymakers often mention precise figures regarding the number of deaths, little is known about the production of statistical data on this topic.

This paper explores the politics of counting migrant deaths in Europe. This statistical activity was initiated in the nineties by civil society organizations; the purpose was to shed light on the deadly consequences of ‘Fortress Europe’ and to challenge states’ control-oriented policies. In 2013, the International Organization for Migration also started to count migrants’ deaths, yet with a different political objective: humanitarian and life-saving activities become integrated in border management and the control of borders is expected to both monitor human mobility and save migrants’ lives. IOM thus depoliticises these statistics, while at the same time imitating an activity first associated with political contestation by civil society actors.

The paper explores ways in which statistics on border deaths can be re-politicised to challenge states’ immigration policies in Europe.

ECtHR Case Factsheets regarding accompanied and unaccompanied minors in detention

The Press Unit of the European Court of Human Rights has released two new case factsheets: “Accompanied migrant minors in detention”, which can be accessed here, and “Unaccompanied migrant minors in detention”, which is available here. These factsheets complement the factsheet on “Migrants in detention”, which was lastly updated by the Press Unit in October 2017, available here.

Nieuwsbrief 2, 2018

Wilcke, Holger : Illegal und unsichtbar? - Papierlose Migrant*innen als politische Subjekte (jan18)

Holger Wilcke zeigt, dass papierlose Migrant*innen nicht als passive Opfer missverstanden werden sollten, sondern vielmehr über Handlungsmacht verfügen: Sie arbeiten ohne Arbeitserlaubnis, sie organisieren sich Wohnraum, obwohl sie offiziell keinen Mietvertrag unterschreiben können, und sie verschaffen sich ohne Krankenversicherung Zugang zu medizinischer Versorgung. Als politische Subjekte nehmen sie sich - oft unwahrnehmbar - Rechte, die ihnen formal nicht zustehen, und transformieren unentwegt die Gesellschaft, welche ihre Ausschlüsse produziert.


UNHCR: Ensuring birth registration for the prevention of statelessness (nov17)

Individuals may be at risk of statelessness if they cannot prove that they have links to a State. Possession of a birth certificate helps to establish entitlement to nationality and is often a prerequisite for obtaining documentation that proves nationality.

Migrants in an irregular situation may be unwilling to approach the authorities to register their children for fear of being identified or deported. Minorities are often denied equal access to rights and services, including access to documentation. Refugees and IDPs can be at risk of statelessness when their documents have been lost, left behind or destroyed during flight. The destruction of State archives and civil registries can also make it difficult to confirm their identity, and they may find it difficult to access civil registration in the countries in which they have found safety. Section 4 of this paper discusses in more detail how lack of birth documentation puts different population groups at risk of statelessness and how that risk can be mitigated.

http://www.refworld.org/docid/5a0ac8f94.html, nov17

KIS: asielprocedures en rechten van asielzoekers

Deze factsheet geeft antwoord op vragen als: hebben asielzoekers recht op medische zorg? Is een inburgeringscursus verplicht? En krijgen vluchtelingen met voorrang een woning?

Na een eerste hoofdstuk over het verloop van de asielprocedure, gaat de factsheet in op de rechten en plichten van asielzoekers en vervolgens op die van vluchtelingen met een (tijdelijke) verblijfsstatus. Tenslotte leest u de aantallen en sluit de factsheet af met een begrippenlijst. 

https://www.kis.nl/sites/default/files/bestanden/Publicaties/welke-rechten-plichten-asielzoekers-vluchtelingen-in-nederland.pdf, 18.12.17

ECRE: Making Asylum Numbers Count – Gaps and Reform Needs in the Area of Asylum Statistics

This Policy Note analyses gaps in the collection and provision of asylum statistics in the EU at a time when the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) is debated in an aura of “high politics”. In many cases, civil society tools such as ECRE’s AIDA have filled gaps by collecting and publishing information from national authorities more rapidly than the designated actors at EU level. At the same time, the proliferation of EU actors – including the European Asylum Support Office (EASO), the European Migration Network (EMN) and the Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) – and other bodies collecting asylum statistics often with overlapping mandates has resulted in additional workload on national administrations.
The Policy Note sets out a number of recommendations, including a thorough assessment of gaps, delays and obstacles to the provision of asylum statistics It also urges civil society to continue engaging in analysis and interpretation of data, which remain crucial to evidence-based policy-making. Insofar as needs persist, civil society should continue to fill data gaps to encourage more active and comprehensive collection from official actors.

https://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Policy-Note-10.pdf (jan18)

ECRE: ‘EU Migration Policy and Returns: A Case Study on Afghanistan’ (dec17)

ECRE benoemt de prijs van de EUAfghanistan-deal Joint Way Forward uit 2016: een disproportionele focus op het terugsturen van relatief bescheiden aantallen Afghanen vanuit Europa, terwijl Afghanistan al honderdduizenden terugkeerders ontvangt uit omliggende landen en een grote ontheemdenpopulatie heeft. Dit brengt de langetermijn-inspanningen van stabilisering en bescherming van mensenrechten in gevaar. Afnemende en divergerende inwilligingspercentages in Europa en het tegenwerpen van een beschermingsalternatief, terwijl de veiligheidssituatie in Afghanistan verslechtert, brengen een risico op refoulement met zich mee. Verder suggereert het onderzoek dat een meerderheid van de terugkeerders op zoek is naar her-migratie, gezien het gebrek aan veiligheid, ondersteuning en perspectief in Afghanistan.


Asylos reports

  • Afghanistan: Travel from Kabul to Qarabagh, Ghazni (AFG2017-15) - ENG
  • Afghanistan: Afghanistan: Armed groups in Mazar-e-Sharif (AFG2017-16) - ENG
  • Angola: Risk of return without ID (AFR2017-32) - ENG
  • Zimbabwe: treatment of LGBT women (AFR2017-34) - ENG
  • Nigeria: return of women victims of trafficking (AFR2017-35) - ENG
  • Somalia: Security situation (AFR2017 - 40) – ENG

Zie https://asylos.eu/

BMA report: 'Locked up, locked out: health and human rights in immigration detention' (nov17)

Detainees in Immigration Detention are entitled to the same range and quality of healthcare services as the general public receives in the community. However, problems with the provision of healthcare in detention persist, particularly in relation to the variability in the range and quality of services and staffing levels between centres. There are many challenges for doctors working in immigration detention settings, who must meet their patients' needs in an environment that militates against good health and wellbeing.

The British Medical Association gives the following recommendations to Government.

  1. Revise detention policies to address the significant health effects indeterminate detention can have on individuals.
  2. Address aspects of the detention environment which affect the health and wellbeing of those detained.
  3. Reconfigure current healthcare provision to better achieve equivalence of care.
  4. Provide training and continued support in health and wellbeing issues for all those working with detained individuals.
  5. Recognise the importance of doctors acting with complete clinical independence and ensure that that principle is enshrined and respected across the immigration detention estate.

Nieuwsbrief 1, 2018

Arnon Grunberg: De eerste boze burger – over de jacht op het paradijs en andere illusies (dec17)

Dit pamflet bevat de tekst van de in april 2017 door Grunberg gehouden Du Perron-lezing. Het is in feite een (verlaat) antwoord op het essay van publicist Paul Scheffer uit 2000, Het multiculturele drama. Aan de hand van dit essay laat Grunberg via Freud, Du Perron, Kierkegaard en het oudtestamentische verhaal van Job zien wat de wezenlijke strijd is tussen nieuwkomer en oorspronkelijke bewoner. Een scherpzinnig pamflet over onverdiende rampspoed, het vooruitgangsgeloof, het juk van de cultuur en ieders jacht op het paradijs.


Rachlitz, Anna (Autor) : The Political Construction of Irregularity in Germany and South Africa - A Comparison of Access to Legal Residency and Public Health Care (dec17)

Welche Faktoren und Akteure bestimmen in Deutschland und Südafrika den Zugang von Migranten zu legalem Aufenthalt? Und was bedeutet aufenthaltsrechtliche Illegalität für die Zugänglichkeit öffentlicher Gesundheitsversorgung in den beiden Ländern?

Staatliche Souveränität zeigt sich nicht nur im Erlassen von Gesetzen und den darin definierten Rechten von Migranten, sondern ist vor allem auch abhängig von Politikimplementierungsprozessen. Das vorliegende Buch erweitert den bisherigen regionalen Fokus der Migrationsforschung und rückt Südafrika in den Mittelpunkt des Interesses. Der Vergleich zeigt deutlich die Faktoren auf, die maßgeblich die Übereinstimmung von Gesetzen und Policies mit Implementierungsprozessen und letztendlich deren Ergebnisse beeinflussen. Als Beispiele seien die Beschaffenheit gesetzlicher Vorgaben, vorhandene Ressourcen, kommunalpolitisches Engagement und Kooperationsnetzwerke staatlicher und nicht-staatlicher Akteure genannt.

CEDAW: aanbevelingen voor NLs beleid tav. vrouwen (nov16, publieksversie dec17)

In november 2016 heeft het CEDAW Comité conclusies en aanbevelingen uitgebracht voor de Nederlandse regering over de naleving van het VN-vrouwenverdrag. Eén van de aanbevelingen was: Het CEDAW-Comité en het CESCR-Comité (het VN-comité wat rapporteert over de naleving van de sociaal-economische rechten) roepen de regering op om de capaciteit van gemeenten te monitoren, de criteria voor opvang aan te passen aan de behoeften van slachtoffers en ervoor te zorgen dat slachtoffers overal toegang hebben tot kwalitatief goede opvang en hulpverlening (para 33 a en c).

De publieksversie van deze aanbevelingen staat nu online:

Trade Unions: Organising and Promoting Undocumented Migrant Workers’ Rights (dec17)

On december 18, International Migrants’ Day, the trade union movement reiterates its solidarity with undocumented migrant workers. The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants (PICUM) issue a leaflet to support trade unions in their efforts to speak up for and organise undocumented workers.

Undocumented workers across Europe are performing vital jobs, but are often unable to do so regularly, and are frequently paid below the minimum wage, paid late or subject to wage theft. They are required to work very long hours, without adequate breaks, overtime, holiday or sick leave, or other basic social security. They are often not provided with necessary safety equipment and training, making them at greater risk of injuries, accidents and occupational illnesses, while also having very limited access to health services.

The leaflet is available in English.
ETUC brochure “Defending undocumented workers - means defending all workers


There is continued recognition of the importance of improving our understanding of the dynamics and complexities of migration, mobility and displacement, and of addressing these issues globally and locally. Against a backdrop of growing interconnections between people and states, making migration safer and better regulated have become key global priorities.

Full report: https://www.iom.int/world-migration-report-2018
Infosheets : https://www.iom.int/wmr/wmr-2018-infosheets

Dempster & Hargrave: Understanding public attitudes towards refugees and migrants (juni17)

Understanding public attitudes towards refugees and migrants within their host communities is an increasingly important task. This working paper is intended as a primer – outlining current global polling data on public attitudes, and analysing what the literature has to say about the drivers influencing these attitudes.

This large evidence base has a number of implications for those working on refugee and migration issues:

  • Engaging effectively with public attitudes towards refugees and migrants requires understanding the real world concerns, emotions and values around which attitudes are formed.
  • These efforts work best when clearly rooted in national and local contexts, and the nuances of public attitudes within them.
  • Traditional approaches to public engagement, such as ‘myth-busting’, may have exacerbated negativity and are unlikely to resonate beyond those who are already supportive. While evidence remains important in influencing policy debates, strategies must acknowledge its limitations as a persuasive tool.
  • Emotive and value-driven arguments may have more traction than facts and evidence. Successful strategies might highlight the manageability of the situation, while emphasising shared values.

Download: Understanding public attitudes towards refugees and migrants

Unicef - Beyond Borders: how to make the global compacts on migration and refugees work for uprooted children (1.12.17)

Unicef vraagt om aandacht voor de belangen van kinderen bij de ontwikkeling van de 'Global Compact on Refugees' en de 'Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration', meer in het bijzonder om inzet voor de Unicef Agenda for Action (zie p. 6 en 7 van het rapport). In het rapport worden diverse case studies gepresenteerd die kunnen helpen om de zes doelen van de Agenda for Action in de praktijk te brengen. De case studies tonen het belang aan van:

  • investeren in solide nationale mechanismen voor bescherming van het kind om ontwortelde kinderen te beschermen tegen uitbuiting en geweld;
  • het beëindigen van vreemdelingenbewaring van kinderen;
  • geboorteregistratie en hereniging om te zorgen dat families bij elkaar blijven en kinderen een juridische status krijgen;
  • uitgebreide zorg en toegang tot diensten die ontwortelde kinderen helpen om naar school te blijven gaan en gezond te blijven;
  • het aanpakken van de oorzaken van gedwongen migratie, zodat migratie een kwestie van keuze wordt en niet langer noodgedwongen plaatsvindt;
  • het bevorderen van integratie en inclusiviteit om ontwortelde kinderen te beschermen tegen discriminatie en xenofobie.

SCP: Multiculturele samenleving en vluchtelingen (dec17)

In het onderzoek Culturele veranderingen (CV) blijken Nederlanders in vergelijking met de jaren negentig iets positiever over immigranten (zie tabel 3.9). Waar in 1994 49% vond dat er te veel mensen van een andere nationaliteit in Nederland wonen, is dat in 2016/’17  31%.

85% wil soepel zijn voor politieke vluchtelingen (was 75% in 1994). Het aandeel dat soepel wil zijn voor huwelijksmigratie of economische vluchtelingen is veel lager (resp. 53% en 45%), maar die minderheid is wel groter dan in 1994.


Proefschrift Tina Rahimy 'Politics of Flight. A Philosophical Refuge', Rotterdam (dec17)

Het huidige Europese politieke discours maakt een vanzelfsprekende koppeling tussen de twee woorden vluchteling en crisis, en definieert deze crisis als een vanzelfsprekend kenmerk van de ander, als een toestand die Europa overkomt. De ontkrachting van deze aanname staat centraal in het promotieonderzoek van Tina Rahimy naar een politiek van het vluchten.  Politiek van het vluchten – waarin het ongemak niet vermeden maar aangegaan wordt – tracht een discours voor het ongemak in kaart te brengen. In deze poging wordt het perspectief omgekeerd. Dit is geen analyse van een politiek over vluchtelingen. Het onderzoek vertrekt niet van onze politiek geprivilegieerde bestaanswijze naar daar, maar reflecteert eerder van daar naar hier.  

Free Full Text ( Final Version , 5mb )

EASO Country of Origin Information (COI) report on Bangladesh (dec17)

In the first ten months of 2017, Bangladeshi nationals lodged more than 18,000 applications in the EU+, ranking eighth among the most common citizenships of origin of applicants.  Moreover, the number of Bangladeshi applications awaiting a first-instance decision has increased by 44% in the past 12 months, to close to 18,000 at the end of October 2017.  This constitutes one of the largest decision-making backlogs of all countries of origin at EU+ level, ranking seventh. 

In this ‘Country Overview’ report, EASO aims to provide information on a wide range of topics of particular relevance for international protection status determination (Refugee Status and Subsidiary Protection) for Bangladeshi applicants.

 ‘Bangladesh – Country Overview

EASO Country of Origin Information (COI) report on security situation in Somalia (dec17)

In the first ten months of 2017, nationals from Somalia lodged close to 12,000 applications in the EU+, ranking 14th among the most common citizenships of origin of applicants. While the number of Somali applications awaiting a first-instance decision has decreased by 57% in the past 12 months, from more than 27,000 in October 2016 to close to 11,600 at the end of October 2017, Somalia still represented a significant decision-making backlog and ranked 13th in terms of pending cases at  first-instance in the EU+.

The first part of the report provides a general description of the security situation in the country. 

In the second part, the report describes the security situation in different regions in Somalia, including the capital Mogadishu. The report outlines the actors in each region and the areas of control or influence by each of these actors. The reference period for the security report runs from January 2016 until 31 August 2017.

‘Somalia security situation’.

EASO Country of Origin Information (COI) report on The Gambia (dec17)

The report provides an overview of selected topics on The Gambia, relevant for the determination of international protection status of Gambian applicants. Between January and September 2017, EU+ countries[1] received 10,715 applications from The Gambia.

The EASO COI Country Focus report on The Gambia provides general background information on The Gambia, namely on geography, population, ethnic and religious groups, political and the judicial systems, together with the human rights situation in the country during the administration of Yayah Jammeh. The report also provides input on the latest developments under the new Gambian administration lead by President Adama Barrow, particularly concerning human rights.

 ‘The Gambia – Country Focus

EASO Country of Origin Information (COI) reports on the targeting of individuals in Afghanistan (dec17)

In 2016, Afghanistan ranked second in the top countries of origin in EU+ countries, with more than 175,000 applicants. In the first ten months of 2017, more than 40,000 applications have been lodged in the EU+ by Afghans, ranking third (in the overall applications to date). Afghan applications constitute the largest backlog of all countries of origin. At the end of October 2017, there were more than 64,000 asylum applications from Afghan nationals in the EU+ pending at first instance.

The report ‘Individuals targeted by armed actors in the conflict’ deals with the modus operandi, methods and targeting strategies used by armed actors, both on the side of the insurgents as on the side of the government, in the context of the conflict and the possibilities for individuals to escape such targeting. The report ‘Individuals targeted under societal and legal norms’ is focused on socio-legal structures and actors in society and how such elements treat issues such as crime, gender-based violence, harmful traditional practices, disputes, transgressions of social norms, and the possibility for individuals to avoid targeting. Special attention is paid to the situation of women throughout both reports, and a separate chapter covers certain issues affecting children.

EASO earlier published : Afghanistan – Key socio-economic indicators, state protection, and mobility in Kabul City, Mazar-e Sharif, and Herat City (August 2017). An update of the EASO COI Report Afghanistan – Security Situation (November 2016) is expected shortly.

Afghanistan - Individuals targeted by armed actors in the conflict
Afghanistan - Individuals targeted under societal and legal norms’.

Alix Loubeyre and Maïté Fernandez : Defending migrants’ rights in the context of detention and deportation

Over the past years, political pressure to detain and deport more migrants has led to more case law that challenges the legality of various aspects in the forced removal procedure, including the legality of detention decisions. Civil society has a significant role in facilitating strategic litigation in this area. PICUM’s and the European Migration Law’s legal seminar “Defending migrants’ rights in the context of detention and deportation” in Brussels this year, offered a great opportunity in this direction by facilitating an exchange of information amongst law practitioners and NGOs from across Europe on the legal challenges in defending rights in the context of a strong political pressure to increase returns. For migrants’ rights advocates a reality check in terms of where we are with the case law was much needed.

Defending migrants’ rights in the context of detention and deportation (1.35 Mo)
Alix Loubeyre & Maïté Fernandez

Zevulun, D. : Repatriation and the best interests of the child: The rearing environment and wellbeing of migrant children after return to Kosovo and Albania (dec17)

Het doel van dit proefschrift is om inzicht te krijgen in hoe het migrantenen asielzoekerskinderen vergaat na terugkeer in hun land van herkomst, alsmede om risico- en protectieve factoren ten aanzien van de ontwikkeling van teruggekeerde kinderen in kaart te brengen. Met deze kennis kunnen de belangen van kinderen (in lijn met artikel 3 van het Internationaal Verdrag inzake de Rechten van het Kind, IVRK) bij besluitvorming over terugkeer beter afgewogen worden. Daarnaast willen we zicht krijgen op de mogelijkheden die er zijn om migrantenkinderen te ondersteunen bij re-integratie na terugkeer in hun land van herkomst. De data in dit proefschrift zijn verzameld in Kosovo en Albanië, en zijn exemplarisch voor de situatie van kinderen na terugkeer.


Andre Verkaik: Concertina (roman)

Hoofdpersoon Gershon Weening is wachtcommandant in detentiecentrum Zeist en krijgt te maken met de gevolgen van de brand in het cellencomplex Schiphol-Oost in 2005. Daarbij komen elf gedetineerden om en raken vijftien gedetineerden en bewakers gewond. Een aantal van die gedetineerden belandt in kamp Zeist.

Verkaik baseert zijn roman op deze waargebeurde geschiedenis. Weening, die het alter ego van Verkaik lijkt te zijn, krijgt de gedeeltelijke verantwoordelijkheid voor de nieuwbakken gedetineerden in Zeist. Geen sinecure, want bij het personeel in Zeist staan niet alle neuzen dezelfde kant op. Weening moet opboksen tegen onverstandige collega’s, bureaucratische chefs en een wazig beleid. Gevangenen en bewakers worden tegen elkaar uitgespeeld met als slachtoffer de vaak hulpeloze gedetineerden. Het boek leest als aanklacht tegen dat milieu.

Nieuwsbrief 25, 2017

COMPAS, Nicola Delvino : European Cities and Migrants with Irregular Status: Municipal initiatives on the inclusion of irregular migrants in the provision of services (nov17)

The City Initiative is a working group of European cities aiming to share learning, over a period of two years, on policies and practices of European municipalities in relation to the social needs of migrants with irregular immigration status in their area. COMPAS is supporting the working group in building a strong body of evidence on municipal initiatives in this field, and in developing a shared, city perspective on ways in which irregular migrants could be mainstreamed into European Union (EU) policy agendas. This report in particular aims to provide an overview of the findings of the academic and policy literature on practices and policies that European municipalities have implemented to enable individuals with irregular immigration status to access some municipal services.


Kinderombudsman: Nederlandse kinderen groeien op in armoede door verblijfsstatus ouder

Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat er drie belangrijke oorzaken zijn voor de armoede waar veel gezinnen met een ouder zonder verblijfsstatus in terecht komen. Ten eerste mag een ouder zonder verblijfsvergunning niet werken in Nederland en kan hij of zij het gezin dus niet onderhouden. Daarnaast bepaalt de Koppelingswet dat een gezin geen toeslagen en bijstand krijgt van de Nederlandse overheid als een van de ouders niet in Nederland mag wonen. Tot slot is het in Nederland voor kinderen niet mogelijk om zelf geld te krijgen van de overheid. Dit alles leidt ertoe dat veel van deze kinderen opgroeien in armoede. Volgens de Kinderombudsvrouw heeft dit grote gevolgen voor hun ontwikkeling en de plek die ze in de Nederlandse samenleving innemen: 'Deze kinderen voelen dagelijks dat ze er niet echt bij mogen horen.'

Om gemeenten te helpen de situatie van deze kinderen te verbeteren, hebben de  ombudsmannen een handreiking opgesteld waarin staat wat een gemeente nu al kan doen voor gezinnen met een ouder die niet in Nederland mag blijven.

Rapport Nederlandse kinderen ontkoppeld. Als de verblijfsstatus van je ouders je levensstandaard bepaalt, en Handreiking 8.12.17

Geen kind aan de Kant: Verhalen kinderen in Gezinslocaties (nov17)

Met dit boekje willen de schrijvers aandacht vragen voor de kinderen die onder zware condities in Nederland verblijven, hen een stem geven.


A.S. Leerkes (Arjen), G.B.M. Engbersen (Godfried), E. Snel (Erik) and J. de Boom (Jan) : Civic stratification and crime. A comparison of asylum migrants with different legal statuses (nov17)

In several European countries, as well as in Australia and the United States, there have been media reports about crime and other forms of assumed deviance among asylum migrants and unauthorized immigrants, which have been used by politicians to argue for more restrictive admission policies. The present analysis shows that an opposite logic could also be followed: it suggests that social exclusion actually contributes to certain crime issues, and that the chances of such issues occurring decrease when asylum migrants are more fully integrated, i.e., given similar rights as citizens, rather than being excluded. This message is especially important in a time when asylum applications are again on the rise in most countries of the Global North. While a certain degree of civic stratification is inevitable, especially in a global order that is marked by considerable international inequality, this does not take away the obligation on the part of states to invest in good and fair asylum procedures (thus reducing the number of asylum seekers who have good reasons to overstay a rejection), and to guarantee certain minimum rights for those at the bottom of the civic hierarchy. Seen in that light, decisions such as by the ECSR seem to represent a welcoming counterforce against civic stratification pushed too far.


Sangita Jaghai : Citizenship deprivation, (non) discrimination and statelessness. A case study of the Netherlands (dec17)

This is a reflection on how deprivation of citizenship can create different classes of citizenship and can (symbolically) destabilise social cohesion. The Netherlands is used as a case study to exemplify this. This paper critically analyses three aspects that can contribute to the erosion of equal and unconditional citizenship. First, tensions at state level in the implementation of international law principles of nondiscrimination and the prohibition of statelessness when regulating deprivation of citizenship. Both principles can be violated by national legislation on deprivation of nationality. Withdrawal of nationality can (un)intentionally result in statelessness under specific circumstances, leaving people without any nationality and subject to human rights violations. Other states limit deprivation of nationality to specific groups of citizens, resulting in differential treatment of citizens, which could be discriminatory. Second, challenges inherent to citizenship deprivation measures in the Netherlands in respect of ensuring equal and unconditional citizenship. Third, reflections on how political rhetoric on citizenship revocation, particularly in the case of terrorism, breeds fear in society, disrupts social cohesion and makes people believe that it is acceptable to make a distinction between groups of citizens.


Course: Migration 101

In this course, we take apart some of the most commonly-held preconceptions about migration with Hein de Haas, one of the field’s leading scholars. After watching his videos, you’ll have a fundamental understanding of realities surrounding today’s debate on migrants and the refugee crisis. http://migrationmatters.me/course/migration-101/

EASO: asielcijfers okt17


Myria : Terugkeer, detentie en verwijdering van vreemdelingen in België: tegen welke prijs?

Hoewel elke regering het recht heeft om een migratiebeleid te voeren dat zij wenst, hoe restrictief en ontradend ook, is het ook haar plicht om de Europese en internationale normen na te leven die de grenzen van haar actie afbakenen, zoals het Europees Verdrag voor de Rechten van de Mens, de internationale conventies van Genève, en het Verdrag tegen foltering en andere wrede, onmenselijke en onterende behandeling of bestraffing. Het is tevens haar plicht om ook de veiligheid en de rechten van de personen die zij verwijdert integraal te eerbiedigen. Dat is de prijs van de werkelijke doeltreffendheid van elk beleid.

De gigantische financiële kosten, die exponentieel blijven toenemen ondanks de budgettaire beperkingen waartoe in andere migratiesectoren werd beslist of het gebrek aan bijkomende investeringen in minder dure oplossingen zoals alternatieven voor detentie, vereisen een strikte evaluatie. Hoeveel kost een verwijdering werkelijk? Hoeveel opgesloten personen worden effectief verwijderd? Hoeveel van hen keren terug? Wat is de prijs die op het gebied van de mensenrechten wordt betaald?

http://docs.vlaamsparlement.be/docs/biblio/opendigibib/monografie/2017/420_terugkeer_en_verwijdering.pdf (9.11.17)

HRW: The Deported - Immigrants Uprooted from the Country They Call Home

This report (with website) documents 43 cases in which immigrants, many of them long-term residents with strong family and other US ties, were deported through proceedings that largely disregard immigrants' fundamental rights and almost never take due consideration of their US homes and families. Teams of Human Rights Watch researchers interviewed the deportees inside Mexico. The report also analyzes US government data on arrests and deportations in the first seven months of the Trump administration

December 5, 2017

Nieuwsbrief 24, 2017

ILLEGAL - Stripboek over Ghanees jongetje dat illegaal naar Europa reist (okt17)

Ebo is alone. His brother, Kwame, has disappeared, and Ebo knows it can only be to attempt the hazardous journey to Europe, and a better life—the same journey their sister set out on months ago.
Ebo refuses to be left behind in Ghana. He sets out after Kwame and joins him on the quest to reach Europe. Ebo's epic journey takes him across the Sahara Desert to the dangerous streets of Tripoli, and finally out to the merciless sea. But with every step he holds on to his hope for a new life, and a reunion with his family.

Comments on rights of children in migration

The Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC Committee) and the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW Committee) jointly issued authoritative guidance on the need for comprehensive and rights-based policies for all children, regardless of their migration or residence status – across migration and public policies – in countries of origin, transit, and destination/residence.

The Joint General Comments represent guidance for governments on how to meet their obligations under the Convention on the Rights of the Child (ratified by all UN member states except the USA) and, for those governments that have also ratified it, the Migrant Workers’ Convention.

Tekst, oa: 44. The Committees are concerned that policies or practices that deny or restrict basic rights, including labour rights and other social rights, to adult migrants owing to their nationality, statelessness, ethnic origin or migration status may directly or indirectly affect children’s right to life, survival and development. ...Therefore, in line with article 18 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, States parties should ensure that children’s development, and their best interests, are taken fully into account when it comes to policies and decisions aimed at regulating their parents’ access to social rights, regardless of their migration status. Similarly, children’s right to development, and their best interests, should be taken into consideration when States address, in general or individually, the situation of migrants residing irregularly, including through the implementation of regularization mechanisms as a means to promote integration and prevent exploitation and marginalization of migrant children and their families.

Download two general comments on the human rights of children in situations of international migration. To view the press release of the UN Committees, click here.

Atlas des migrants en Europe : autres approches critiques (films, audio, dossiers, etc.)

Chaque année, des personnes viennent en Europe dans l’espoir d’une vie meilleure. Parmi elles, des candidats à l’exil, fuyant les guerres, la pauvreté et les crises politiques, voyagent souvent au péril de leur vie. Depuis 25 ans, près de 40 000 migrants sont morts ou ont disparu, par noyade ou épuisement, aux frontières européennes, dont plus de 6 000 pour la seule année 2016, la plus meurtrière jamais enregistrée.
L’augmentation des arrivées depuis 2015 a fait souffler un vent de panique au sein des États de l’Union européenne en proie à un véritable « sauve-qui-peut » devant des hommes, des femmes et des enfants : multiplication des murs et barrières pour « réguler les flux », ouverture de nouveaux camps, externalisation de l’accueil, militarisation accrue des frontières... la difficile gestion de la « crise des migrants » vient interroger tout le système européen des frontières, des politiques d’accueil et d’immigration.
Déconstruire les a priori, interroger les frontières, cartographier le contrôle sécuritaire et l’enfermement, enfin, et surtout, donner la parole aux migrants : tels sont les objectifs des textes, cartes, photographies et illustrations réunis dans cet atlas critique des politiques migratoires européennes.


Slavoj Zizek: Refugees, Terror and other troubles with the neighbors – Against the double blackmail

Today, hundreds of thousands of people, desperate to escape war, violence and poverty, are crossing the Mediterranean to seek refuge in Europe. Our response, from our protected Western European standpoint, argues Slavoj Zizek, offers two versions of ideological blackmail: either we open our doors as widely as possible; or we try to pull up the drawbridge. Both solutions are bad, states Zizek. They merely prolong the problem, rather than tackling it.
The refugee crisis also presents an opportunity, a unique chance for Europe to redefine itself: but, if we are to do so, we have to start raising unpleasant and difficult questions. We must also acknowledge that large migrations are our future: only then can we commit to a carefully prepared process of change, one founded not on a community that see the excluded as a threat, but one that takes as its basis the shared substance of our social being.
The only way, in other words, to get to the heart of one of the greatest issues confronting Europe today is to insist on the global solidarity of the exploited and oppressed. Maybe such solidarity is a utopia. But, warns Zizek, if we don't engage in it, then we are really lost. And we will deserve to be lost.

Europese Commissie: rapport over behandeling asielzoekers door Bulgarije

This document, written by Laurent Muschel Director of the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs, addresses problems with the asylum policy of Bulgaria. Mr Muschel lists a number of problems with the current conditions for asylum seekers and refugees in Bulgaria, such as: inadequate legal assistance, health and social services for asylum seekers and refugees, including vulnerable groups and unaccompanied minors; shortage of trained staff in the centers for detention and accommodation of asylum seekers that can provide assistance to vulnerable groups and unaccompanied minors; shortage of trained interpreters and reports of inferior quality of interpretation services; inferior living conditions at the accommodation centers; consistent high rate of rejections of asylum seekers from Afghanistan, significantly higher than the EU average, which raises concerns of discrimination and inadequate or insufficient evaluation of their applications; unclear national integration strategy that lacks detail and evidence of implementation.

http://bulgaria.bordermonitoring.eu/wp-content/uploads/sites/6/2017/11/DG-HOME-Letter-to-BG-6-July-2017.pdf, 6.7.17

Inspectie V&J : Tussen handhaven en dienstverlenen. Over het toezicht van de IND op de werkgever als erkend referent

Met de komst van het modern migratiebeleid (momi) in 2013 heeft de IND de taak gekregen om toezicht te houden op de erkend referent. Hiermee is een spanningsveld gecreëerd tussen dienstverlenend en handhavend optreden door de IND.

Het toezicht op referenten wordt zoveel mogelijk vanachter het bureau uitgeoefend, waarbij de nadruk ligt op samenwerking en informatie-uitwisseling met andere overheidsdiensten.

De inspectie constateert oa:

  • De IND heeft formeel dienstverlenende en handhavende taken binnen verschillende teams belegd. A.g.v. een reorganisatie is er onduidelijkheid ontstaan over de precieze taakverdeling, rollen en verantwoordelijkheden. Het team dat verantwoordelijk is voor de behandeling van de erkenningsaanvraag blijkt ook boeterapporten op te stellen.
  • Het risicoprofiel voor erkend referenten dat de IND inzet is kwalitatief nog niet op orde. Er bestaat een reëel risico dat signalen niet worden doorgegeven of niet actief worden opgevolgd. Ook worden er weinig controles op de erkend referent uitgevoerd.
  • De IND heeft in de periode 2014 t/m 2016 de waarschuwing en de bestuurlijke boete nagenoeg niet ingezet voor de werkgever als erkend referent, terwijl er wel overtredingen zijn geconstateerd. Schorsingen hebben niet plaatsgevonden. Het aantal intrekkingen is beperkt en heeft nauwelijks betrekking op bewuste overtreders.
  • De IND past de mogelijkheid om de kosten van de uitzetting op de erkend referent te verhalen niet toe.

Bijlage bij Kamerstuk 19637 nr. 2353, 23.11.17

Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel - Tiende Rapportage Mensenhandel

Uit het rapport blijkt o.m. dat de bescherming van buitenlandse slachtoffers van mensenhandel ontoereikend is. In H3 wordt daartoe het volgende overwogen.

Het proces rondom het verlenen van de bedenktijd is complexer dan uit het beleid blijkt. De politie, KMar en ISZW-DO kennen uiteenlopende werkwijzen om met de informatie uit een melding om te gaan, waarbij steeds sprake is van een vorm van veredeling van de informatie. Eerst als deze informatie is uitgezocht, komt men toe aan de beslissing om met een potentieel slachtoffer een informatief gesprek te voeren, of niet. En pas in dit gesprek buigt men zich over de vraag of de bedenktijd al dan niet moet worden verleend.

Het is de vraag of een beoordeling van de relevante feiten die een rol spelen bij het verlenen van de bedenktijd onnodig lang wordt uitgesteld. Door het samenvallen van het informatief gesprek en de beslissing omtrent het verlenen van de bedenktijd komen bovendien uiteenlopende belangen op hetzelfde moment aan de orde. Het risico bestaat dat het opsporings- en beschermingsbelang te zeer met elkaar op gespannen voet komen te staan.

In de Vc 2000 is opgenomen dat de politie reeds bij de geringste aanwijzing van mensenhandel de bedenktijd dient te verlenen. Vrijwel geen van de beslismedewerkers van de diverse opsporingsinstanties hanteert dit criterium. Rechtsongelijkheid ligt op de loer.

https://www.nationaalrapporteur.nl/Publicaties/Tiende-Rapportage-Mensenhandel/tiende-rapportage-mensenhandel.aspx (9.11.17)

IRR: Humanitarianism: the unacceptable face of solidarity (11nov17)

Drawing on the work of advocacy organisations across Europe, the report provides a sample of twenty-six case studies involving prosecutions of 45 individual humanitarian actors under anti-smuggling or immigration laws since September 2015. The report:

  • charts the ways in which member states have used criminal law to punish and deter those seeking to uphold standards of decency, in conflict with international human rights obligations such as the duty to rescue those in distress at sea, and the preservation of human dignity and physical integrity, and calls on the EC to provide a mandatory exemption from criminalisation for humanitarian aid, to bring the legal framework into line with international instruments;
  • describes a wider political culture of criminalisation whereby volunteers attempting to fill the gaps in state provision are stigmatised and criminalised for providing food, shelter and clean water to migrants in informal encampments or on the streets;
  • criticises Frontex and various EU politicians for their extraordinary attempts to bully and de-legitimise NGO search and rescue missions in the Mediterranean and suggests that, with its repeated slurs against Search and Rescue (SAR) NGOs, Frontex may have boosted far-right provocateurs and extremist politicians;

Nieuwsbrief 23, 2017

M.R. Cowey The relationship between unauthorized migration to Europe and the political representation of the numbers related to the migrants.

Even though the so-called ongoing refugee crisis has been discussed in depth by various scholars there is a lack of research which examines the comparison and correlation of the numbers of migrants arriving in Europe by institutions, such as the IOM, and their political representation. Therefore, this thesis will analyze whether the numbers published by the IOM match the numbers political elites claim entered Europe. Referring to the numbers this thesis will highlight peaks of migration flows of the selected case study and will then analyze political elites´ reactions within that period of time in order to discuss whether the numbers published by the IOM and the political elites´ reactions correlate causally or through circumstances. This thesis concludes that the IOM is considered a ´best estimation´ with regard to measuring unauthorized migration as accurately as possible .

http://scriptiesonline.uba.uva.nl/en/scriptie/635795 (juni17)

Mohammed Umar: The Illegal Immigrant (feb17)

Who is Mustapha, a respected Nigerian journalist and an aspiring filmmaker or an illegal immigrant wanted by the Home Office? Is he even Mustapha, or is he Michael, Kimani, or any one of the other identities he takes on to survive? But this is not just Mustapha’s story. It is a social saga with a glittering array of memorable characters embodying the ethnic and cultural diversity of London. Mohammed Umar’s The Illegal Immigrant not only gives us the African experience of the 1990s, but reveals a society knitted together from a tapestry of multiple brightly coloured strands: Africans from different parts of the continent, West Indians from different Caribbean islands, sub-continental Indians, Europeans, Iranians and many others. What they have in common is their quest for ‘another world, a new dawn and a new dream.’


Masterscriptie Stammeshaus, D.T.: Control and Compassion:The Framing of the Migration-Security Nexus within the Migration Policy of the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the Context of Increased Irregular Migration towards Europe between 2015 and 2017 (juli17)

The aim of this research is to analyze the framing of migration policy at the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in the context of increased irregular migration from Africa and Asia towards Europe in the time period of Summer 2015 until Summer 2017.

I show that the policy framing of the Dutch government hinges on negotiations of actors who are situated in a polarized national force field. The framing reflects a balance between control and compassion in the realm of migration due to diverging political views on the so-called migration-security nexus, which refers to the relation between migration and security. The migration-security nexus is represented in securitizing frames and humanizing frames. These frames are reflections of two theoretical notions of security. The first is securitization. This is a notion in which national security is prioritized. The second is human security. This is a notion in which the individual security of migrants is prioritized. The dominant frame of the Dutch government thus merges plural conceptions of the migration-security nexus.

Lees tekst

WEC: Migration and Cities (okt17)

The World Economic Forum has released a report taking a deep dive on migration and cities, exploring the types, causes and patterns of migration, the most affected corridors and cities, the impact on urban infrastructure and services, the solutions that can be employed and how cities can seek to future proof themselves to address this growing challenge.

The report captures the mitigation stories of 22 of the most affected cities around the world, including from North America (Montreal, Ottawa, Calgary, New York and Boston), Latin America (Sao Paulo and Medellin), Middle East and North Africa (Dubai, Amman, Ramallah), Sub Saharan Africa (Cape Town and Dakar), Asia (Pune, Surat, Guangzhou and Davao City), Europe (Berlin, Athens, Paris, Amsterdam and Rotterdam) and Oceania (Auckland). The report also presents a high level framework to achieve long term migrant integration and in delivering urban infrastructure and services efficiently and effectively to meet the needs of migrants.

Key highlights of the report can be found here (25.10.17)
You can download the entire report here (High resolution) or here (Low resolution).

Jaap van der Winden: Asielrecht - Deel 1: De asielprocedure

Dit boek beoogt inzicht te bieden in de asielprocedure en de mogelijke veranderingen die op stapel staan. Het kan nuttig zijn voor studie en (asiel)praktijk. Materiële onderwerpen als vluchtelingschap, subsidiaire bescherming en geloofwaardigheidsbeoordeling blijven onbesproken en een basisinzicht in die concepten wordt bekend verondersteld. Het boek loopt vooruit op een nieuwe druk van het handboek Asielrecht en zal daarvan deel uitmaken.

Aantallen asielzoekers, september:

EASO: https://www.easo.europa.eu/sites/default/files/Latest-asylum-trends-Sept-2017.pdf
UNHCR: https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/download/60384

Thematisch ambtsbericht over de politieke ontwikkelingen en de veiligheidssituatie in de DRC, 31.10.17

ECRE Policy Note: Debunking the ‘safe third country’ myth – ECRE’s concerns about EU proposals for expanded use of the safe third country concept

The note provides an analysis of the safe third country concept and takes a critical view of the recent proposals to redefine or reinterpret the concept under EU law. Finally, the Note puts forward recommendations to EU co-legislators and Member States to refrain from further expanding the scope of the safe third country concept.

https://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Policy-Note-08.pdf, 2.11.17

EHRM : Guide on Article 8 – right to respect for private and family life

The guide provides a comprehensive overview of the existing case-law regarding the right to respect for private and family life, including the jurisprudence on family reunification, deportation and expulsion decisions and children in detention centres.

http://www.refworld.org/docid/592be3c84.html, 30.4.17

EMN: Behoud van studenten van buiten de Europese Unie

Internationale studenten kunnen een bijdrage leveren aan de Europese economie en het opvangen van de gevolgen van vergrijzing. Het aantal internationale studenten in de EU steeg de laatste jaren. Toch was het aantal afgestudeerden dat in de EU bleef relatief laag.

Uit de EMN-Inform blijkt dat Nederland een van de weinige landen is met zowel een nationale strategie als een nationaal coördinatiemechanisme om afgestudeerde studenten te behouden.

EMN Inform

Papakonstantinou, M. A. Understanding the effects of human capital on economic growth

There is a strong consensus in the literature regarding the importance of education, and therefore human capital, for the economy and society as a whole. The core aim of this thesis is to examine the importance of human capital in facilitating faster growth.

By analyzing the impact of migration on the home country’s human capital. I find that countries with higher emigration rates of skilled workers show faster growth in knowledge-intensive manufacturing industries. This suggests evidence for ‘brain gain’ rather than ‘brain drain’.

http://hdl.handle.net/11370/1a7a3d21-9001-4de3-8d84-788abdda98e7, 2.11.17

OHCHR Report: In Search of Dignity: report on the human rights of migrants at Europe's borders

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) has published a recent report entitled "In Search of Dignity: report on the human rights of migrants at Europe's borders". The documenting the findings of OHCHR monitoring missions to border locations in Bulgaria, France, Greece, Italy and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. It also calls on European States to address urgently the need to protect the human rights of migrants in border areas and in transit across Europe.

http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Migration/InSearchofDignity-OHCHR_Report_HR_Migrants_at_Europes_Borders.pdf, 2017

EMN: Illegal employment of third-country nationals in the European Union

This Synthesis Report presents the main findings of the EMN Focussed Study on Illegal employment of third-country nationals in the European Union. The Study aims to map national policies and practices to prevent, identify and sanction illegal employment in the Member States.

https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/00_eu_illegal_employment_synthesis_report_final_en_0.pdf (aug17)
Nederland: Illegale arbeid door migranten uit derde landen komt in Nederland weinig voor (EMN Nederland, april 2017)

Matthew Flynn and Michael Flynn: Challenging Immigration Detention: Academics, Activists, and Policy-makers (sept17)

This book stresses the need for global policy-makers to address immigration detention in order to ensure compliance with fundamental human rights and prevent detention abuses. Approaching detention from an interdisciplinary perspective, this volume brings together leading writers and thinkers to provide a greater understanding of why it is such an important social phenomenon and suggest ways to confront it locally and globally. More information about the book is available here.

Post-Deportation Risks: A Country Catalogue of Existing References (okt17)

Dankzij inzet van Anouk Donse (Amnesty) en VluchtelingenWerk is de Country Catalogue, waarin informatie is opgenomen over de bekende risico’s van uitzetting naar diverse herkomstlanden, geupdated. Zie op de site van Stichting LOS hier.

Nieuwsbrief 22, 2017

Algemeen Ambtsbericht Zuid- en Centraal Somalië 2017 (1 oktober 2017)

Ernest van der Kwast : ‘Jouw toekomst is mijn toekomst’

In dit boek komen vier vluchtelingen aan het woord: Omar, Mohamad, Heba en Pouya. Zij studeren met steun van Stichting voor Vluchteling-Studenten UAF aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. Ernest van der Kwast, zelf zoon van een moeder met een vluchtgeschiedenis, legde de herinneringen, drijfveren en toekomstdromen van de studenten vast. Hij maakt kennis met veerkrachtige mensen die de moed hebben gehad om alles achter te laten en opnieuw te beginnen.

UNHCR: "Left in limbo: UNHCR Study on the Implementation of the Dublin III Regulation"

UNHCR has recently published a new report entitled ""Left in limbo: UNHCR Study on the Implementation of the Dublin III Regulation". The research seeks to assess the extent to which the Dublin III Regulation is implemented as well as the challenges that Member States face in effectively implementing it. It also formulates recommendations to maximise the potential of the Regulation as it currently stands and provide recommendations to feed into ongoing discussions on the proposed reform. UNHCR limited the research to 9 of the 32 Member States that take part in the Dublin system: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Malta, Norway, Poland, and the United Kingdom.

Promotie Eva Hilbrink: Adjudicating the Public Interest in Immigration Law (okt17)

Het Europese Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens (EHRM) stelt in gezinsmigratiezaken, dat het zal beoordelen of, gelet op de omstandigheden van het geval, het individuele belang en het belang van de staat op een eerlijke manier tegen elkaar zijn afgewogen. In werkelijkheid hanteert het Hof in meer dan de helft van dit type zaken een vastomlijnd beslissingsmodel, waarin stelselmatig voorrang wordt gegeven aan het recht van staten om migratie te reguleren. In de rechtspraak van Het Hof van Justitie van de EU (HvJEU) daarentegen, staat niet het recht van staten om migratie te reguleren, maar juist de bevordering van migratie voorop. Lidstaten moeten in elk concreet geval kunnen uitleggen waarom een individu geen recht heeft op toegang of verblijf. Het HvJEU beoordeelt dus steeds of staten wel voldoen aan de verplichting de omstandigheden van het geval inhoudelijk te beoordelen.

Eva Hilbrink trekt deze conclusies in haar proefschrift op basis van een systematische analyse van ruim 200 uitspraken van de twee hoogste Europese rechterlijke instanties op het gebied van het migratierecht: het EHRM en het HvJEU. Zij ging na in hoeverre deze twee hoven zich uitspreken over de redenen die staten ten grondslag leggen aan concrete besluiten tot verblijfsweigering.

Hilbrinks analyse laat zien hoe de beoordeling van ‘de omstandigheden van het geval’ voor beide hoven een verschillend doel dient: het EHRM wil voorkomen dat het staten voor de voeten loopt bij het reguleren van migratie, terwijl het HvJEU juist probeert te voorkomen dat staten de bevordering van vrij verkeer van Unieburgers en het recht op gezinshereniging frustreren.


CEPS : Pathways towards legal migration into the EU : reappraising concepts, trajectories and policies (okt17)

Over the past 15 years, the ‘Europeanisation’ of policies dealing with the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals has led to the development of a common EU acquis. Yet questions related to policy consistency, legal certainty and fair and non-discriminatory treatment in working and living standards still characterise the EU’s legal framework for cross-border mobility. This book critically explores the extent to which EU legal migration policies and their underlying working notions match the transnational mobility of individuals today. It addresses the main challenges of economic migration policies, both within the EU and in the context of EU cooperation with third countries. Special consideration is given to the compatibility of EU policies with international labour standards along with the fundamental rights and approach to fairness laid down in the EU Treaties. The contributions to this book showcase the various uses and potential of social science and humanities research in assessing, informing and shaping EU migration policies. Leading scholars and experts have brought together the latest knowledge available to reappraise the added value of the EU in this area. Their reflections and findings point to the need to develop a revised set of EU policy priorities in implementing a new generation of legal pathways for migration.


Domestic Worker Photographer Network: 365 Days of Invisible Work 

This is a compendium of political representations of domestic work collected by an online community of amateur photographers made up of migrant workers, gardeners, dishwashers, artists, teachers, and many more. Organized as a calendar, 365 Days of Invisible Work is dedicated to making visible the myriad labours negated by oppressive capitalist structures by highlighting the daily work of cleaners, mothers, interns, care-givers, and many others!

The network drew name and inspiration from the international worker photography movement of the 1920s and 1930s, the first amateur photographers using cameras to represent the lives and conditions of workers.

In that spirit, 365 Days of Invisible Work collectively re-thinks today’s living and labour conditions, starting from the routines of domestic maintenance and care.


Nieuwsbrief 21, 2017

Onderzoeksrapport ´The 2% Tax for Eritreans in the diaspora´

Voor dit onderzoek werden Eritreeërs uit verschillende Europese landen ondervraagd op basis van interviews en vragenlijsten. Het rapport gaat in op o.a. de volgende aspecten van de diasporabelasting:

  • Vanwege de afwezigheid van een geldige grondwet en een legitieme wetgevende macht in Eritrea is er geen sprake van een duidelijke juridische basis voor de heffing van de diasporabelasting. Hetzelfde geldt voor de sancties bij niet-betaling van de belasting.
  • Onder internationaal recht is het heffen van diasporabelasting in beginsel toegestaan, zolang daar geen dwang of intimidatie aan te pas komt.
  • De Eritrese ambassades zijn verantwoordelijk voor het innen van de belasting en deze vallen hiërarchisch onder de regeringspartij PFDJ. De belastingbetaling wordt onder meer afgedwongen door weigering van consulaire diensten, maar ook door ontnemen van privileges, sociale druk en uitsluiting.
  • De VN Veiligheidsraad heeft Eritrea opgeroepen te stoppen met inning van de diasporabelasting. Als gevolg hiervan is de belastinginning steeds meer onder de rader gaan plaatsvinden. Het voornaamste obstakel bij het aanpakken van de inning is het beperkt aantal aangiftes van Eritreeërs, uit angst voor de mogelijke gevolgen.
  • De inning van de belasting kan ervoor zorgen dat Eritreeërs in Nederland zeer moeilijk los kunnen komen van het land waaruit zij zijn gevlucht. Dit heeft negatieve effecten op de integratie van Eritreeërs in Nederland. De combinatie van de diasporabelasting, de hoge bijstandsafhankelijkheid (50% in 2014), en eventuele overige afdrachten compliceren de toch al moeilijke participatie van Eritreeërs in de Nederlandse samenleving. (1.6.17)

Hoff, A.M.L. (Marlinda) van der, Combatting Irregular Migration from West Africa - A Study on the Effectiveness of the EU Migration Compacts (juni17)

With regard to the effectiveness of the migration compacts, one can conclude that the efforts of the EU in Niger have been most effective in terms of rule adoption and rule application, followed by Mali, whereas the efforts of the EU in Nigeria and Senegal have been the least effective. Looking at the different policy areas, one can conclude that the instruments which the EU has deployed in the fields of socio-economic development, border management and migrant smuggling, have been relatively effective in terms of rule adoption and rule application, whereas no new rules or policies have been adopted or applied on legal migration and on return and readmission. In terms of goal attainment, one should be sceptical toward the conclusion that the outflow of irregular migrants from Niger has been reduced. Moreover, return rates have not increased, and the number of arrivals of irregular migrants from the Central Mediterranean route in Europe (along with the number of deaths in the Mediterranean Sea) has not been reduced.                                        


Der Lange Sommer der Migration – Grenzregime III (dec16)

Der Band setzt sich mit der anhaltenden Migration nach Europa und den Politiken der Kontrolle und Regulierung auseinander. Die Autor*innen rekonstruieren die Migrationen des Sommers 2015, nehmen die Kämpfe an den Hotspots der Auseinandersetzungen in den Fokus, stellen Unterstützungsinitiativen vor und untersuchen die neuen Tendenzen der europäischen Migrations-, Flüchtlings- und Grenzpolitik anhand unterschiedlicher Länder.


Ambtsbericht documenten in Syrie, 9.10.17

Masterscriptie R. Nagarajah: Veilige landen van herkomst ook veilig voor LHBTI? (okt17)

Nederland hanteert een lijst van veilige landen van herkomst van asielzoekers. Het concept houdt in dat de algemene situatie in het land van herkomst de aanname rechtvaardigt dat de ingezetenen niet in aanmerking komen voor asiel. Indien een asielzoeker afkomstig is uit een als veilig aangemerkt land, geeft dat het vermoeden dat deze geen internationale bescherming nodig heeft. Bij de aanwijzing van veilige landen van herkomst is de positie van minderheden een belangrijke kwestie. In deze scriptie richt ik mij vooral op de vraag in hoeverre het concept rekening houdt met de positie van LHBTI.

Open PDF file

ACVZ : Quickscan buitenschuld

In juli 2013 heeft de ACVZ het advies ‘Waar een wil is maar geen weg’ over de toepassing van het buitenschuldbeleid gepubliceerd. Ook na de beleidsaanpassingen die mede naar aanleiding van dat advies zijn doorgevoerd, bleven gemeenten en maatschappelijke organisaties bij de adviescommissie aandacht vragen voor de (in hun ogen te) strikte toepassing van het buitenschuldbeleid. Om inzicht te verschaffen in de huidige werking van het buitenschuldbeleid heeft de ACVZ een quickscan uitgevoerd. Daarvoor zijn vragen voorgelegd aan de IND, DT&V, IOM en aan de tien voor het advies reeds geïnterviewde advocaten.

  • Er wordt een beperkt aantal aanvragen voor buitenschuldvergunningen ingediend en het inwilligingspercentage schommelt de laatste jaren rond 20%. Sinds het ACVZ-advies van 1 juli 2013 zijn er in buitenschuldzaken drie uitspraken in beroep en zes in hoger beroep (*) gedaan. De beroepschriften zijn alle drie ongegrond verklaard. Van de zes uitspraken in hoger beroep zijn er vijf gepubliceerd en in alle vijf is het door de SvV&J ingediende hoger beroep gegrond verklaard.
  • Sinds de inwerkingtreding van deze beleidswijziging op 1 april 2014 (WBV 2014/12) zijn tussen de één en negen vreemdelingen in het bezit van een buitenschuldvergunning (of een vergunning voor voortgezet verblijf o.g.v. een daarvóór verleende buitenschuldvergunning) op eigen initiatief zijn teruggekeerd. In nog geen enkel geval hebben nieuwe terugkeer-mogelijkheden geleid tot niet verlenging of intrekking van de buitenschuldvergunning.
  • In het advies van 2013 is de aanbeveling gedaan dat DT&V aangeeft welke ondersteunende documenten de vreemdeling nog met hulp van derden zou moeten proberen te verkrijgen. Uit de quickscan blijkt dat de aanbeveling niet is overgenomen. DT&V wijst in algemene zin op de documentatieplicht en kan er in het individuele geval op wijzen welke documenten nog moeten worden overgelegd en hoe de vreemdeling dat kan doen.

Download de quickscan, 9.10.17

Khosravi, Shahram (Herausgegeben von) After Deportation - Ethnographic Perspectives (aug17)

This book focuses on what happens to migrants and failed asylum seekers after deportation. Although there is a growing literature on detention and deportation, academic research on post-deportation is scarce. The book produces knowledge about the consequences of forced removal for deportee's adjustment and reintegration in so-called home country.

This book contributes to a more multifaceted picture of criminalization of migration and adds novel aspects and approaches, theoretically and empirically, to the field of migration research.


Nieuwsbrief 20, 2017

Institute on Statelessness and Inclusion : "Statelessness Essentials Booklets"

These short and reader-friendly booklets are designed to introduce the reader to key aspects of the phenomenon of statelessness.

The first Statelessness Essentials booklet looks at statelessness under the Universal Periodic Review, a critical human rights mechanism under which all UN member states are subjected to a review of their performance across all human rights. The second introduces statelessness to development actors and looks at how an understanding of statelessness is crucial to delivering on the UN's Sustainable Development Goals.

Website www.statelessnessandhumanrights.org

This site houses not only material relating to promoting the right to a nationality under the Convention on the Rights of the Child, but a much wider range of resources for addressing statelessness through different human rights norms and frameworks. There's also a calendar of upcoming human rights reviews and civil society submission deadlines

UNHCR: Desperate Journeys

During the period of the report UNHCR and partners continued to receive allegations of push-backs by State authorities, including in Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Spain and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. There were also reports of access to asylum procedures being denied and allegations of violence in some instances. While some States have taken steps to address such actions, for example through investigating allegations of human rights abuses at borders, the report notes that further measures are required.

Download: Desparate Journeys report (pdf)

Promotie Tanja van Veldhuizen: Where I come from and how I got here: assessing credibility in asylum cases (sept17)

Asielzoekers moeten een geloofwaardig verhaal vertellen over wie zij zijn, waar ze vandaan komen, en waarom ze gevlucht zijn. Asielambtenaren onderzoeken dit verhaal in verschillende interviews. Uit dit proefschrift blijkt dat asielambtenaren veel gesloten vragen stellen die asielzoekers weinig ruimte geven om hun verhaal in eigen woorden te vertellen. De vragen sluiten bovendien vaak niet aan bij wat de meeste mensen over hun thuisomgeving weten.  Zij vormen onvoldoende een toets van de waarheid. Het onderzoek laat ook zien hoe het beter kan: meer open vragen stellen op een manier die aansluit bij de belevingswereld van de asielzoeker.


Council of Europe Report: Age assessment: Council of Europe member states’ policies, procedures and practices respectful of children’s rights in the context of migration (sept17)

The report raises concern over inaccuracies in age assessment of migrants related to widely different and often inadequate procedures and safe guards across Member States. 

The report highlights inter alia that medical age assessment continues to be used as a common method for ascertaining an individual’s age, despite a wealth of evidence on their dubious accuracy and reliability. Another element of concern remains the application of margins of error to qualify the accuracy of age assessment methods. Particular attention is paid to procedural safeguards applicable in the age assessment context: there are wide disparities across the continent with regard to different safeguards, for instance the right to appeal.
Statistical data on the number of children undergoing age assessment in Europe remain scarce to date. According to AIDA, the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children undergoing age assessment in the first half of 2017 was: 6,000 in Sweden, 314 in procedures conducted by the Home Office in the UK, 42 in Greece, 0 in Croatia.


Promotie Jessica de Jong: Human trafficking for the purpose of organ removal (okt17)

Het verbod op de handel in menselijke organen en de toenemende vraag naar organen voor transplantatie heeft geleid tot een zeer winstgevende ondergrondse transplantatie-industrie. Op deze zwarte markt worden patiënten en donoren uitgebuit door criminele netwerken en actoren die op zeer goed georganiseerde wijze illegale niertransplantaties faciliteren.

De organisatie van mensenhandel met het oogmerk van orgaanverwijdering is een dynamisch proces dat voortvloeit uit de wisselwerking tussen illegale marktdynamieken, de vaardigheden en netwerken van de daders en strafrechtelijke inspanningen. Als gevolg van lokaal ontoereikende juridische kaders en een gebrek aan kennis en ervaring met deze vorm van mensenhandel, is van handhaving nauwelijks sprake of heeft dit geleid tot verplaatsingseffecten als het gaat om het werkgebied of de modus operandi van de criminele organisaties.


Promotie E. Thoonen: Death in State custody. Obligations to prevent premature death of detainees and to investigate deaths of detainees pursuant to the European Convention on Human Rights (okt17)

Welke verplichtingen hebben overheden die zijn gebonden aan het Europees Verdrag voor de Rechten van de Mens om overlijden van gedetineerden te voorkomen? Wat dienen overheden op grond van dit verdrag te doen om effectief onderzoek te verrichten wanneer een gedetineerde overlijdt? Bevat het Nederlandse juridische kader waarborgen om aan voornoemde verdragsverplichtingen te voldoen?

Specifieke onderwerpen die aan de orde komen zijn zorg in detentie en conflicterende belangen rondom end of life decisions van gedetineerden zoals de weigering van medische behandeling, honger- en dorststaking, suïcide en euthanasie.

Een van de conclusies van Eveline Thoonen is dat het Nederlandse juridische kader met betrekking tot het onderzoek naar overlijdensgevallen in detentie niet op alle vlakken voldoende waarborgen bevat om aan de verdragsverplichtingen te voldoen. Dat geldt onder meer voor de te onderzoeken vragen, het borgen van de onafhankelijkheid van alle betrokken partijen in het onderzoek en het betrekken van nabestaanden in het onderzoek.


UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Stateless Persons in Detention: A tool for their identification and enhanced protection (juni17)

This tool has been developed for the purpose of identifying persons in the context of detention who may be stateless and to support the achievement of solutions to their predicament.


Michael Flynn and Matthew Flynn (ed): Challenging Immigration Detention: Academics, Activists, and Policy-makers (sept17)

Governments increasingly rely upon detention to control the movement of undocumented migrants and asylum seekers. Approaching detention from an interdisciplinary perspective, this new edited volume brings together leading writers and thinkers to provide a greater understanding of why it is such an important social phenomenon and suggest ways to confront it locally and globally. More information is available here.

Deirdre Conlon, Nancy Hiemstra, and Alison Mountz: Spatial Control: Geographical Approaches to the Study of Immigration Detention (sept17)

This Global Detention Project Working Paper shows how geography’s conceptualization of detention as a form of spatial control offers tools to scholars and activists working to contest this form of immigration control. The authors organize their review around three core themes: im/mobilities, scaled analyses, and borders/bordering. They argue that geographical approaches to the study of detention have helped generate a critical orientation that can disrupt the spread of detention across and within a widening array of places and social groups. Read paper here.

Lars Breuls, Steven De Ridder : Het repatriëren van gedetineerden zonder verblijfsrecht uit België: Het samenspel tussen justitie en vreemdelingenzaken aan de achterdeur van de gevangenis (juni17)

Om repatriëringen van strafrechtelijk gedetineerden te vergemakkelijken, werden in Belgie in 2012 verschillende wetswijzigingen doorgevoerd. Met dit onderzoek werd nagegaan welke factoren een invloed hebben op de repatriëringspraktijk en in het bijzonder welke rol de wetswijzigingen van 2012 hierin gespeeld hebben.

Uit de analyse van de wetswijzigingen komt een toenemende versmelting tussen penitentiair recht en vreemdelingenrecht naar voren: migratiedoelstellingen spelen in toenemende mate reeds een rol tijdens de penale fase. Uit de analyse blijkt dat de beduidende toename van het aantal repatriëringen na 2012 aan deze wetswijzigingen kan worden toegeschreven. De significante invloed van andere factoren (aanwezigheid van documenten, het hebben van een specifieke nationaliteit) op de kans op een effectieve repatriëring blijft doorheen de periode 2008-2014 consistent. De vraag rijst echter of penologische doelstellingen zoals re-integratie voor deze doelgroep niet volledig ondergesneeuwd zijn geraakt.  


Nieuwsbrief 19, 2017

Ongedocumenteerde jongeren In Maastricht en omgeving (aug17)

In de gemeente Maastricht wordt ondersteuning en opvang geboden aan ongedocumenteerde jongeren door diverse organisaties en particuliere initiatieven. Om de discussie over noodzakelijke of wenselijke omvang en inhoud van deze ondersteuning en opvang zo feitelijk mogelijk te kunnen voeren, heeft de gemeente gevraagd om het in kaart brengen van de groep ongedocumenteerde jongeren in Maastricht en omgeving en van het netwerk dat de ondersteuning en opvang van deze groep verzorgt.

Uit dit onderzoek blijkt dat de opvang van ongedocumenteerde jongeren in Maastricht en omgeving een probleem is – gelukkig geen heel groot probleem, maar wel een reëel probleem. Een probleem dat opgelost kan worden door samen te werken – gemeente, hulporganisaties, formele en informele zorg en articulieren.

Van de gemeente wordt gevraagd pal te gaan staan voor de opvang en ondersteuning aan deze groep jongeren en goede samenwerking tussen de formele en informele organisaties te faciliteren, te stimuleren en zo nodig ten behoeve van die gewenste samenwerking te intermediëren. Kies als gemeente voor een sociaal gezicht door pal te staan voor humanitaire opvang, door integrale en op de toekomst gerichte ondersteuning en opvang te borgen en door te investeren in een leefbaar perspectief voor deze jongeren.

Stammeshaus, DT: Control and Compassion: Framing of the Migration-Security Nexus 2015 - 2017 (juli17)

The aim of this research is to analyze the framing of migration policy at the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in the context of increased irregular migration from Africa and Asia towards Europe in the time period of Summer 2015 until Summer 2017. Framing is considered here as a process ... read more in which actors with different viewpoints create a discursive interpretation of a situation. I will show that the policy framing of the Dutch government hinges on negotiations of actors who are situated in a polarized national force field. The framing reflects a balance between control and compassion in the realm of migration due to diverging political views on the so-called migration-security nexus, which refers to the relation between migration and security. The migration-security nexus is represented in securitizing frames and humanizing frames. These frames are reflections of two theoretical notions of security. The first is securitization. This is a notion in which national security is prioritized. The second is human security. This is a notion in which the individual security of migrants is prioritized. The dominant frame of the Dutch government thus merges plural conceptions of the migration-security nexus. The academic relevance of this research is to demonstrate how policy framing can be ambiguous and therefore can be used to legitimate different political viewpoints. My goal is not to give an analysis of actual policy measures of the Dutch government, nor to give a moral assessment of its practices. Instead, I aim to provide an evaluation of the framing of the policy, and illustrate how an ambiguous policy framing is useful in legitimizing a wide range of policy practices.

Open Access version via Utrecht University Repository

CEPS: Pathways towards Legal Migration into the EU - Reappraising concepts, trajectories and policies (sept17)

This book addresses the main issues and challenges pertaining to legal migration policies in the EU as well as in the context of the EU’s cooperation with third countries. Are EU legal migration policies, and the concepts substantiating their rationale, well suited to capture the social characteristics and changing trajectories of individuals exercising cross-border mobility? The book deals with this overarching question by incorporating and expanding on lessons learned and key findings from previous analysis dealing with the various interdisciplinary components of legal migration governance in Europe and beyond. As such, it also contributes to the open consultation procedure on “the European Union’s (EU) legislation on the legal migration of non-EU citizens” of the Commission. https://www.ceps.eu/system/files/PathwaysLegalMigration.pdf

UNICEF : Harrowing Journeys (sept17)

Kinderen en jongeren op de vlucht naar Europa krijgen onderweg te maken met afschuwelijke mensenrechtenschendingen. 77 procent van de minderjarigen die over Libië en de Middellandse Zee reist meldt ervaringen met misbruik, uitbuiting en mensenhandel-achtige praktijken. Dat stellen UNICEF en IOM, de VN-migratie organisatie, in het rapport ‘Harrowing Journeys’. Het rapport is gebaseerd op interviews met 22.000 migranten en vluchtelingen, waaronder 11.000 kinderen en jongeren.

Het rapport toont aan dat hoewel alle migranten en vluchtelingen grote risico’s lopen, kinderen en jongeren onder de 25 jaar onderweg veel kwetsbaarder zijn om misbruikt en uitgebuit te worden. Via Turkije en Griekenland gebeurt dat bijna twee keer zo vaak, via Libië is het risico 13 procent hoger. Vooral kinderen en jongeren uit Sub Sahara Afrika lopen grote risico’s op uitbuiting en mensenhandel, meer dan kinderen en jongeren uit andere delen van de wereld. Het gaat om 65 procent ten opzichte van 15 procent langs de oostelijke route, en 83 procent vergeleken met 56 procent langs de centrale route over de Middellandse Zee. Doorslaggevende factor is waarschijnlijk racisme.

Verder is het opvallend dat kinderen en jongeren op de vlucht die een laag niveau van onderwijs hebben genoten, kwetsbaarder zijn voor uitbuiting en geweld. Vooral de reis via Libië is gevaarlijk vanwege de wetteloosheid, criminaliteit en militia in het land. Gemiddeld betalen jongeren 1000 tot 5000 dollar voor de reis en ze arriveren vaak in Europa met een schuld, dat leidt tot een groot risico op verdere uitbuiting in Europa.

Paul Collier: Refuge, Transforming a Broken Refugee System, mrt17

Europe is facing its greatest refugee crisis since the Second World War, yet the institutions responding to it remain virtually unchanged from those created in the post-war era. As neighbouring countries continue to bear the brunt of the Syrian catastrophe, European governments have enacted a series of ill-considered gestures, from shutting their borders to welcoming refugees without a plan for their safe passage or integration upon arrival. With a deepening crisis and a xenophobic backlash in Europe, it is time for a new vision for refuge. Going beyond the scenes of desperation which have become all-too-familiar in the past few years, Alexander Betts and Paul Collier show that this crisis offers an opportunity for reform if international policy-makers focus on delivering humane, effective and sustainable outcomes - both for Europe and for countries that border conflict zones. Refugees need more than simply food, tents and blankets, and research demonstrates that they can offer tangible economic benefits to their adopted countries if given the right to work and education. An urgent and necessary work, Refuge sets out an alternative vision that can empower refugees to help themselves, contribute to their host societies, and even rebuild their countries of origin.


AIDA, The Dublin system in 2016 Key figures from selected European countries (mrt17)

Figures on the application of the Dublin system are one of the most challenging aspects of data collection in the Common European Asylum System. Despite a clear obligation under the Migration Statistics Regulation for Member States to provide information on requests and transfers every year, Eurostat has never been able to present complete Dublin statistics for all  countries participating in the system. These data gaps prevent researchers, practitioners and policymakers, not least EU institutions, from conducting informed debates on the Dublin system. Even the evaluation of the Dublin III Regulation for the European Commission had to rely on outdated, incomplete information.

AIDA: The concept of vulnerability in European asylum procedures (sept17)

The EU asylum acquis presents a fragmented legal framework for identifying vulnerable categories of asylum seekers, as well as defining the special guarantees necessary to preserve their ability to enjoy their rights and comply with their obligations in the asylum process. Although increased awareness and adaptability of Member States’ asylum systems has been a primary objective of the successive legislative reforms of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), this has only yielded limited results in practice so far.

The application of EU law standards in Member States’ legal orders and systems faces important protection gaps, which result as much from poor implementation as from the complexity of and limitations inherent in current EU asylum law. Moreover, the terminological and conceptual ambiguity relating to the concept of vulnerability and the varying scopes of the categories of asylum seekers considered “vulnerable” in the recast Asylum Procedures and Reception Conditions Directives has contributed to incoherent approaches to the protection of these asylum seekers in national asylum processes.

http://www.asylumineurope.org/2017-ii, 8.9.17

Asylos: Nigeria: Domestic Violence and FGM (aug17)

  1. Despite some legislation aimed at addressing it domestic violence remains a significant issue in Nigeria with limited protection for victims
  2. FGM is not yet banned in many states in Nigeria and there are reports of continuing high prevalence of FGM in the country.
  3. Little direct information could be found on the situation for single mothers in Nigeria, but there are reports of discrimination and difficulties encountered by single women without family connections.

IOM : Migration Policy Practice on Irregular Migration (sept17)

Most of the articles in this special issue explore how data on irregular migration might be improved and discuss various innovative approaches. The articles tackle a range of different topics and approaches, including on the challenge of gathering data on migrant fatalities, new qualitative approaches to gathering data on irregular migration by the Mixed Migration Monitoring Mechanism Initiative (4Mi), new data methods developed by IOM’s Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) system, the use of qualitative methods to explore the issue of migrant smuggling, data collection processes in relation to human trafficking and exploitation on the Mediterranean routes, and key sources of data on irregular migration in Europe used by the European Commission’s Knowledge Centre on Migration and Demography.
Available for PDF download

Nieuwe Sirene Manual over toegang SIS -vingerafdrukkendatabase (sept17)

COMMISSION DECISION (EU) on the SIRENE Manual and other implementing measures for the second generation Schengen Information System (SIS II)

http://www.europeanmigrationlaw.eu/documents/Sirene%20Manual.pdf, 7.9.17

European Law Institute: Detention of Asylum Seekers and Irregular Migrants and the Rule of Law (sept17)

The European Law Institute has published a new study on the detention of asylum seekers and the rule of law. The statement is the result of a project developed over two years and it gathers judicial standards applicable to the assessment of the lawfulness of immigration detention.

Claudia Olivier-Mensah TransREmigration Rückkehr im Kontext von Transnationalität, persönlichen Netzwerken und Sozialer Arbeit (sept17)

Welche transnationalen Muster lassen sich in Rückkehrprozessen aus Sicht der Sozialen Arbeit identifizieren? Anhand einer empirischen Studie, die Lebenswelten von ghanaischen BildungsremigrantInnen aus Deutschland beleuchtet, thematisiert Claudia Olivier-Mensah den konzeptionellen und analytischen Zusammenhang von Rückkehr und Sozialer Arbeit und zeigt: Remigration muss in der Perspektive der Sozialen Arbeit als Teil eines zirkulären Systems verstanden werden – statt unter einem Reintegrationsfokus in den nationalstaatlichen Herkunftskontext als erstrebtes Endziel gefasst zu werden. Die qualitativen Analysen münden in dem Konzept der »TransREmigration« sowie in einer Typologie, mit welcher verdeutlicht werden kann, welche transnationalen Mobilitäts-, Netzwerk-, Wissens- und Zugehörigkeitsmuster in Rückkehrprozessen eine Rolle spielen.


Breuls & De Ridder : Het repatriëren van gedetineerden zonder verblijfsrecht uit België (juni17)

In Belgie vindt sinds 2012 een versmelting tussen penitentiair recht en vreemdelingenrecht plaats: migratiedoelstellingen spelen een steeds grotere rol tijdens de strafrechtelijke fase. De toename van het aantal repatriëringen na 2012 heeft hiermee te maken. De vraag rijst echter of strafrechtelijke doelstellingen zoals re-integratie voor deze doelgroep niet volledig ondergesneeuwd zijn geraakt.


Nieuwsbrief 18, 2017

Undocumented migrants and their access to basic social services 

Michelle Levoy, PICUM-Director is talking to GMDAC: https://vimeo.com/230602902

Brigitte Kukovetz: Irreguläre Leben, Handlungspraxen zwischen Abschiebung und Niederlassung

Eine Vielzahl an Menschen lebt ohne Aufenthaltsrecht in Europa. Über ihre Lebensrealität und die Gründe für ihren Status ist häufig wenig bekannt. Auch der staatliche Umgang mit ihnen ist nicht klar definiert – besonders hinsichtlich Abschiebungen. Brigitte Kukovetz zeigt in ihrer empirischen Untersuchung, dass sich Menschen mit irregulärem Aufenthalt in einem Catch-22, einem unlösbaren Dilemma zwischen unterschiedlichen Handlungsalternativen, befinden. Sie untersucht dieses Phänomen, indem sie die Interaktionen zwischen abschiebungsgefährdeten Migrant_innen, deren Unterstützer_innen und staatlichen Behörden analysiert und mögliche politische Handlungsspielräume diskutiert.

http://www.transcript-verlag.de/978-3-8376-3959-9/Irregulaere-Leben (sept17)

K.J.A. Åberg : With Law as a Tool - On Political Activities of Irregular Migrants (juli17)

This thesis examines two different aspects of the interplay between human rights law and the political activities of irregular migrants. While the conflict between universalism and particularism within human rights norms has been subjected to extensive discussion, the aim of this thesis is to study this issue in the context of irregular migrants exercising politics as well as adding a constructive perspective on this issue by employing Bonnie Hong’s theory of how this conflict between underlying values and the notion of ‘humanity’ can be a valuable tool for changing the current order.


The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship (aug17)

This book provides a multidisciplinary, comparative discussion of different dimensions of citizenship: as legal status and political membership; as rights and obligations; as identity and belonging; as civic virtues and practices of engagement; and as a discourse of political and social equality or responsibility for a common good.

Topics include the 'selling' of citizenship, multilevel citizenship, in-between statuses, citizenship laws, post-colonial citizenship, the impact of technological change on citizenship, and other cutting-edge issues. Special emphasis is put on the question of whether inclusive and egalitarian citizenship can provide political legitimacy in a turbulent world of exploding social inequality and resurgent populism.


IDWF: Domestic Workers Speak

There are more than 67 million domestic workers across the world, according to estimates from the International Labour Organisation. In the last decade, awareness has greatly increased about their living and working conditions. We now know that abuse and exploitation, child labour, discrimination, starvation, violence, debt bondage, invisibility, and the many crimes held under the umbrella of ‘trafficking’ are disproportionately represented within this traditionally unorganised and invisible sector. Many domestic workers – especially migrant domestic workers – are denied access to labour and human rights. Even in the countries where rights exist on paper, they are extremely difficult to implement, and ‘the mentality of servitude’ still prevails in different forms.

In order to get a better understanding of some of these issues that often remain hidden, we asked domestic workers’ rights activists to tell us about their struggles, their experiences as domestic workers, the reasons for their ongoing exploitation, and the strategies to fight it.

Lees hier: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2lN4rGTopsaZ0VLdmZuYnBuc0U/view

EASO Country of Origin Information (COI) report on 'Afghanistan Key socio-economic indicators, state protection, and mobility in Kabul City, Mazar-e Sharif, and Herat City'. (23.8.17)

In 2016, Afghanistan ranked second in the top countries of origin in EU+ countries ([1]), with more than 175,000 applicants. In the first seven months of 2017, more than 28.000 applications have been lodged in the EU+ by Afghans, still ranking second.

The report provides a general description of the socio-economic situation in three cities in Afghanistan – Kabul, Mazar-e Sharif and Herat – covering the following topics: economic growth; employment; poverty; food security; access to education; health care; housing; and coping strategies. The report also looks into actors of protection, focussing both on different branches of the Afghan National Security Forces and the formal justice system. Finally, travel into these three cities is researched by looking into restrictions or requirements on travel in Afghanistan and ways of travelling by domestic air traffic.

Special attention is paid to the fate of women and displaced people – IDPs and returnees – throughout the report and a seperate chapter is dedicated to children.

Angeliki Dimitriadi : Irregular Afghan Migration to Europe: At the Margins, Looking In (juli17)

This book examines the issue of irregular transit migration to the EU by presenting the case of the Afghans. Focusing on the Afghans that arrive in and seek to move through Greece, it highlights the unique problems facing this distinctive migratory movement. Recognising that the migratory journey is a continuous interplay of policies and individuals, how each responds and adapts, the book itself moves between countries, policies, stories of migrants and the author’s own experiences in the field. Drawing on extensive empirical research conducted in both Greece and Turkey, it explores why such transits occur and the decision-making process of the migrants in transit. Through the example of Afghan migration this book contributes to broader debates concerning transit migration, hospitality and asylum (how it is perceived, access to it). This book presents a timely study of the rise of ‘fortress Europe’ and the current discourse around refugees and migrants, amidst the largest refugee flow since WWII in Europe. This book’s interdisciplinary approach will make it a valuable resource for policy makers as well as Sociology and Politics scholars.

Game : Bury Me, My Love (sept17)

Door dit spel beleeft de speler het verhaal van een Syrische vluchteling die Europa in probeert te komen. "Moet ik de boot nemen naar Griekenland of proberen te lopen naar Istanbul?" Het is een appje van je vrouw. Jij blijft in Syrië om voor je ouders te zorgen, zij vlucht naar Europa om een beter leven te krijgen en te ontsnappen aan de oorlog in het land. Je communiceert via WhatsApp en ontvangt naast berichtjes ook foto's, video's en locatiegegevens. Het doel is om ervoor te zorgen dat ze veilig in Europa aankomt.

Bury Me, My Love is beschikbaar voor Android en iOS.

Dr. Violeta Moreno-Lax : Accessing Asylum in Europe ; Extraterritorial Border Controls and Refugee Rights under EU Law (sept17)

  • Provides a timely assessment of the interplay between border and migration controls and the rights of migrants, with particular attention to access to asylum.
  • Exhaustively covers the field providing detailed insights for scholars, practitioners and students.
  • Examines what the current law states, building to points of contention, and then proposes solutions for the future in the application and interpretation of the law.

Hier te koop: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/accessing-asylum-in-europe-97801...

Spitzer, Anna-Lena : Strafbarkeit des Menschenhandels zur Ausbeutung der Arbeitskraft (sept17)

Mit der Untersuchung des Menschenhandels zur Ausbeutung der Arbeitskraft (§§ 232, 232b StGB) greift die Studie einen hochaktuellen und praxisrelevanten Ausschnitt der europäischen Kriminalpolitik auf. Neben den nationalen Strafvorschriften stehen die europarechtlichen Vorgaben zum Menschenhandelsstrafrecht, namentlich Art. 4 Abs. 1 EMRK, Art. 5 GRCh und die strafrechtsrelevanten Vorschriften der RL 2011/36/EU, im Mittelpunkt der Begutachtung. Die Arbeit zeigt den Regelungsgehalt der im Zuge der Umsetzung der Richtlinie 2011/36/EU neugeschaffenen §§ 232, 232b StGB unter gebührender Beachtung der europarechtlichen Vorgaben zum Menschenhandelsstrafrecht auf und untersucht die Kompatibilität der Strafvorschriften mit den europarechtlichen Vorgaben zum Menschenhandelsstrafrecht. Besondere Bedeutung kommt hierbei der Frage zu, ob die strafrechtliche Definition des Sklavereibegriffs, insbesondere in Hinblick auf eine mögliche Inlandsgeltung, entsprechend den unionsrechtlichen Vorgaben zu erweitern ist.

Hoe ziet een dag in een vreemdelingen-detentiecentrum eruit?


Massocki Ma Massocki: The Pride Of An African Migrant: In Remembrance of Jimmy Mubenga (aug17)

For resisting his deportation in 2010, an African asylum seeker named Jimmy Mubenga was tortured and killed at Heathrow airport by British immigration officers. For having peacefully protested against the killing of Jimmy Mubenga, I was arrested and detained naked in a cold cell. After some time, even the place I was staying at was set on fire in order to kill me.

I interviewed some other African asylum seekers who were victims of grave acts of torture in the UK and I narrate their shocking and unbelievable stories in this book. I call upon the UNHCR and the UNHCHR to defend the rights of these refugees.

Nieuwsbrief 17, 2017

Valeria Luiselli: Vertel me het einde (non-fictie)

In 2015 werkte Valeria Luiselli — woonachtig in New York — als tolk met honderden Latijns-Amerikaanse kinderen die zonder ouders de Amerikaanse grens waren overgestoken. Ze vroeg hun steeds dezelfde veertig, voorgeschreven vragen voor de aanvraag van hun verblijfsvergunning. In het boek wordt pijnlijk duidelijk waar de naïeve realiteit van overheidsinstanties schuurt met de gruwelijke wereld die de kinderen ontvluchten. Er ontvouwt zich een universele aanklacht, een relaas dat net zozeer toepasbaar is op hen die het geweld van Hondurese drugskartels ontvluchten als dat van een Syrische despoot.


Nieuwsbrief 16, 2017

European Asylum Support Office Country of Origin Report : 'Pakistan security situation' (4.8.17)

Asylos: Afghanistan: Situation of young male 'Westernised' returnees (aug17)

Asylos has compiled a COI research report on the situation of young male ‘Westernised’ returnees to Kabul, Afghanistan. These asylum seekers have spent their teenage years in Europe and are denied a new form of protection after turning 18 on the basis that the security situation in Afghanistan has improved and that return to or internal relocation to Kabul will be both reasonable and relevant. Our report serves to counterbalance a general lack of understanding and lack of country information about the relevant issues at stake and contribute with this report to a more informed debate about the situation of young ‘Westernised’ returnees to Afghanistan. It is also intended as a tool to assist legal practitioners and to help ensure that decision-makers consider all relevant material.

APT: Position Paper for the UN Global Compact on Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration.

In view of the increasing use of immigration detention as a deterrent of migration and the toughening of domestic and regional migration policies resulting in human rights violations, including torture and other forms of ill-treatment, the Association for the Prevention of Torture considers that the Global Compact on Migration offers a timely opportunity to raise concerns over these issues.  APT presents seven key advocacy messages that are indispensable to the Compact from a torture prevention perspective.
The key messages are:

  • It is not a crime to migrate. Detention of migrants must remain a measure of last resort.
  • Immigration detention of children must end.
  • If migrants are deprived of liberty as a last resort, authorities should not impose criminal-like conditions of detention.
  • Legal and procedural safeguards must be guaranteed to all migrants deprived of liberty.
  • Forced returns increase the risks of torture and ill-treatment and should be a measure of last resort.
  • Persons in situation of vulnerability should be diverted from detention.
  • All situations of deprivation of liberty of migrants should be regularly monitored by independent bodies.

Read the APT position paper here

European legal and policy framework on immigration detention of children

This report aims to serve as a source of support for practitioners in enacting polices in line existing international and regional norms regarding detention. The report outlines existing safeguards against unlawful and arbitrary detention and highlighting good practices. There is a section on detention of stateless children.

Michael Flynn : Kidnapped, Trafficked, Detained? The Implications of Non-state Actor Involvement in Immigration Detention (Journal on Migration and Human Security, July 2017)

Proposals on how to improve migration management policies like the Global Compact for Migration recognize the need to involve a range of actors. However, observed through the lens of immigration detention many policy trends raise challenging questions, particularly those that involve non-state actors in migration control. Who are these new actors involved in the expansion of immigration detention? How does their involvement influence our understanding of detention? And what steps should the international community take in response? Read.

Roel Janssen: Alles Verloren (roman)

Zeilster Tessa Insinger en fotograaf Mortimer Davies varen naar de Griekse eilanden en langs de Turkse kust voor een reportage over vluchtelingen die er alles voor over hebben Europa te bereiken. Op zee redden ze een drenkeling uit een omgeslagen rubberboot: een Syrisch meisje. Ze is de enige overlevende van de ramp die zich heeft afgespeeld.

Tessa en Mortimer besluiten te achterhalen wat er met het meisje is gebeurd. Daarbij stuiten ze op gewiekste mensensmokkelaars, bevlogen hulpverleners, dubieuze zakenlieden en schimmige Europeanen die een radicale oplossing van het vluchtelingendrama nastreven. Met informatie van het Syrische meisje ontrafelen Tessa en Mortimer een complot dat de Europese vluchtelingencrisis in een schokkend politiek daglicht plaatst.

Nieuwsbrief 15, 2017

Algemeen Ambtsbericht Russische Federatie


René aan de Wiel: BED BAD BROOD - Onderzoek naar besluitvorming rondom de kenmerken van gemeentelijke opvangvoorzieningen voor dakloze irreguliere migranten (juni17)

Na de voorlopige voorziening in december 2014 openden er BBB-voorzieningen in het hele land. Er werden nieuwe opvanglocaties geopend of opvang werd op ad-hoc-basis beschikbaar gesteld. In sommige gemeenten bestond de opvang voor deze groep al, maar zorgde de juridische verplichting voor een extra stimulans voor gemeenten om deze uit te breiden en om de organisaties te financieren. Dankzij de fundamentele onenigheid tussen het Rijk en de gemeenten heeft het Rijk zich redelijk afzijdig gehouden wat de uitvoering van de BBB betreft. Hoe uiteindelijk in de praktijk invulling is gegeven aan de opvangplicht is het resultaat van een samenspel tussen gemeente en de BBB-uitvoerder, oftewel de lokale ngo’s. Het is daarom de moeite waard te belichten hoe ngo’s in deze specifieke casus erin slaagden het gemeentelijk opvangbeleid te beïnvloeden.


Tendayi Bloom, Katie Tonkiss and Phillip Cole: Understanding Statelessness (aug17)

The publication is a comprehensive and in-depth examination of statelessness, exploring the theoretical, legal and political concept of statelessness through the work of leading critical thinkers in this area. They offer a critique of the existing framework through detailed and theoretically-based scrutiny of challenging contexts of statelessness in the real world and suggest ways forward.


Peter Orner : Underground America: Narratives of Undocumented Lives (Voice of Witness) (aug17)

They arrive from around the world for countless reasons. Many come simply to make a living. Others are fleeing persecution in their native countries. Millions of immigrants risk deportation and imprisonment by living in the U.S. without legal status. They are living underground, with little protection from exploitation at the hands of human smugglers, employers, or law enforcement. Underground America presents the remarkable oral histories of men and women struggling to carve a life for themselves in the U.S.


Witnessing the Transition: Moments in the Long Summer of Migration (jul17)

The so-called refugee crisis turned out to become, as we now call it, a long summer of migration in 2015. Following earlier movements across European borders, the arrival of a large number of refugees and migrants changed the realities in Berlin, Germany, and Europe in significant ways. Since then, local, national, and European politics in reaction to these movements increasingly polarize between hospitality and hostility.

The e-book project brought together professors and students as citizens and scholars who got involved in everyday personal, empirical, ethnographic encounters with these moving realities. The authors document our common efforts to bear witness of the social, cultural and political transition resulting from these processes in Berlin and beyond.

The E-book is available for download here.

Significant: monitor inburgering buitenland 2016

Met oa aantallen, slagingspercentages per nationaliteit en opleiding, vrijstellingen

Bijlage bij Kamerstuk 32824 nr. 199, 27.3.17

Gabriella Sanchez : Critical Perspectives on Clandestine Migration Facilitation: An Overview of Migrant Smuggling Research (feb17)

This paper provides an overview of contemporary, empirical scholarship on clandestine migration facilitation. It then argues that the processes leading to clandestine or irregular migration are not merely the domain of criminal groups. Rather, they also involve a series of complex mechanisms of protection crafted within migrant and refugee communities as attempts to reduce the vulnerabilities known to be inherent to clandestine journeys. Both criminal and less nefarious efforts are shaped by and in response to enforcement measures worldwide on the part of nation-states to control migration flows.

Strategies to facilitate clandestine or irregular migration constitute a system of human security rooted in generations-long, historical notions of solidarity, tradition, reciprocity, and affect (Khosravi 2010). Yet these strategies have become increasingly stigmatized. This contribution tries to incorporate into current protection dialogues the perceptions of those who rely on criminalized migration mechanisms to fulfill mobility goals, and in so doing, provides solutions towards promoting safe and dignifying journeys for all migrants and asylum seekers in transit.


Louise Boon-Kuo : Policing Undocumented Migrants: Law, Violence and Responsibility (aug17)

Migration policing experiments such as boat turn-backs and offshore refugee processing have been criticised as unlawful and have been characterised as exceptional. Policing Undocumented Migrants explores the extraordinarily routine, powerful, and above all lawful practices engaged in policing status within state territory. This book reveals how the everyday violence of migration law is activated by making people ‘illegal’. It explains how undocumented migrants are marginalised through the broad discretion underpinning existing frameworks of legal responsibility for migration policing.

Drawing on interviews with people with lived experience of undocumented status within Australia, perspectives from advocates, detailed analysis of legislation, case law and policy, this book provides an in-depth account of the experiences and legal regulation of undocumented migrants within Australia. By showing the organised and central role of discretionary legal authority in policing status, this book proposes a new perspective through which responsibility for migration legal practices can be better understood and evaluated.

Vluchtelingen in getallen, vluchtelingenwerk

In 2016 vragen 18.171 mensen asiel aan in Nederland. In 2015 zijn dat er 43.093. Het grootste deel daarvan is afkomstig uit Syrië (2.158 personen) en Albanië (1.664). 11.814 mensen herenigen zich in 2016 als nareiziger met een familielid met een verblijfsvergunning.

Download de publicatie Vluchtelingen in getallen 2017 (pdf)

Handleiding staatlozen in vreemdelingenbewaring

PILP en ASKV hebben voor advocaten een handleiding ontwikkeld met alle argumenten tegen het detineren van staatlozen en ongedocumenteerden met de status 'nationaliteit onbekend'. Lees hier hoe u de handleiding kunt opvragen.

Nanda Roep: Sable (roman) (juni17)

Wat gebeurt er als je een illegale allochtoon je vertrouwen geeft..? Schrijfster Nanda Roep heeft in het verleden, begin jaren negentig, een illegale Tunesiër van papieren voorzien. Op deze periode is haar roman Sable gebaseerd.

Sable is een realistische roman over liefde en achterdocht tussen twee culturen. Het vertelt hoe vooroordelen de liefde in de weg kunnen zitten.
Zodra studente Anna de jonge Tunesiër Sable ontmoet, in Utrecht, is het liefde op het eerste gezicht. Maar als illegale allochtoon heeft hij nogal wat nodig, te beginnen bij onderdak in haar studentenkamer. Is Sable verliefd, of veinst hij het vanwege de papieren? Als hij haar na enkele maanden vraagt om mee te gaan op familiebezoek, een reis die zij geheel moet betalen, is haar omgeving gealarmeerd. Anna weet niet wat te doen, is zij bereid dit risico met haar leven te nemen? De reis is al geboekt...

Shida Bazyar: ’ s Nachts is het stil in Teheran (roman) (mrt17)

1979. De sjah is verdreven en de revolutie in Iran is een feit. Behsad en Nahid zijn idealistisch en willen zich inzetten voor een rechtvaardige samenleving. Maar hun optimisme verdwijnt als de Islamitische Revolutie steeds meer aanhangers krijgt. De repressie neemt toe en omdat de situatie te gevaarlijk wordt, besluiten ze met hun twee kleine kinderen naar Duitsland te vluchten. Daar bouwen ze een nieuw leven op, maar het verlangen naar het moederland blijft. Bovendien neemt de angst om hun kinderen aan het nieuwe land te verliezen toe.


Nieuwsbrief 14, 2017

United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) - Concluding Observations on the sixth periodic report of the Netherlands, 6.7.17

Het VN-Comité inzake Economische, Sociale en Culturele Rechten publiceert concluding observations in reactie op de zesde periodieke rapportage van Nederland over naleving van het VN-verdrag inzake economische, sociale en culturele rechten. Het Comité doet o.a. de volgende aanbevelingen:

► Domestic and migrant workers. (30) Take immediate action to ensure the effective protection of all workers in the labour market, including domestic workers and migrant workers, in accordance with the Covenant. Reconsider the dual responsibilities entrusted to labour inspectors, with a view to ensuring access to effective remedies for all workers subject to unjust or unfavourable labour conditions.

► Undocumented migrants. (39) The Committee is concerned that restrictive provisions in, inter alia, the Benefit Entitlement Act (Koppelingswet), which links access to housing, education and welfare benefits to legal residency status, have contributed to a precarious situation for undocumented migrants and rejected asylum seekers in the State party. The Committee is further concerned that access to food, water and housing are not guaranteed under the Act. The Committee also notes with concern that the Government has made access to housing for undocumented migrants conditional upon a “demonstrated willingness to return to the country of origin” and that it has threatened to sanction municipalities that continue to provide shelter to undocumented migrants (arts. 2 and 11). (40) Ensure that all persons in its jurisdiction enjoy the minimum essential levels of each of the rights in the Covenant, including the rights to food, housing, health, water and sanitation. The Committee urges the State party to: (a) refrain from making access to food, water and housing conditional on an individual’s willingness to return to his or her country of origin and (b) put in place a comprehensive strategy to ensure that everyone, including undocumented migrants, enjoy the minimum essential levels of all Covenant rights and ensure it is supported by adequate funding. (41) The Committee reminds the State party of its statement on the duties of States towards refugees and migrants under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (E/C.12/2017/1) and its general comment no. 20 (2009) on non-discrimination in economic, social and cultural rights.

► Access to health care for migrants, refugees and asylum seekers. (47) Reconsider the decision not to fund interpreter services in health-care facilities and to ensure that all persons in its territory enjoy access to health services without discrimination. The Committee reminds the State party of its general comment no. 14 (2000) on the right to the highest attainable standard of health.

► Education. (51) Take all necessary measures to reduce segregation and attainment gaps by investing more resources in education for children from ethnic minorities, including increasing the number of qualified teachers and adequate education facilities for those groups.

► Other recommendations. (57) Consider ratifying the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families.

Ombudsman: VROUWEN IN DE KNEL Een onderzoek naar knelpunten in de vrouwenopvang

Uit het onderzoek is gebleken dat vrouwen zonder verblijfsvergunning of met een afhankelijke verblijfsvergunning in de praktijk knelpunten ervaren bij de toegang tot de vrouwenopvang. Tijdens het onderzoek is voorts gebleken dat de locaties voor vrouwenopvang in de praktijk, zeker als sprake is van een levensbedreigende situatie, deze vrouwen niet aan hun lot overlaten en dat zij in de opvang worden gedoogd. …

Soms speelt er nog een ander toegangsprobleem. Namelijk bij vrouwen, die na mishandeling in het land van herkomst werden achtergelaten maar weer terugkeren naar Nederland. In zo'n geval is geen sprake meer van directe dreiging met geweld waardoor zij geen toegang krijgen tot de vrouwenopvang. Maar het is voor hen vaak onmogelijk om zelf in huisvesting te voorzien, terwijl de dreiging nog steeds bestaat.

Volgens belangenorganisaties zouden de opvanglocaties niet voldoende zijn uitgerust op (ongedocumenteerde) migratievrouwen. Deze vrouwen hebben vaak geen verblijfsadres in Nederland, waardoor de overheid geen zorgtaak voelt….

Ombudsman 2017/075:, 6.7.17

EASO: Annual Report on the Situation of Asylum in the EU 2016

In 2016, almost 1.3 million applications for international protection were made in the EU+. This was a 7 % decrease compared to 2015 when close to 1.4 million applications were lodged. The highest numbers of asylum applicants recorded were citizens of Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan and Nigeria. The main receiving countries were Germany, Italy, France, Greece and Austria. Syria was the top citizenship of applicants reported with its citizens accounting for 26 % of all applications in the EU+.

In 2016, more than 65 000 unaccompanied minors (UAMs) applied for international protection in the EU+, 37 % less than the previous year. Afghan nationals lodged 37 % of all UAM applications in the EU+.

EASO - Annual Report on the Situation of Asylum in the EU in 2016 (5.63 Mo), 5.7.17

Natascha Zaun : EU Asylum Policies (jan17)

Understanding the way negotiations about asylum work and why the rules they produce may often not be applied is important, in particular for policy makers engaged in the area of asylum in a race for always more legislation at EU level. This book  sheds light on the reasons why the Member States adopt one or another attitude and also their bargaining capacity.

The book suggests that most of the time EU Member States do not want to change their policies through EU law, but try to keep them. Thus, they want to influence EU legislation by uploading their domestic standard to the EU level. While all Member States want to do so, some are generally more successful than others. Strong regulators, i.e. Member States with a long-standing tradition in receiving refugees and asylum-seekers, were much more effective in influencing EU legislation than weak regulators, Member States that could not draw upon this experience during EU negotiations.

The increased inflow of refugees in 2015 has highlighted that Border Member States were not ready to turn into top recipients of asylum-seekers while at the same time having to introduce asylum systems from scratch. Without political will to transfer powers to the EU level, a Common European Asylum System that really deserves this label will not materialise.

Joan Monras, Javier Vázquez-Grenno, Ferran Elias Moreno:  Understanding the Effects of Legalizing Undocumented Immigrants (April 2017)

This paper investigates the consequences of the legalization of around 600,000 immigrants by the unexpectedly elected Spanish government of Zapatero following the terrorist attacks of March 2004 (Garcia-Montalvo (2011)). Using detailed data from payroll-tax revenues, we estimate that each newly legalized immigrant increased social-security revenues by 3,504 Euros on average. This estimate is only 49 percent of what we would have expected from the size of the newly documented immigrants, which suggests that newly legalized immigrants probably earned lower wages than, and maybe affected the labor-market outcomes of, other workers. We estimate that the policy change deteriorated the labor-market outcomes of some low-skilled natives and immigrants and improved the outcomes of high-skilled natives and immigrants. This led some low-skilled immigrants to move away from high-immigrant locations. Correcting for migration and selection, we obtain that each newly legalized immigrant increased payroll-tax revenues by 4,398 Euros or 26 percent more than the raw payroll-tax revenue data estimates. This shows the importance of looking both at public revenue data and the labor market to understand the consequences of amnesty programs fully.

Discussion Paper No. 10687

AI: Uitgezet - Mensenrechten in het kader van gedwongen terugkeer en vertrek (juli17)

In dit rapport beschrijft Amnesty International de Nederlandse wetgeving, het beleid en de praktijk van gedwongen uitzetting en de gevolgen die het heeft voor de mensen zelf. Het uitzetten zelf vindt grotendeels achter gesloten deuren plaats, op plaatsen die niet toegankelijk zijn voor het publiek. Onafhankelijk toezicht is nodig om te controleren of de overheid de mensenrechten in de praktijk respecteert, maar het is de vraag of dit in Nederland goed geregeld is. In de context van uitzettingen speelt daarnaast nog een ander probleem: zodra de overdracht aan de autoriteiten in het land van herkomst heeft plaatsgevonden, stopt het toezicht. De Nederlandse overheid weet niet wat er daarna gebeurt. Erger: ze wil het ook niet weten. Problemen moeten uitgezette mensen in het land van uitzetting zelf maar oplossen.

Wij hopen dat dit rapport bijdraagt aan het inzichtelijk maken van de problemen die gedwongen uitzetting met zich meebrengt en dat het kan fungeren als een ankerpunt in de noodzakelijke discussie rondom dit thema.


Laura Mcveigh: Het huis met de judasboom (roman)

Samar is vijftien jaar. Samar is Afghaans. En Samar is vluchteling. Samen met haar familie is ze op de vlucht voor de taliban die haar thuisland teisteren met radicale ideeën. Nu zitten ze in Rusland in een trein, die heen en weer rijdt. Ze stappen niet uit, want ze weten niet waar ze heen moeten. Samar neemt je mee naar het begin van haar verhaal, waarin zij laat zien wat de taliban voor invloed hadden op Afghanistan. We zien hoe haar familie langzaam verscheurd wordt door verdeeldheid, verdriet, maar vooral door onderdrukking. Hoewel Samar alles wordt ontnomen wat haar lief is, blijft ze hoop houden. Hoop op een betere wereld.

Nieuwsbrief 13, 2016


Free digital learning opportunities for migrants and refugees - An analysis of current initiatives and recommendations for their further use

This report summarises the efficiency and efficacy of free digital learning (FDL) for the integration, inclusion and further learning of migrants and refugees in Europe and in neighbouring regions in conflict. The report assesses the success factors and limitations of FDL and draws conclusions about how FDL’s efficiency and efficacy could be improved. The report also proposes a categorisation of FDL offers according to their design and purposes. Emphasis is placed on initiatives that take a ‘blended’ (online and face-to-face) and ‘facilitated’ (support services and mentoring) approach, as this was found to be optimal by both users of FDL and providers. General recommendations are provided about how the European Union and other interested actors can invest in this field, enhance synergies and design effective and efficient FDL offers for migrants/refugees in the future

https://publications.europa.eu/nl/publication-detail/-/publication/6b00598c-24cd-11e7-b611-01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF/source-30973832, 18.4.17

EMN: Beleidsoverzicht Migratie en asiel in Nederland 2016 (mei17)

Thema’s die aan bod komen zijn: reguliere migratie, integratie, internationale bescherming (asiel), alleenstaande minderjarige vreemdelingen en andere kwetsbare groepen, maatregelen tegen mensenhandel, illegale migratie en grenstoezicht, terugkeer, en migratie en ontwikkeling.


The Asylum Lottery: Recognition Rates Vary Strongly within Germany (juni17)

The Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) makes the initial decision about asylum applications in Germany. Surprisingly, one notices considerable differences if one extrapolates the decision to the länd where they are made.

While Saarland and Bremen had with 69% and 55,7 % respectively, the highest recognition rates over the period from 2010 to 2015, Berlin and Saxony could be found at the bottom of the ranking with 24,6% and 26,9%. There are also huge differences between in outcomes for different countries of origin.


EMN : aantallen gezinshereniging en toelatingspercentages 2014-2016 (jun17)

In de afgelopen drie jaar was meer dan een derde van alle aanvragen voor verblijfsvergunningen die bij de Immigratie en Naturalisatiedienst (IND) werden ingediend, gerelateerd aan gezinsmigratie. Ook het aantal aanvragen voor gezinsmigratie is in de laatste drie jaren gestegen. De grootste toename is te zien bij het aantal nareisaanvragen; hier heeft zich het aantal tussen 2014 en 2016 meer dan verdubbeld (van 14.040 naar 31.840 aanvragen).


AIDA: The detention of asylum seekers in Europe Constructed on shaky ground?

Despite the entry into force of common standards relating to detention, the deprivation of liberty of asylum seekers as a migration control instrument varies significantly from one country to another. In 2016, detention was applied to a substantial part of the asylum-seeking population in Bulgaria, while its use remained low in Poland or even minimal in Malta.

At the same time, the trend is to increase detention infrastructure across Europe, with notable examples Turkey, Italy, Spain and Greece.
The expansion of detention in Europe is also pursued in legal forms. The permissive and often uneasy interpretation of concepts such as the “risk of absconding” or “public order”, has led to wider use of detention against asylum seekers in contradiction of fundamental rights and safeguards. Similar expansion also transpires in the use of detention of asylum seekers in the context of border control, where Hungary and Poland have created risks of systematic and arbitrary detention through an almost exclusive conduct of asylum procedures at the border.

https://www.ecre.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/AIDA-Brief_Detention-1.pdf, june 2017

Post-deportation risks: a country catalogue of existing references (juni17)

Stichting LOS heeft een landenoverzicht gepubliceerd met een lijst van mogelijke risico’s na uitzetting. De lijst bevat een overzicht, verzameld uit Nederlandse en internationale rapporten, van gedocumenteerde risico’s na uitzetting op korte en langere termijn, ingedeeld per land van herkomst. Zo blijkt dat mensen bij gedwongen terugkeer een boete kunnen krijgen of vastgezet worden vanwege een eerdere illegale uitreis of vanwege vermeend landverraad. Ook moeten terugkeerders soms ambtenaren op het vliegveld omkopen om een veilige toegang te verkrijgen, zelfs wanneer zij in het bezit zijn van een laissez passer. 

De Nederlandse overheid heeft ervoor gekozen niet structureel onderzoek te doen naar risico’s voor mensen direct na aankomst op de luchthaven. Ondanks dit gebrek aan informatie voert de Nederlandse overheid de druk op terugkeer wel op.


Nieuwsbief 12, 2017

Ambtsbericht Iran 29.5.17

EASO :Country of Origin Information (COI) Report : 'Nigeria – Country Focus'.

The report provides an overview of selected topics in Nigeria, relevant for the international protection status determination of Nigerian applicants. In April 2017, Nigeria was the third-ranked country of origin in Europe. A majority of Nigerian applicants for international protection originate from the southern part of the country, and a large part of them from Edo state.

The first chapter of the report provides background information and deals with issues related to Boko Haram, vigilantism, ethnic-religious violence, corruption, and abuse of power by security forces. The second chapter presents the security situation in the country's six regions and thematic security issues such as conflicts between 'indigenes' and 'settlers' and between nomads and farmers. The third chapter covers the judiciary, sources of Nigerian legislation and the functioning of law enforcement. Chapter 4 is devoted to gender-related issues, such as the widespread domestic violence of which mainly women are victims, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) the prevalence of which is steadily decreasing, and child and forced marriages largely occurring in northern Nigeria. Trafficking of Human Beings (THB) is discussed only briefly as this topic is covered comprehensively in the abovementioned Sex Trafficking of Women report. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the situation of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transsexual (LGBT) persons, and their treatment by society and authorities, and discusses the impact of the recent legislation prohibiting same sex marriages. The sixth chapter gives an overview of the main religions in Nigeria, and highlights several types of violence and conflicts linked to religion. Finally, Chapter 7 focuses on human rights issues related to secret societies (such as the Ogboni), university cults (violence, recruitment and the possible consequences of refusing such a cult), the occurrence of ritual killings, and chieftaincy succession issues.

In October 2014, EASO published a COI report on Sex Trafficking of women.

Scottish Parliament: Destitution, asylum and insecure immigration status in Scotland

Evidence received showed the asylum and immigration system is peppered with points at which the risk of destitution becomes likely. Once destitute, it is much harder for people to re-engage with the asylum process. We believe more work must be undertaken to identify the scale and nature of destitution in Scotland, particularly because in carrying out this inquiry, we found visible homelessness is the tip of the iceberg and destitution is largely hidden in plain sight, with many organisations picking up the pieces. We have asked the Scottish Government (and public authorities) for a number of actions:

  • The creation of a 'Scottish anti-destitution strategy' to inform a national approach to mitigating destitution. (para 51)
  • The creation of a new Scottish Government advocacy service for destitute people with insecure immigration status.(para 190)
  • The creation of a national coordinated practitioners’ network, which would include Scottish Government officials, representatives from health boards, local authorities, non-government organisations, third sector organisations, and legal practitioners. (para 191)

https://sp-bpr-en-prod-cdnep.azureedge.net/published/EHRiC/2017/5/22/Hidden-Lives---New-Beginnings--Destitution--asylum-and-insecure-immigration-status-in-Scotland/3rd%20Report.pdf, 22.5.17

UK: daklozenhulp verklikt ongedocumenteerden aan de vreemdelingendienst

Homelessness charities in the UK are reported to have cooperated with ‘Immigration Compliance and Enforcement’ teams (ICE) through joint patrols and information sharing, which lead to the detention and deportation of foreign rough sleepers. A report of Corporate Watch ‘The Round-Up: rough sleeper immigration raids and charity Collaboration’ reveals this new relationship between care providers and ICE, undermining the duty of homelessness organisations to care for destitute people. This is a result of the ‘hostile environment’ policy of the government.

Read the full report here.(mrt17)

WHO: Undocumented women and access to health services

The World Health Organization’s (WHO) European magazine on sexual and reproductive health Entre Nous published an article on undocumented women’s access to health services in Europe. The article describes the obstacles faced by women with irregular status in getting health care, and the impact on their health, families and communities. It also outlines health professionals’ ethical duty to provide care on a non-discriminatory basis, noting position statements by professional associations, such as by World Medical Association (WMA) and the European Board and College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (EBCOG) that take such a stance. The authors recommend that the European Commission, in collaboration with WHO and other relevant partners, establish a working group to develop a European-wide human rights and evidence-based policy for ensuring health care for all migrant women and their families, regardless of migration status.

The full issue available is here

EASO : EU asylum trends march 2017


European Commission : Communication on protection of children in migration (apr17)

The communication aims to provide a series of coordinated and effective actions to the pressing protection gaps and needs that children face at all stages of migration processes, ranging from their identification, reception, implementation of procedural safeguards, as well as establishment of durable solutions.

The communication underlines how appropriate procedural safeguards must be applied to all children present on the territory of the European Union, including at all stages of the asylum and return procedure, and how a number of key protection measures, notably as regards access to information, legal representation and guardianship, the right to be heard, the right to an effective remedy and multidisciplinary and rights-compliant age assessments, needs to be stepped up. It calls for durable solutions to be found for children, following a best interests determination, and for governments to seek to ensure availability of status determination procedures and resolution of residence status for children who will not be returned, in particular for those who have resided in the country for a certain period of time.

While the communication restates the standard in the EU law that allows detention of migrant children only as a last resort, when strictly necessary, for the shortest time possible, it emphasises how this must be exclusively in exceptional circumstances and how everything possible must be done to ensure that a viable range of alternatives to the administrative detention of children in migration is available and accessible, including through support provided by the EU funds.

The communication is available here. A Commission Staff Working Document: Implementing the Action Plan on Unaccompanied Minors (2010-2014) was published alongside the communication and is available here.

Zwitserse jeugdartsen : botonderzoek geeft geen uitsluitsel over leeftijd

Leur conclusion: "Aucune méthode scientifique ne permet d’établir précisément l’âge d’un jeune qui se situerait entre 15 et 20 ans afin de définir avec certitude s’il est majeur ou mineur.

La Société suisse de pédiatrie, comme l’ont déjà fait plusieurs sociétés et académies internationales de pédiatrie recommande à ses membres et à tout médecin sollicité de ne pas participer à la détermination de l’âge des jeunes requérants d’asile et de prendre position dans ce sens auprès des institutions cantonales en charge de la migration. »

Zie ook : https://asile.ch/tag/age-osseux/

City Deal: internationaal ondernemend talent aantrekken (mei17)

De City Deal Warm Welkom Talent is overeengekomen door de steden  Amsterdam, Den Haag, Eindhoven en Groningen, en de ministeries van Economische Zaken, Veiligheid en Justitie, Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, en Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap. Het doel van de City Deal  is om buitenlands ondernemend talent aan te trekken en de ruimte te geven om in Nederland te wonen, te ondernemen en te groeien. De focus ligt bij start-ups, scale-ups (snelle groeiers), en ondernemers in de creatieve sector. Deze groep ondernemers  levert een onmisbare bijdrage aan de economie. Zij verrijken het Nederlandse bedrijfsleven met innovatieve ideeën en waardevolle netwerken.

Het belang om te investeren in de aantrekkingskracht van Nederlandse stedelijke regio’s op internationaal talent wordt inmiddels ook onderschreven door de Stuurgroep internationale handelsbevordering. Zij adviseert een nieuw kabinet brede steun te geven aan de resultaten van de City Deal Warm Welkom Talent, onder andere via hervorming van wet- en regelgeving.

Lees de aanbevelingen in het eindrapport.

Afghanistan Analyst Network: Voluntary and Forced Returns to Afghanistan in 2016/17: Trends, statistics and experiences

While hundreds of thousands of Afghans sought protection in Europe throughout 2015/16, an increasing number have been returning to Afghanistan, both voluntarily and involuntarily. The number of voluntary returnees from Europe picked up significantly throughout 2016, with additional returns in the first four months of 2017, reaching a total figure of over 8,000. By contrast, the number of deportations has been significantly lower, at only around 350 over the same period. AAN’s Jelena Bjelica and Thomas Ruttig examine the trends, policies and practices relevant to those who have returned. They found that services available to those returning – in both categories – are patchy.

https://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/voluntary-and-forced-returns-to-afghanistan-in-201617-trends-statistics-and-experiences/, 19.5.17

Forced Migration Review: Resettlement (feb17)

Resettlement is receiving greater prominence in the context of the recent surge in numbers of refugees. This traditional ‘durable solution’ – the managed movement of refugees to a safe third country – already affects many thousands of refugees every year, the communities they move into, the people they leave behind and the agencies that work with them.

With the prospect that numbers will continue to rise, this is an opportunity both to try new approaches and to re-examine old ones. This issue of FMR looks at some of the modalities and challenges of resettlement in order to shed light on debates such as how – and how well – resettlement is managed, whether it is a good use of the funds and energy it uses, and whether it is a good solution for refugees. Case-studies draw in particular on some of the countries that resettle the largest numbers of refugees.


Ilker Atac, Kim Rygiel, Maurice Stierl : The Contentious Politics of Refugee and Migrant Protest and Solidarity Movements - Remaking Citizenship from the Margins (mei17)

Over the past two years, we have seen the emergence of political struggles for rights to movement and demands for greater social justice, in both the global ‘north’ and ‘south’. Throughout the world, political mobilizations by refugees, irregularized migrants and solidarity activists have emerged, demanding and enacting the right to move and to stay, struggling for citizenship and human rights, and protesting the violence and deadliness of contemporary border regimes.

This collection brings together articles that explore political mobilizations in several countries and (border) regions, including Brazil, Mexico, the United States, Austria, Germany, Greece, Turkey and ‘the Mediterranean’. Many of these political mobilizations can be understood as transnational responses to processes of regionalization and the intensification of restrictive border regimes across the globe, and as illustrative of what might be referred to as a ‘new era of protest’. This volume brings into dialogue social movement literature, and especially the ‘contentious politics’ perspective, with migration struggles. It connects these to current debates underway within Critical Citizenship Studies and the Autonomy of Migration literature around rights making, the constitution of political subjectivities, and re-defining notions of the political and political community.


Mohsin Hamid: Exit west (roman)

Twee jonge mensen ontmoeten elkaar in een stad aan de vooravond van een burgeroorlog. De moderne Nadia wordt verliefd op de aardige en bescheiden Saïd, terwijl de situatie in het land steeds explosiever wordt. Dan horen ze over deuren die je, tegen betaling, naar een veiligere plaats in het Westen leiden. Als Saeed en Nadia geen andere mogelijkheid meer zien, besluiten ze over de drempel te stappen, richting een onbekende wereld.


Nieuwsbrief 11, 2017

EHRM: prohibition of collective expulsion of aliens

The ECtHR published its updated case law guide on Article 4 of Protocol No. 4 ECHR (prohibition of collective expulsion of aliens, 17.4.17). The guide looks at the definition of “collective expulsion”, the personal scope of application of the article and gives examples of measures amounting to collective expulsion and the relationship of this article with Article 13 ECHR.

AIDA Briefing: Accelerated, prioritised and fast-track asylum procedures in Europe

An AIDA legal briefing examines the use of special procedures to accelerate, prioritise and fast-track asylum applications in European countries. Practice reveals a wide diversity and complexity of procedural models, tools and concepts across national systems.

Several countries such as the Netherlands, Sweden and Germany have set up specific “track” or “cluster” systems to  manage cases efficiently. The channelling of applications under specific procedures tends to run in parallel to, or even exceed, regular legal frameworks - a trend illustrated in practices of nationality-based differentiation, which often depend on administrative practice and circumvent the framework of the “safe country of origin” concept under the recast Asylum Procedures Directive. Transparency and predictability of the procedures, as well as essential safeguards for the individuals navigating them, are to some extent jeopardised at the altar of efficiency.

UNICEF : A child is a child: Protecting children on the move from violence, abuse and exploitation

Among the millions of children on the move worldwide, many – including hundreds of thousands of unaccompanied children and adolescents – undertake dangerous journeys. This report shows how the lack of safe and legal pathways for refugee and migrant children feeds a booming market for human smuggling and puts them at risk of violence, abuse and exploitation. Besides, it sets out ways that governments can better protect these vulnerable children.

https://www.unicef.org/publications/index_95956.html (mei17)

Fundamental Rights Agency: Report on access to education for migrant children

The Fundamental Rights Agency of the European Union (FRA) recently published a report on access to education for asylum-seeking children based on their monthly data collection on migration in Europe. The report found that access to education is severely limited for asylum-seeking children especially. Evidently, there are practical difficulties to providing formal education to children on the move, which include, inter alia, language barriers, lack of infor­mation, low allowances for asylum applicants to cover expenses, and the treatment and integration of traumatized children. The situation is even more difficult for traumatized asylum-seeking children, as the MS seldom offer psychological support (only three out of fourteen MS), and the education staff rarely receive adequate training allowing them to identify and treat this. Unfortunately, few MS address issues arising from irregular school attendance or disabilities, and diplomas from the different countries of origin are not automatically recognized. One silver lining is that, once an asylum-seeking child enters the formal education system, they have access to the same services as national children, and even sometimes receive additional support (such as language services or financial allowances).

HRW: submission to the 2019 Global Education Monitoring Report on Migration and Education

Human Rights Watch recommends that governments respect their positive obligation to make sure that education responds to the needs of asylum-seeking children; that it includes language courses and addresses the needs of children with disabilities, for instance. This is especially necessary in situations where children are detained for long periods of time.

Migration Policy Centre : Migration and Education - A Web of Mutual Causation (mei17)

After reviewing the various definitions of international migration and refugee situations, the paper proposes a general framework in which to capture the complex two-way relationship between education and migration, and its consequences on both migrants and non-migrants in each of the origin and destination countries. It successively reviews: the over-education of migrants compared to non-migrants and the selection processes at play in origin and destination countries; the debate surrounding highly-educated migration from developing to developed countries and the inconclusive evidence regarding losses and gains for countries and individuals; the different ways in which migration impacts the education of non-migrant children in the origin countries through financial, but also ideational remittances; the school performances of migrant children and the various consequences of diversity in the classrooms for children of both migrant and local origin; the challenge of educating refugee children and avoiding that a whole generation be lost. The paper concludes on the many grey areas in our understanding of a crucial connexion and suggests practical steps to improve knowledge.

UN Women: “Report on the legal rights of women and girl asylum seekers in the EU” (mrt17)

UN Women published a report on the legal rights of women and girls asylum seekers in the EU. It provides background on the applicable legal framework to women and girls seeking international protection, including the 1951 Refugee Convention, the Istanbul Convention, CEDAW and the EU asylum acquis. It also outlines the relevance of gender and gender-based persecution in determining refugee status and the varied practice at EU level as to when women can successfully claim refugee status on this ground. The report concludes with a section on gender sensitive procedures for processing asylum claims and with a series of recommendations to EU policy makers.

EMN bulletin: Ontwikkelingen in Europees migratiebeleid

Er is bijzondere aandacht voor het vernieuwde EU-actieplan voor terugkeer en een aanbeveling aan de lidstaten van de Europese Commissie. Ook een gezamenlijke mededeling van de Europese Commissie en de hoge vertegenwoordiger van de EU voor Buitenlandse Zaken en Veiligheidsbeleid over de uitdagingen met betrekking tot migratiemanagement van de centrale mediterrane route staat in het Bulletin. Uit cijfers van Eurostat blijkt dat het aantal asielaanvragen in het vierde kwartaal van 2016 is gedaald met 51% ten opzichte van datzelfde kwartaal in 2015. Maar ook de nationale ontwikkelingen zijn opgenomen.

Lees het bulletin 

EMN: Gezinshereniging van derdelanders in Nederland en de EU (apr-mei17)

Een substantieel deel van de migratie uit derde landen naar Nederland bestaat uit gezinsmigratie. Meer dan een derde van alle aanvragen voor verblijfsvergunningen die de Immigratie en Naturalisatiedienst (IND) ontvangt betreft de afgelopen jaren aanvragen voor gezinshereniging. Daarnaast is gezinshereniging ook een terugkerend onderwerp in de media en het publieke debat in Nederland. Sinds de verhoogde asielinstroom in 2015 en 2016 staat vooral gezinshereniging voor asielstatushouders (ook bekend als ‘nareis’) vaak in de aandacht.

Om in kaart te brengen hoe het beleid ten aanzien van gezinshereniging in de verschillende EU-lidstaten georganiseerd is, heeft het Europees Migratienetwerk (EMN) in 2016 en 2017 een internationaal vergelijkende studie naar gezinshereniging uitgevoerd. De Nederlandse bijdrage aan deze vergelijkende studie wordt in dit rapport voor een breed Nederlands publiek beschikbaar gesteld.

Downloads: Nationaal leesrapport; Syntheserapport; Inform
Rapporten van de andere nationale contactpunten van het EMN

Nieuwsbrief 10, 2017

Eurostat - Asylum applications 2016 - Unaccompanied minors

In 2016, 63 300 asylum seekers applying for international protection in the Member States of the European Union (EU) were considered to be unaccompanied minors, a number down by about a third compared with 2015 (with almost 96 500 unaccompanied minors registered) but still about 5 times higher than the annual average during the period 2008-2013 (around 12 000 per year).

In 2016, a substantial majority of unaccompanied minors were males (89%) and over two-thirds were aged 16 to 17 (68%, or about 43 300 persons), while those aged 14 to 15 accounted for 21% (around 13 500 persons) and those aged less than 14 for 10% (almost 6 300 persons). More than a third (38%) of asylum applicants considered to be unaccompanied minors in the EU in 2016 were Afghans and about a fifth (19%) Syrians.

http://www.europeanmigrationlaw.eu/documents/Asylum%20applicants%20considered%20to%20be%20unaccompanied%20minors.pdf, 11.5.17

Werkinstructie 2017/3: Arbeidsmarktaantekening in verblijfssticker

Met deze werkinstructie wordt duidelijkheid verschaft in welke gevallen een bepaalde arbeidsmarktaantekening aangetekend moet worden op de sticker “Verblijfsaantekening Algemeen”. Deze sticker houdt verband met de aanvraag om verlening of verlenging van de verblijfsvergunning dan wel met de aanvraag om wijziging van de beperking waaronder de verblijfsvergunning eerder was verleend. Daarom zijn in deze instructie ook de arbeidsmarktaantekeningen opgenomen zoals die op de verblijfsdocumenten staan.

https://ind.nl/Documents/WI_2017-3.pdf, 24.3.17

WODC: Vrijwilligers in COA-locaties

De hoofdvraag van het onderzoek luidt: Wat is de mogelijke meerwaarde en wat zijn de (on)mogelijkheden van de inzet van vrijwilligers voor de activering van bewoners in de locaties voor noodopvang en asielzoekerscentra vanuit het gezichtspunt van vrijwilligers, organisaties uit het maatschappelijk middenveld, bewoners en (medewerkers van) het COA?

Met de resultaten van het onderzoek wil de aanvrager, het COA, inzicht krijgen in de meerwaarde en (on)mogelijkheden van de inzet van vrijwilligers in de genoemde locaties. Daarmee wil het COA een onderbouwd uitvoeringsbeleid formuleren voor de inzet van vrijwilligers, gericht op de activering van bewoners.


VNG over rechten van nareizende gezinsleden

De vragen in de nieuwste brochure gaan over de procedures in bijzondere situaties: wat zijn de juridische gevolgen als nareizigers niet bij referent (willen of kunnen) wonen, kunnen zij terug naar de centrale opvang, moet de gemeente voor nieuwe huisvesting zorgen, etc.?

Ilker Atac, Kim Rygiel, Maurice Stierl: The Contentious Politics of Refugee and Migrant Protest and Solidarity Movements (Special Issue in Citizenship Studies) (mrt16)

Throughout the world, political mobilizations by refugees, irregularized migrants, and solidarity activists have emerged, demanding and enacting the right to move and to stay, struggling for citizenship and human rights, and protesting the violence and deadliness of contemporary border regimes. These struggles regularly traverse the local and constitute trans-border, trans-categorical, and in fact, social movements. This special issue inquires into their transformative possibilities and offers a collection of articles that explore political mobilizations in several countries and (border) regions, including Brazil, Mexico, the United States, Austria, Germany, Greece, Turkey and ‘the Mediterranean.’ This issue brings into dialog social movement literature, and especially the ‘contentious politics’ perspective, with migration struggles. It connects these to current debates underway within Critical Citizenship Studies and the Autonomy of Migration literatures around rights making, the constitution of political subjectivities, and re-defining notions of the political and political community.

Go home? The politics of immigration controversies (mrt17)

By Hannah Jones, Yasmin Gunaratnam, Gargi Bhattacharyya, William Davies, Sukhwant Dhaliwal, Kirsten Forkert, Emma Jackson and Roiyah Saltus

In July 2013, the UK government arranged for a van to drive through parts of London carrying the message 'In the UK illegally? GO HOME or face arrest.' This book tells the story of what happened next.

The vans were short-lived, but they were part of an ongoing trend in government-sponsored communication designed to demonstrate toughness on immigration. The authors set out to explore the effects of such performances: on policy, on public debate, on pro-migrant and anti-racist activism, and on the everyday lives of people in Britain. This book presents their findings, and provides insights into the practice of conducting research on such a charged and sensitive topic.


IOM : A Comparative Thematic Mapping of Global Migration Initiatives: Lessons learned towards a Global Compact for safe, orderly and regular migration

The objective of this paper is to review issues, themes and recommendations/proposals made by previous global migration initiatives and critically analyse areas of convergence and key tension points over time. With that view, the paper provides a comparative thematic mapping structured along three main thematic clusters common to global migration initiatives:
(a) minimizing the negative aspects of migration by addressing the drivers and consequences of forced and irregular migration, and combating smuggling and trafficking; (b) acknowledging and strengthening the positive effects of migration; and (c) protecting migrants rights and ensuring their well-being.

Tension points on which agreement is not yet achieved are the opening up of more legal avenues for migration, the consideration of low-skilled labour migration outside temporary migration policies and the ratification of the 1990 International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families.

It concludes on the need for more knowledge-based research on the subject and on the lack of clear objectives and action plans for these initiatives calling for more evidence-based research.
Available for PDF download

Aliens detention around the world

Since the 1980s, all major Western states practice what they call civil or administrative confinement of undocumented immigrants and non-citizens. But this practice of putting undocumented immigrants – as well as asylum seekers – in detention centres does not deter people from seeking sanctuary in the West. Instead, it feeds a growing private prison industry and can portray genuine asylum seekers, who are often deeply scarred by trauma, as criminals who pose a security threat.

https://theconversation.com/how-immigration-detention-compares-around-the-world-76067, 19.4.17

Report Measures to end arbitrary detention of stateless people in Europe

In a report based on an analysis of immigration detention and related laws, policies and practices of six European countries, the European Network on Statelessness (ENS) recommends measures to end severe problems of arbitrary detention of stateless people in Europe.

The report identifies serious gaps in the data on statelessness making it at the same time difficult to address at policy level and easy for authorities to overlook protection needs - not least when it comes to arbitrary detention. In fact as stated in the report: “In many countries, through poor design or misapplication, the systems themselves render the stateless even more vulnerable to long-term detention.”

The research also revealed that all six countries had a lack of procedures to identify statelessness and that some states, such as Bulgaria, the UK and Ukraine, apply a definition of “statelessness” which falls short of the international legal one. The report also points to the fact that immigration detention in Europe has largely developed without regard to the special circumstances of stateless persons, leading in many countries to lengthy periods of detention, as there is no safe country to return them to.

The recommendations of the report include alternatives to detention, determination procedures, protection, integration as well as improved recording and reporting on statelessness. The recommendations are based on a two-year research into statelessness and immigration detention and the law, policy, and practice in Bulgaria, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, the UK and Ukraine.

Tings Chak: Undocumented (apr17)

Using comics, interviews, and architectural sketches, Undocumented explores a growing industry in an era of militarized borders, state surveillance, and criminalized migration. Focusing on Canadas migrant detention system, where detainees are often held in maximum security prisons without charges for indefinite periods of time, 'Undocumented' draws chilling conclusions about the societies that tolerate these punitive spaces of confinement. Proceeds from the sale of each book go to the End Immigration Detention Network.


Nieuwsbrief 9, 2017

Ambtsbericht religieuze minderheden Pakistan, 14.4.17

Eurostat - Asylum decisions in the EU - 2016

The 28 Member States of the European Union (EU) granted protection status to 710 400 asylum seekers in 2016, more than double the number of 2015. In addition to these, the EU Member States received over 14 000 resettled refugees.

The largest group of beneficiaries of protection status in the EU in 2016 remained citizens of Syria (405 600 persons, or 57% of the total number of persons granted protection status in the EU Member States), followed by citizens of Iraq (65 800 or 9%) and Afghanistan (61 800 or 9%).

Of the 405 600 Syrians granted protection status in the EU, more than 70% were recorded in Germany (294 700).

Read more: Asylum decisions in the EU (279.99 ko) Eurostat, 26.4.17

FRA : Report on the situation for LGBTI asylum seekers in the EU

The Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) has published a new report that reviews how claims based on sexual orientation and gender identity are assessed and analyses the existence of specific reception measures for LGBTI persons.

It is concluded, inter alia, that there are no official statistics on the number of asylum claims based on sexual orientation or gender identity. Moreover, only a few EU Member States have specific national guidelines for interviewing LGBTI persons and according to civil society representatives asylum officers tend to have stereotypical views on sexual orientation and gender identity. Moreover, most EU Member States have no special accommodation facilities for LGBTI persons. The FRA also report that support from civil society has a significant impact on the appropriate handling of asylum cases and applicants' openness towards asylum authorities.

http://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2017/march-monthly-migration-focus-lgbti, 27.3.17

Huang, Szu Hui: Chinese Undocumented Migrants in The Hague, dec16

This study is about Chinese undocumented migrant workers living in The Hague. The study looks at their living conditions and working situation, and how their ‘illegal’ stay in the country influences their ‘precarity’ and sense of autonomy. The study was based on informal conversations with undocumented migrant workers, most of whom were contacted through Wereldhuis in The Hague. Through the interviews, and secondary literature, the study was able to reconstruct the historical phases of migration from China to The Netherlands.

The key findings were that although undocumented migrants do experience precarity at work, they can help themselves towards greater autonomy through acquiring language skills, and through creating wider social networks. One obstacle they face is that being concentrated in the catering industry, there were few contacts with trade unions for most of the research participants.

B. de Boer: Bed, bad en brood : het Nederlandse terugkeerbeleid tegenover een menswaardig bestaan (2016)

Naar aanleiding van een klacht bij het Europees Comité inzake de Sociale Rechten (verder: ECSR), ingediend door de Conference of European Churches, is het Nederlandse Terugkeer- en Illegalenbeleid behoorlijk onder vuur gekomen. Voldoet dit Nederlandse beleid wel aan de mensenrechten?

Bij de beantwoording hiervan zijn meerdere uitspraken van nationale en internationale instanties onder de loep genomen. Ten eerste wordt het vluchtelingenbeleid uiteengezet. In het tweede hoofdstuk wordt de ingediende klacht van de CEC behandeld. Deze klacht was gebaseerd op artikel 13 en 31 van het Europees Sociaal Handvest (verder: ESH) waarin het recht op huisvesting en sociale bijstand is opgenomen. Het ECSR oordeelde dat Nederland inderdaad in strijd handelt met dit Handvest. De Nederlandse Staat was het hier niet mee eens en beargumenteerde bij het Comité van Ministers van de Raad van Europa dat het ECSR ten onrechte heeft miskend dat illegaal verblijvende vreemdelingen niet onder de reikwijdte vallen van het ESH.

De rechtbank Den Haag heeft in september 2015 geoordeeld dat het ECSR een gezaghebbend orgaan is. Volgens de rechtbank leidt dit ertoe dat de uitspraak van het ECSR mee moet wegen in de beslissing en dat het weigeren van opvang aan uitgeprocedeerde vreemdelingen niet voldoet aan de eisen als gesteld op basis van de internationale mensenrechten. In november 2015 heeft de ABRvS zich verder uitgesproken over deze kwestie. De Raad van State heeft (in tegenstelling tot de rechtbank) overwogen dat het ECSR inderdaad een gezaghebbend orgaan is, maar dat de uitspraken van deze instantie niet bindend zijn voor Nederland. Hetgeen wel bindend is, zijn de uitspraken van het EHRM. Volgens de ABRvS leveren uitspraken van het EHRM inhoudende de artikelen 3 en 8 van het EVRM geen algemene verplichting op om een al dan niet rechtmatig verblijvende meerderjarige vreemdeling opvang te verlenen.

Nieuwsbrief 8, 2017

UNHCR, Palestinian Refugees in Baghdad (Iraq)

According to UNHCR, the majority of Palestinian refugees in Iraq continue to reside in Baghdad, where they are reported to be increasingly subjected to targeted attacks based on nationality and perceived affiliation with ISIS and other Sunni armed groups. They are victims of harassment, threats, arbitrary arrest and prolonged detention under the anti-terrorism law, physical abuse, kidnapping, extortion, killings and house-to-house searches, at the hands of both state and non-state actors. As of March 2017, 47 Palestinians are known to UNHCR to be in detention, mostly in Baghdad, or remain missing. The majority of these Palestinians were detained by the Iraqi Security Forces, mostly on suspicion of terrorist activities.

http://www.refworld.org/docid/58de48104.html, 30.3.17


PICUM highlights in a new report how cities across Europe help provide access to health care for all migrants in their communities who are shut out of the public health system.

Irregular migrants often have limited or no access to health care and fear going to the doctor because they might be reported to authorities. An increasing number of city governments recognise that denying migrants access to health care and other services if they have irregular migration status is detrimental to social policy goals, including social cohesion. Restricting health care access can have negative impacts on public health, and may counteract any progress made in reducing inequalities in health. It also results in higher costs, since migrants are forced to resort to emergency care rather than accessing more preventative care.


PICUM Article: Addressing barriers to access health care for migrant women with irregular status

The article concludes: “International human rights law, well-established principles of public health and sensible financial planning require that no segment of the population be limited to emergency care. Health care professionals have an important role, not only in filling the gap in service created by restrictive laws, but also in speaking out against them as inconsistent with medical ethics and their commitment to do no harm – recognizing that patients’ interests, dignity and health are undercut not only by improper action, but also by failing to act, to treat and to speak up.”

You can find the article in WHO’s magazine Entre Nous here

Stichting Casa Mena: Hoe professioneel om te gaan met immigranten, asielzoekers, vluchtelingen, of gedetineerde vreemdelingen & tips voor integratie in NL

Dit is een practisch boekje, gebaseerd op de ervaring van professionals die met immigranten te maken hadden. In het tweede deel van dit boekje worden de rollen omgedraaid en vinden nieuwkomers practische raad om zich te kunnen integreren in "onze cultuur".

Vraagstukken over wie zich aan wie moet aanpassen, zijn te theoretisch. In elke communicatie gaat het om ik en de ander. Het komt steeds weer neer op communicatie, misverstanden vermijden, conflicten voorkomen en waar nodig oplossen.


European Commission: The protection of children in migration (12.4.17)

This communication highlights the need to protect all refugee and migrant children, regardless of their status, and to give primary consideration to the best interests of the child at all times.

M.A. Verhoeven: Government policies and sex work realities. Human trafficking in the regulated sex industry (dissertatie, apr17)

In the Netherlands selling sexual services for money is accepted by law under certain conditions. Some sex workers, however, are tricked out of their money by people using manipulation, fraud or coercion. This crime, the exploitation of sex workers, constitutes human trafficking.

Several government agencies deal with the prevention and prosecution of human trafficking in the sex industry, and with the protection of victims. However, people who are identified as victims often decline the assistance that is offered to them. How can this be explained? Does it mean that the way in which human trafficking is dealt with fails to meet the needs and problems of sex workers?

This dissertation explores these questions by zooming in on the red-light district in Amsterdam and reveals the relationships between pimps and sex workers, the informal economy and the criminal investigation of human trafficking. It shows that the perspective of sex workers on exploitation and on government policy is relevant for a better understanding of effective anti-trafficking policy.



Erik-Jan Metselaar: ´The motivation of the Dutch credibility assessment in return decisions and its judicial review in the light of relevant standards in international and EU law´, scriptie 20.1.17

Metselaar komt tot de conclusie dat de nieuwe integrale geloofwaardigheidsbeoordeling grotendeels in overeenstemming is met de normen neergelegd in het Internationaal en Europees Recht, nu de juiste elementen en omstandigheden bij de beoordeling worden betrokken. Dit komt o.m. doordat het leerstuk van de ´positieve overtuigingskracht´ is losgelaten en door de introductie van de vereiste samenhang tussen ongeloofwaardige elementen van het asielrelaas en de kern van het asielverzoek.

Bij terugkeerbesluiten wordt de beslissing vaak niet individueel, objectief en onpartijdig genomen. Er wordt door de SvV&J nl. niet (voldoende) gebruik gemaakt van deskundigen. Verder worden de persoonlijke omstandigheden onvoldoende bij de beoordeling betrokken en niet alle argumenten onderling gewogen. Dit leidt tot schending van de motiveringsplicht. Die wordt gecompenseerd door de procedurele waarborgen in Nederlandse asielprocedures, waaronder de mogelijkheid van hoger beroep.

Met de implementatie van de integrale geloofwaardigheidsbeoordeling is de toetsingsintentisiteit van de rechter toegenomen, omdat de rechter niet langer toetst of de SvV&J zich in redelijkheid op het standpunt kan stellen dat het asielrelaas geloofwaardig was, maar of hij zich niet ten onrechte op dat standpunt heeft gesteld.

Aura Xilonen: De Cowboykampioen (roman)

De 17-jarige Liborio is een tengere en schuchtere jongen die de armoede van zijn Mexicaanse familie ontvlucht. zonder papieren komt hij terecht in een Amerikaans stadje, net aan de andere kant van de grens met Mexico. Hij krijgt een baantje in een boekhandel en leest vrijwel alle boeken in de winkel om zijn taalgebruik te cultiveren en zijn kennis te vergroten. Hij wil namelijk indruk maken op het 19-jarige meisje dat hij heeft gered toen ze op straat werd lastiggevallen. Bij die vechtpartij is hij een bokstrainer opgevallen die hem onder zijn hoede neemt en een professioneel bokser van hem wil maken. Nu zal hij eindelijk iets van zijn leven kunnen maken, verwacht Liborio, maar zo gemakkelijk gaat dat niet.

Nieuwsbrief 7, 2016


Ambtsbericht Burundi, 23.3.17

UNHCR: Religious Minorities from Pakistan

Eligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Members of Religious Minorities from Pakistan: http://www.refworld.org/docid/5857ed0e4.html (jan17)

FRA: "Current migration situation in the EU: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex asylum seekers" (mrt17)

The EU Fundamental Rights Agency reviews how asylum claims based on sexual orientation and gender identity are assessed in different Member States and the existence of specific reception measures for LGBTI persons.

Mc Mahon: The Role of the State in Migration Control: The Legitimacy Gap and Moves towards a Regional Model (dec16)

This research questions the seemingly ossified premise that states have an absolute discretion to control international migration. Applying Max Weber’s theories of legitimacy, it determines that while states have certain traditionally legitimate functions, migration control, as distinct from the determination of citizenship, is not one such function. Measures of migration control must thus be justified on a rational-legal basis, that is, on a minimal evidential basis.
Acknowledging the many obstacles states face in carrying out this legitimising exercise, it is suggested that a supranational approach at the regional level is the most sustainable long-term model, with an ultimate aim of achieving inter-regional cooperation on migration management on the basis of equality between regions."

CoE: Thematic Report on migrant and refugee children (mrt17)

The Special Representative of the Secretary General on Migration and Refugees (SRSG) calls for urgent measures to find alternatives to detention of children and guarantee minimum living conditions in camps, such as gender-separate sanitary facilities, better lighting and child-friendly spaces in order to eliminate risks of sexual abuse.

Handbook on Statelessness in the OSCE Area: International Standards and Good Practices (feb17)

The handbook highlights the complex implications of statelessness for individuals, states and societies, with good practices and recommendations aiming to increase engagement and progress in addressing this phenomenon by OSCE participating States. The book was jointly developed by the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities (HCNM) and UNHCR.


CPT : factsheet on immigration detention (mrt17)

The CPT has carried out hundreds of visits to places of immigration detention, and has developed a detailed set of standards, including detention as a last resort, and safeguards during detention; adequate material conditions for longer stays (over 24 hours); effective monitoring and complaints mechanisms; health care and care of vulnerable persons (in particular children).

Global Detention Project: Immigration Detention, the Right to Liberty, and Constitutional Law (mrt17)

The right to personal liberty is one of the oldest recognized rights in liberal democracies, which raises fundamental constitutional questions about the use of detention as an immigration measure. Nevertheless, in the United Kingdom and other common law countries, lengthy immigration detention on a large scale has become the norm and is largely regarded as constitutional. Because migration power in these countries is framed as a power to detain pending expulsion, courts have struggled to draw clear boundaries around detention, thereby enabling the expansion of detention systems. Constitutions in continental Europe, on the other hand, have viewed immigration detention as a heterodox exercise of police power requiring greater judicial control and legislative time limits. For those in common law countries seeking to prevent excessive immigration detention, the legislative route appears to offer the most promise. Read paper.

Roel Janssen: Alles verloren (roman)

Zeilster Tessa Insinger en fotograaf Mortimer Davies varen naar de Griekse eilanden en langs de Turkse kust voor een reportage over vluchtelingen die er alles voor over hebben Europa te bereiken. Op zee redden ze een drenkeling uit een omgeslagen rubberboot: een Syrisch meisje. Ze is de enige overlevende van de ramp die zich heeft afgespeeld. 
Tessa en Mortimer besluiten te achterhalen wat er met het meisje is gebeurd. Daarbij stuiten ze op gewiekste mensensmokkelaars, bevlogen hulpverleners, dubieuze zakenlieden en schimmige Europeanen die een radicale oplossing van het vluchtelingendrama nastreven. Met informatie van het Syrische meisje ontrafelen Tessa en Mortimer een complot dat de Europese vluchtelingencrisis in een schokkend politiek daglicht plaatst.

Nieuwsbrief 6, 2017

EASO : Country of Origin Information (COI) report Russian Federation – State Actors of Protection

In 2016, the Russian Federation ranked 9th in the top countries of origin in EU+ countries, with a total of 26,550 applicants. The report provides an overview on aspects related to the state protection functions identified as central from a citizen's perspective – the official institutions that constitute the guarantee for the individual's possibility to exercise his or her rights.

To that purpose, the COI report identifies and provides general information of each actor of protection in the Russian Federation, together with their capacity and integrity in performing their tasks.

Given the specific status of Chechnya, a separate chapter was drafted, containing background information on the republic, its structure and recent developments. State protection available in the republic is described by identifying the individual actors of protection, the impact of traditional and religious law, and protection accessible for women.

Eurostat : aantallen asielzoekers 2016

In 2016, 1 204 300 first time asylum seekers applied for international protection in the Member States of the European Union (EU), a number slightly down compared with 2015 (when 1 257 000 first time applicants were registered) but almost double that of 2014 (562 700)

Syrians (334 800 first time applicants), Afghans (183 000) and Iraqis (127 000) remained the main citizenship of people seeking international protection in the EU Member States in 2016, accounting for slightly more than half of all first time applicants.

Asylum in the EU Member States in 2016 (310.47 ko) Eurostat, 16.3.17

AIDA: statistical update Dublin

This publication shows figures for 12 European countries from 2016 that reveal persisting fundamental dysfunctions in the Dublin system. The inefficiency is illustrated by extremely low transfers compared to procedures. Although Sweden had a 43.2% transfer rate, Germany (by far the main operator of the system) had a rate of 7.1% and Italy only 0.4%.


IND film over de asielprocedure

De VR-film op de website van de IND vertelt het verhaal van de Iraakse asielzoeker Tariq die op gesprek komt bij IND-medewerkster Bo. We zien hoe Tariq en Bo zich voorbereiden op het gesprek, we luisteren met hen mee in de spreekkamer en volgen hen in de spannende periode van de beslissing die daarna volgt. “Met deze film willen we laten zien hoe dat nu eigenlijk in zijn werk gaat, de asielprocedure”, vertelt Anne-Marieke Samson, initiatiefnemer van de film. “De laatste jaren zijn we naar buiten toe getreden over ons werk en de dilemma’s die daar soms bij komen kijken. Dat willen we voortzetten en na twee boeken over dit thema, doen we dat nu met een film in 360 graden VR. Zo kun je meemaken wat het inhoudt om een asielzoeker te zijn, maar ook om een medewerker te zijn bij de IND.”

Nieuwsgierig geworden? Neem dan nu een kijkje achter de schermen. Wilt u een IND VR-bril ontvangen? Stuur dan een mail naar VreemdelingenVisie (zolang de voorraad strekt).

Randstad: People to jobs, jobs to people

IZA Institute for the Study of Labor in Bonn has studied the determinants of worker migration, highlight expected changes in labor supply of targeted migration flows and offer a comprehensive discussion of firms’ (re)location choices to investigate the potential of job flows in response to skill shortages. The research shows that labor migration is important in resolving future labor shortages through which a contribution is made to economic growth and employment. The report comprises three studies:

  1. What moves talent?
  2. Projecting developments in labor supply and demand
  3. Jobs to People? - Assessing firm location choice behavior in the light of skill shortages

Download the full report. (mrt17)

CPT : legal principles for immigration detention

The CPT’s standards build on legal principles originating from international (human rights) instruments, such as the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR),1 the Committee of Ministers’ Twenty Guidelines on Forced Return,2 relevant United Nations (UN) treaties, and the 2008 European Union (EU) Return Directive.

  • A foreign national may be deprived of his/her liberty following a(n) (alleged) violation of the legislation related to aliens, such as illegal entry, illegal residence, etc. Such ‘immigration detention’ is a form of administrative detention in most Council of Europe member states.
  • Deprivation of liberty of irregular migrants shall be neither arbitrary nor the automatic consequence of an (alleged) violation of aliens legislation. In other words, immigration detention should be exceptional, proportionate and, by consequence, an individual measure necessary in order to prevent unlawful immigration.
  • In line with its administrative nature, immigration detention must not be punitive in character: it is not a sanction or a punishment. Therefore, immigration detainees should be afforded both a regime and material conditions appropriate to their legal situation.

http://www.coe.int/en/web/cpt/-/cpt-factsheet-on-immigration-detention, mrt17

Jonas Hassen Khemiri : Ales wat ik mij niet herinner (roman)

Khemiri voert een schrijver op die mensen interviewt over Samuel (26) die kort daarvoor in een auto-ongeluk is omgekomen. Samuel had een vaste baan bij de immigratiedienst. Zijn vriendin Laide werkt als tolk voor vrouwen zonder verblijfsvergunning die als slachtoffer van geweldsdelicten met Justitie in aanraking komen. Haar ervaringen met deze vrouwen contrasteren met Samuels dromierige ideen over de wereld.

Mohsin Hamid : Exit West (roman)

Dit verhaal gaat over Saeed en Nadia, die uit hun land moeten vluchten. Het eerste deel vertelt over hun oude leven in een land in oorlog, waar de moeder door een bom om het leven komt. In het tweede deel moeten Saeed en Nadia een nieuw leven opbouwen in Londen, waar ze niet worden geaccepteerd.

Viet Thanh Nguyen : The refugees (roman)

Viet Thanh Nguyen gives voice to lives led between two worlds, the adopted homeland and the country of birth. From a young Vietnamese refugee who suffers profound culture shock when he comes to live with two gay men in San Francisco, to a woman whose husband is suffering from dementia and starts to confuse her for a former lover, to a girl living in Ho Chi Minh City whose older half-sister comes back from America having seemingly accomplished everything she never will, the stories are a captivating testament to the dreams and hardships of immigration.

Nieuwsbrief 5, 2017

Anne Ruth de Vries: Onderwijs voor meerderjarige ongedocumenteerden

Van iedereen wordt verwacht dat hij participeert in de samenleving behalve van ongedocumenteerden. Ongedocumenteerden kunnen zich daardoor niet ontwikkelen en hun levens staan ‘stil’. Voor scholen is niet altijd duidelijk hoe men met meerderjarige ongedocumenteerden om behoort te gaan met betrekking tot het volgen van onderwijs. De onderwijswetten zijn echter helder en zeggen dat ze buitengesloten worden van ons sociale voorzieningenstelsel en dus niet mogen werken of studeren.

In dit onderzoek wordt zowel ingegaan op de wetgeving als de praktijk bij onderwijsinstellingen


European Parliament Research Service: Addressing migration in the European Union (feb17)

Includes: Public expectations and EU policies - The issue of migration, Reform of the Dublin system, European Union Agency for Asylum, Recast Eurodac Regulation, Reception of asylum-seekers - recast directive, Common procedure for asylum, safe countries of origin: Proposed common EU list, European Border and Coast Guard system and Gender aspects of migration and asylum in the EU: An overview.

Asylos: Research under Pressure: Challenges to Researching Country of Origin Information for Asylum Claims

As asylum seekers often lack documents that prove a risk of persecution on return, they rely on information from their countries of origin to illustrate their need for international protection. Specific pieces of information can support their testimonies of why and how they fled their countries; testimonies which are often disbelieved by national authorities in receiving countries. Country of Origin Information is used to substantiate both the likelihood of persecution on return and the credibility of their individual stories.

We know surprisingly little about how NGOs and asylum lawyers conduct research for asylum claims. To close this gap, Asylos interviewed 20 asylum lawyers and NGO staff in Belgium, France, Germany, Greece and the UK to understand the challenges of researching evidence, as well as the opportunities for improving the research process.

Download report (pdf), feb17

'Volg je dromen tot je niet langer kunt leven', retrospectief onderzoek onder ama’s (jan17)

De onderzoekers zijn op zoek gegaan naar alleenstaande jonge vluchtelingen die ze zelf jarenlang hebben begeleid om te zien hoe het met hen gaat. Is het hen gelukt een toekomst op te bouwen? Maken zij hun dromen waar? Voelen zij zich thuis in Nederland? De verhalen gaan over blijdschap, dankbaarheid en ambities. Maar ook over stress, eenzaamheid en onrecht. Het zijn verhalen die nog onvoldoende worden gehoord, aldus de jongeren zelf. Verhalen die verteld moeten worden zodat zij meer zichtbaar worden in de maatschappij: op school, op het werk, op de voetbalclub en in de buurt. Want zichtbaar zijn en gehoord worden is de eerste stap om als volwaardig burger mee te kunnen doen.


GDP: When Is Immigration Detention Lawful? The Monitoring Practices of UN Human Rights Mechanisms (feb17)

This Global Detention Project Working Paper details how the banalisation of immigration detention is contested by international human rights mechanisms. Since the creation of the United Nations, the global human rights regime has provided a framework for the protection of all people, including those living in foreign countries. This paper assesses how national sovereignty and access to territory is mitigated by the universal nature and applicability of human rights and refugee protection standards. The authors comprehensively describe the normative framework governing immigration detention established in core international treaties and discuss how human rights bodies apply this framework when reviewing states policies and practices. Their assessment of the impact and implementation of fundamental norms reveals gaps in the international protection regime and highlights how states’ responses to this regime have shaped contemporary immigration detention systems.

Download: https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/when-is-immigration-detention-lawful-monitoring-practices-of-un-human-rights-mechanisms

Pharos: Bewogen Terugkeer, tweede druk

Dit boek beschrijft de methodische aanpak van psychosociale begeleiding van potentiele terugkeerders en richt zich op het proces van het maken van keuzes ten aanzien van de persoonlijke toekomst. Het is vooral bedoeld voor begeleiders van (afgewezen) asielzoekers en ongedocumenteerden. De methodiek geeft inzicht in het complexe besluitvormings- en voorbereidingsproces waarin (ex)asielzoekers en ongedocumenteerden zich bevinden. Daarnaast geeft de auteur praktische aanwijzingen aan begeleiders hoe ze het onderwerp ‘terugkeer’ bespreekbaar kunnen maken en hoe ze aandacht kunnen geven aan de psychosociale aspecten tijdens de voorbereiding van het vertrek. Praktijkervaringen en beschikbare literatuur over terugkeermigratie zijn vertaald in een aantal werkdocumenten en instrumenten die door organisaties en begeleiders direct toegepast kunnen worden in de dagelijkse praktijk.

In de tweede druk heeft Evert Bloemen, arts bij Pharos, de tekst op een aantal plaatsen aangepast en geactualiseerd. Voor vragen over deze methodiek, de implementatie of trainingen kunt u terecht bij Evert Bloemen, e.bloemen@pharos.nl.

Tommy Wierenga: De dood van Murat Idrissi

Ilham, slim maar schuchter, en de begeerlijke, doortastende 'Toer' hebben een geheim. In de kofferbak van hun gehuurde Audi, onder in de veerboot van Marokko naar Spanje, smokkelen ze een paspoortloze vluchteling mee: Murat, een 19-jarige jongen uit een straatarm Berberdorp 'met volmaakte wenkbrauwen en een geruïneerd gebit'.
Tegen hun zin hebben Ilham en Thouraya ingestemd met de illegale actie. Hun leeftijdgenoot Saleh, een jonge, hondsbrutale hosse